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Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Eastern Arkansas

WHITE COUNTY–LOCATION AND DESORIPTION–BOUNDARY LINES–TOPOGRAPHY AND GROLOGY–WATRR SUPPLY–DRAINAGE–STREAMS–TIMBER–SOIL–RESOURCES–LUMBER. INTERESTS–CENSUS ENUMERATION–TAXABLE PROPERTY–LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY–REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY–RAILROAD FACILITIES–POPULATION–ERA OF SETTLEMENT–COUNTY ORGANIZATION–SEAT of JUSTIOE AND PUBLIO BUILDINGS–COUNTY OFFICERS–POLITICS–COURT AFFAIRS–ROLL OF ATTORNEYS–CIVIL WAR HISTORY–TOWNS and VILLAGES–SCHOOLS–CHURCHES–BIOGRAPHICAL

Thomas Cotton Press Works 821

O the pleasant days of old, which so often people praisel

True, they wanted all the luxuries that grace our modern days;

Bare floors were strewed with rushes, the walls let in the cold;

O how they must have shivered in those pleasant days of old.–Brown.

WHITE COUNTY is located in the northeast part of Central Arkansas, and is bounded north by Cleburne, Independence and Jackson Counties, east by Woodruff, south by Prairie and Lonoke, and west by Faulkner.

Its boundary lines are as follows: Beginning in Range 3 west, at the point where White River crosses the line dividing Townships 9 and 10 north; thence west on the township line to the line dividing Ranges 5 and 6 west; thence north on the range line to the line dividing Townships 10 and 11 north; thence west on the township line to the line dividing Ranges 7 and 8 west; thence south on the range line to Little Red River; thence up said river, in a westerly direction, following its meanders, to the middle of Range 8 west; thence south on section lines to the line dividing Townships 8 and 9 north; thence west on the township line to the line dividing Ranges 10 and 11 west; thence south on the range line to Cypress Creek in Township 5 north; thence down Cypress Creek following its meanders to the line dividing Ranges 5 and 6 west; thence north on the range line to the line dividing Townships 5 and 6 north; thence east on the township line to White River; thence up White River following its meanders to the last crossing of the line dividing Townships 7 and 8 north; thence west on the township line to the southwest corner of Section 35, Township 8 north, Range 4 west; thence north on section lines until White River is again intersected; thence up the river following its meanders to the place of beginning; containing an area of 1,015 square miles, or 650,000 acres. Of this about 12,000 acres belong to the United States, 27,000 to the State, 81,000 to the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway Company, and the balance to individuals. Only about 10 per cent of the land is improved. Prices range from $5 to $25 per acre for improved, and from $1 to $10 for unimproved property.

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The face of the county is somewhat rolling, [p.116] $2,595,215, on which the total amount of taxes charged for all purposes was $32,633. In taxable wealth it then ranked as fourth in the State. In 1888, the real-estate assessment was $2,440,883, and personal property $1,252,715, aggregating $3,693,598. The total amount of taxes charged thereon for all purposes was $56,407.88. These figures bear evidence that from 1880 to 1888 the taxable wealth of the county increased a little over 42 per cent–a most encouraging showing.

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad enters White County about five miles west of its northeast corner, and runs thence through the limits in a southwesterly direction, its length hee being about thirty-nine miles. It was completed in 1872. Soon after the Searcy & West Point Railroad was constructed, running from West Point to Searcy, and crossing the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern at Kensett. The cars on this road are drawn between Searcy and Kensett by an engine, and between Kensett and West Point by horses. Its length is ten and a half miles. The Memphis branch of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad connects Memphis with the main line at Bald Knob in the county's northeast part, its length being about ten miles, thus making the combined length of railroads within the county sixty-one miles or more. These roads, together with White River as a navigable outlet, afford excellent transportation facilities.

The population of White County, according to the United States census reports, has been as follows at the various decades mentioned: 1840, 920; 1850, 2,619; 1860, 8,316; 1870, 10,347; 1880, 17,794. Immigration to the county since 1880 has been so large that at the present its population must considerably exceed 20,000. The colored population was, in 1860, 1,435; in 1870, 1,200; in 1880, 2,032, at about which figure it still remains.

The Royal Colony, consisting of several families from Tennessee, was founded by James Walker and Martin Jones at the head of Bull Creek, in the northwest part of what is now White County. Lower down on Bull Creek were the settlements of Fielding and Frederick Price. Lewis Vongrolman founded a German settlement on Big Creek and Little Red River with John Magness, Philip Hilger, James King, the Wishes, Yinglings and others. Philip Hilger established and kept the "Hilger's Ferry" across Little Red River, on the old military road leading from Cape Girardeau to Little Rock. Farther north, near the Independence County line, was the Pate Settlement, founded by Lovic Pate. Alfred Arnold, John Akin and John Wright founded the settlement on Little Red River below where West Point is situated. Near the present town of Judsonia was a settlement founded by William Cook and Henry R. Vanmeter. Reuben Stephens settled in the Pate Settlement on the creek that now bears his name. Samuel Guthrie and John Dunaway also settled in that neighborhood.

The list just given includes the names of some of the most prominent pioneer settlers, all of whom according to the best information now obtainable, located in their respective places during the decade of the 20's. Others soon followed, and by the date of the organization of the county, 1836, all parts of the territory composing it were more or less sparsely settled. By reference to the population previously stated it will be seen that the settlement, until since the close of the Civil War, continued slow and gradual. Since 1880 there has been a large influx from the northern and eastern States. Most of the early settlers came from Tennessee and other southern States. The early county officers and all mentioned elsewhere in

connection with the organization of the county were, of course, pioneer settlers. The names of those likewise prominent in county affairs will be found in subsequent pages of this volume.

White County was organized in accordance with the provisions of an act of the legislature of Arkansas Territory, approved October 23, 1835. The first sessions of court were held at the house of David Crise, on the place now known as the McCreary farm, three and a half miles east of Searcy. The organization of the county was completed early in 1830.

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The place where the courts were first held, and the site of Searcy became competing points for [p.117] the location of the permanent seat of justice. The commissioners who located the seat of justice were John Arnold, Jesse Terry, Byram Stacy, David Crise and Reuben Stephens. A majority of them were in favor of locating it at Searcy, where it has ever since remained. Soon after the site was selected, a log-cabin court house was erected at a point about 100 yards southwest of the present court house, and the first term of the circuit court was held therein in November, 1838. The next court house was a two-story frame, erected on the site of the present one. A short time before the Civil War this was moved away preparatory to erecting a new one. It now stands two blocks south of the public square and is known as the Chambliss House. The war coming on, the proceedings for the erection of the new court house were stopped, and until the present one was erected, the courts were held in the Masonic Hall at the southeast corner of the public square. In 1868 the county court appropriated $25,000 for the erection of a new court house, and for that amount the contract was let to Wyatt Sanford of Searcy, who erected the present court house in 1869-70. It is a large and substantial two-story building, the first story containing cross halls, a large fire-proof vault and county offices, being constructed of stone, and the second, containing the court room, of brick. Above the center of the building is a handsome tower containing a "town clock."

The first county jail was made of hewed logs, ten inches square, and was two stories high. The first story or "dungeon" was entered by means of a trap door from above. It stood on the same lot on which the present jail stands. The second jail, built on the same lot, was a one-story brick building containing four iron cells and cost $1,800. Becoming unsafe it was removed. The present jail and jailer's residence, standing about 100 yards northwest of the court house, was erected in 1882-83 by James E. Winsett at a cost of about $3,800. It is a two-story brick building containing three iron cells, a dungeon, and jailer's residence. The county owns a "poor farm" on which the paupers are supported. It consists of 120 acres, with ample buildings, and is located one and a half miles east of Searcy.

The following official directory contains names of the county's public servants with date of term of service annexed from date of organization to the present:

Judges: Samuel Guthrie, 1836-42; William Cook, 1842-44; Samuel Guthrie, 1844-46; M. Sanders, 1846-50; P. H. McDaniel, 1850-52; J. F. Batts, 1852-54; John Hutches, 1854-56; L. S. Poe, 1856-58; William Hicks, 1858-60; R. M. Exum, 1860-61; John Hutches, 1861-62; M. Sanders, 1862-64; John Hutches, 1864-66; M. Sanders, 1866-72; A. M. Foster, 1874-78; L. M. Jones, 1878-82; F. P. Laws, 1882-84; R. H. Goad, 1884-88; N. H. West, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

 

Clerks: P. W. Roberts, 1836-38; J. W. Bond, 1838-44; E. Guthris, 1844-46; J. W. Bond, 1846-48; Samuel Morgan, 1848-52; R. S. Bell, 1852-56; Dandridge McRae, 1856-62; J. W. Bradley, 1862-68; J. A. Cole, 1868-72; A. P. Sanders, 1872-80; J. J. Bell, 1880-84; L. C. Canfield, 1884-88; C. S. George, present incumbent, elected in 1888. From 1872 to 1874, Allen Mitchel was circuit clerk, and from 1880 to 1882, T. C. Jones was county clerk, and from 1882 to 1884, J. R. Jobe was county clerk, and from 1884 to 1886, R. H. McCullough was circuit clerk. J. J. Bell is the present circuit clerk.

 

Sheriffs: P. Crease, 1836-38; William Cook, 1838-40; Milton Sanders, 1840-44; T. J. Lindsey, 1844-46; J. G. Robbins, 1846-50; J. M. Bowden, 1850-52; J. G. Robbins, 1852-54; R. M. Exum, 1854-60; J. W. Bradley, 1860-62; B. B. Bradley, 1862-64; W. C. Petty, 1864-66; J. G. Robbins, 1866-67; W. C. Petty, 1867-72; N. B. Petty, 1872-78; B. C. Black, 1878-84; J. H. Ford, 1884-88; R. W. Carnes, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

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Treasurers: Michael Owens, 1836-38; John Arnold, 1838-42; James Bird, 1842-44; T. R. Vanmeter, 1844-46; J. Belew, 1846-48; J. M. Johnson, 1848-50; E. Neaville, 1850-52; W. T. Gilliam, 1852-54; W. B. Isbell, 1854-56; John Critz, 1856-60; S. B. Barnett, 1860-68; R. J. [p.118] Rogers, 1868-72; W. A. B. Jones, 1872-74; M. B. Pearson, 1874-80; D. L. Fulbright, 1880-84; J. M. Smith, 1884-88; J. G. Walker, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Coroners: M. H. Blue, 1836-40; Hiram O'Neale, 1840-42; Samuel Beeler, 1842-44; D. Dobbins, 1844-46; E. K. Milligan, 1850-52; G. W. Davis, 1852-56; Alex Cullum, 1856-58; T. T. Britt, 1858-60; W. G. Sanders, 1860-72; T. L. Miller, 1872-74; Z. T. Haley, 1874-82; J. P. Baldock, 1882-84; J. H. Claiborne, 1884-86; J. M. Carter, 1886-88; Frank Blevins, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

 

Surveyors: S. Arnold, 1836-52; I. M. Moore, 1852-54; Thomas Moss, 1854-56; W. B. Holland, 1856-60; Thomas Moss, 1860-64; W. B. Holland, 1864-66; Thomas Moss, 1866-68; J. O. Hurt, 1868-72; Pres. Steels, 1872-74; J. P. Steele, 1874-76; Thomas Moss, 1876-80; B. S. Wise, present incumbent, elected in 1880, and served continuously since.

Footnote

This office was not established until 1868.

Assessors:* T. W. Leggett, 1868-70; I. S. Chrisman, 1870-72; J. H. Black, 1872-74; D. L. Fulbright, 1874-76; B. B. Bradley, 1876-84; J. J. Deener, 1884-88; G. W. Dobbins, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Delegates in Constitutional Conventions: 1836, W. Cummins, A. Fowler and J. McLean, for Pulaski, White and Saline Counties; 1861, held March 4 to 21, and May 6 to June 3, J. N. Cypert; 1864, held January 4 to 23, not represented; 1868, J. N. Cypert and Thomas Owen; 1874, J. N. Cypert and J. W. House.

The first State senator for White County was R. C. Byrd, and the first representative in the house was Martin Jones.

The number of votes cast at the late elections for several candidates, as stated below, will show the political aspect of the county. At the September election 1888, for Governor, James P. Eagle, Democrat, 1,608; C. N. Norwood, combined opposition, 1,949. November election in 1888, for president, Cleveland, Democrat, 1,948; Harrison, Republican, 550; Streeter, Union Labor, 249; Fiske, Prohibition, 45.

The various courts held in the county are county, probate, circuit and chancery. The regular sessions of these bodies are held as follows: County court, commencing on the first Monday of January, April, July and October; probate, on the second Monday of the same months; circuit, on the third Monday of January and July; chancery, on the second Monday of June and December. The chancery court was made a separate court by an act of the General Assembly approved March 15, 1887, and was attached to the First chancery district, composed of Lonoke, Pulaski, Faulkner and White Counties. Prior to that time the circuit court had jurisdiction of all chancery business.

CHURCHES–BIOGRAPHICAL

The legal bar (local) of White County is composed of the following-named attorneys: W. R. Coody, J. N. Cypert, D. McRae, B. Isbell, John B. Holland, S. Brundidge, Jr., J. F. Rives, Sr., J. F. Rives, Jr., E. Cypert, John M. Battle, John T. Hicks, J. D. DeBois, C. D. James and J. E. Russ.

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Upon the approach of the Civil War a strong Union sentiment prevailed in White County, and when the Hon. J. N. Cypert was elected representative in the State convention held in March, 1861, he was instructed to, and did, vote against the secession of the State from the Federal Union. Afterward, when the "dogs of war" were let loose, and President Lincoln called upon the State for its quota of the first 75,000 troops for the Union army, the sentiment materially changed, and the people concluded to cast their lot in general with the Southern project of establishing a separate Confederacy. To this end companies of soldiers began to be organized, and in 1861, five companies first commanded, respectively, by Capts. F. M. Chrisman, John C. McCauley, Henry Blakemore, J. N. Cypert and J. A. Pemberton, and in 1862 three companies first commanded, respectively, by James McCauley, B. C. Black and Boothe Jones, were enlisted and organized within the county for the Confederate army. All were infantry companies except that of Capt. Chrisman, which was cavalry. Capt. James McCauley's company was mounted infantry. Some individuals joined commands outside of the county. No troops [p.119] were organized within this territory for the Federal army, but a very few persons who refused to yield their Union sentiments left the county and enlisted as their principles dictated.

In 1862, when a division of the Federal army was moving from Batesville to Helena, an escort of its forage train, numbering about 500 men, was suddenly attacked at Whitney's Lane, five miles east of Searcy, by about 150 Confederates under Capt. Johnson. The latter made a bold and sudden attack and then retired, losing only about five men, while the Federals lost from fifty to 100. This was the only fight worthy of mention within the county. The county was overrun by scouting and foraging parties of both armies, and much provision was thus taken from the citizens. Three or four men were killed in the county during the war by scouts.

White County contains within its territory a number of towns of prominent local importance, besides those whose size has given them substantial reputation in the outside world. Of these Beebe is a flourishing place situated on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, about sixteen miles southwest of Searcy. It began to build in the spring of 1872 (upon the completion of the railroad), but did not improve much until 1880, when it had reached a population of 428, and since then it has more than doubled in population. It has ten general, four grocery, three drug, two hardware, one furniture, two millinery and one notion store; also the White County Bank, two hotels, several boarding houses, two meat markets, two blacksmith and wagon shops, one saw and grist mill combined, two cotton-gins, two livery stables, railroad depot, postoffice, one photograph gallery, a fruit evaporator, five church edifices for the white and two for the colored people, a public school-house, five physicians, a dentist, two weekly newspapers, etc., etc. The Beebe Argus, published by W. B. Barnum, is an eight-column folio, Democratic in politics, and has for its motto: "A school-house on every hilltop and not a saloon in the valley." The Arkansas Hub is a seven-column folio, published by Sam J. Crabtree, and is independent in politics. Both of these papers are ably edited and are well sustained, proving important factors in the influence of the community. Beebe is the center of one of the best fruit growing regions on the line of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, and ships a vast amount of fruit, especially small fruits, berries, tomatoes and the like, to the city markets. It is incorporated and has a full line of corporate officers. It also has lodges of the Masonic and Odd Fellow fraternities. It is thirty three miles from Little Rock.

Bradford is a shipping station on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, near the northern boundary of the county. It contains four general, one drug and one millinery store, one grist and one saw mill, a public school-house, two blacksmith shops, two physicians and a lodge each of Masons, Knights of Honor and Triple Alliance. The school-house is used for religious meetings. The population is about 100.

Bald Knob is situated in the northeastern part of White County, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad at the junction of the Memphis branch. It contains three general, one hardware and grocery, one grocery, one drug and grocery and a millinery store, a grist-mill and a saw-mill, school-house, etc., etc.

Garner and Higginson are shipping stations on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, the former about ten miles south of Searcy, and the latter five miles southeast.

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Judsonia, formerly Prospect Bluff, is located on the west side of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, and on the north bank of Little Red River. It is a comparatively old town. About the year 1870 a colony from the East settled there, and secured the change of the name of the town from Prospect Bluff to that of Judsonia. The place now contains four general, one dry goods, three grocery, one hardware, one hardware and furniture, one harness, one millinery and two drug stores; also a music store, meat market, two blacksmith shops, a wagon shop, a fruit and vegetable canning factory, fruit-box factory, two saw-mills, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, a grist-mill and wool-carding mill, a tanyard, two hotels, a restaurant, [p.120] a bakery, two livery stables, two church edifices for the white and two for the colored people; also a public school-house for the white and another for the colored people, three physicians, a lodge each of several secret and benevolent societies, a newspaper, the Judsonia Weekly Advance, etc, etc. The Advance is a six-column folio published by Berton W. Briggs, and has for its motto, "Overcome prejudice. Let free thought and free speech be encouraged." The Judsonia University is also located at this place. [See Schools.]

The White County Agricultural and Industrial Fair Association was organized at Judsonia in 1883, and grounds fitted up where exhibitions are held in the fall of the year.

The first fair was held in October, 1883. That of the past fall was a successful one. The present officers are Capt. D. L. McLeod, president; James L. Moore, vice-president; Charles D. James, secretary, and J. S. Kelley, treasurer. Messrs. D. L. McLeod, J. D. DeBois, J. S. Eastland, S. N. Ladd, Willis Meadows, James L. Moore, E. C. Kinney and J. S. Kelley are directors.

Judsonia's location in the midst of a wonderful fruit-growing community gives it prominent intercourse with the outside world. In 1889 immense shipments of fruit were made from this point, and in 1888 some 96,000 packages found their way to different sections. This will be the head of navigation on Little Red River when the Government shall have finished its work of improvement, for which appropriation was made.

Judsonis, like Beebe, is located in the center of a great fruit-growing region, is surrounded with many small fruit farms, and ships immense quantities of fruits, berries, tomatoes, etc., to the city markets. The town is incorporated and has a mayor and other corporate officers. It had a population of 267 in 1880, and now boasts of about 600, besides a dense population on the small fruit farms adjoining and surrounding it.

Kensett is situated on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, at the crossing of the Searcy & West Point Railroad, four and a half miles east of Searcy. It contains the railroad depot, a general store, postoffice, hotel, a grocery, blacksmith shop, a church edifice and a few dwelling houses.

Russell is a station on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, between Bradford and Bald Knob. It contains two general stores, a drug and a millinery store, a saw-mill, grist-mill, cotton-gin, railroad depot, postoffice, etc.

There are some other small villages in the county containing a postoffice, general store, etc.

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Searcy, the county seat, is situated in the geographical center of the county, at the western terminus of the Searcy & West Point Railroad. Its origin has been given in connection with the organization of the county. It was established in 1836, and a Mr. Howerton opened the first hotel in a double log-house south of what is now Spring Park. Moses Blew opened the first store, and was soon joined in the mercantile business by John W. Bond. At the beginning of the Civil War the place contained about six business places facing the public square. Its business was almost wholly destroyed during the war period, but revived soon thereafter. It now contains thirteen general, four grocery, three drug, two hardware, one furniture, one undertaking, one harness and saddle, two millinery stores, two meat markets, two restaurants, a bakery, two hotels and several boarding-houses, two grist and planing mills and cotton-gins combined, a wagon factory, two livery stables, six church edifices–three for the white and three for the colored people–a lodge each of Masons, Odd Fellows and Knights and Ladies of Honor, a Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Woman's Aid and Woman's Missionary Society, seven physicians, a dentist, three tailors, jewelers, etc. In addition to the interests mentioned, there are the Searcy Male and Female College, the Galloway Female College and three public schools–two for white and one for the colored people. One of the public school-houses, used by the former, was built for a male and the other for a female academy. Two weekly newspapers are also published here, the Arkansas Beacon and the White County Wheel. The former is a five-column quarto, published by Holland & Jobe. It is now in its eleventh volume, and is Democratic in politics. The latter is also a five-column quarto, published by R. A. Dowdy. It is in its second volume, and is published in the interest of the labor movement. These journals faithfully represent the interests of this section. [p.121]

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[p.123] Spring Park, at Searcy, inclosing several acres, is located near the center of the city. It contains three never-failing mineral springs–White Sulphur, Chalybeate and Alum. The former of these have the most health-giving qualities, aiding digestion and curing constipation. This park contains bath-houses, is shaded by natural forest trees and is a very pleasant retreat for all persons. The town of Searcy is laid out "square with the world," its streets running east and west and north and south. It is beautifully located and is substantially built up, both in its churches, colleges, residences and business houses–the latter being ostly of brick. The healthfulness of location of the place is all that could be desired. The city is an

educational center, and, especially a summer health resort, as many health and pleasureseekers spend their summer months here. Its population is estimated at from 1,500 to 2,000. The residences are generally owned by the occupants, and there are very few renters, probably less than in any town of its size in the State. The town is incorporated and has a full complement of corporate officers.

 

West Point is situated on an eminence on the south side of Little Red River, at the eastern terminus of the Searcy & West Point Railroad. It was laid out in 1850 by J. M. West, hence its name, West Point, it being the point to which the river was navigable at all seasons of the year. At the beginning of the Civil War it had attained a population of 350 and did an immense amount of business, being the distributing point for a large scope of country to the westward. During the war period it lost nearly all its business, but afterward revived and flourished until the Iron Mountain Railroad was completed through the county. Then it again lost its prosperity, and in 1880 its population had run down to 123. Its population is now about 150. It contains three general stores, a drug store, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, a blacksmith and wood shop, a church edifice, a public school-house and the railroad depot. It is supplied with a daily mail.

 

The advancement made in the cause of education in White County, under the free school system, is best shown by the following statistics as given in the report of the State superintendent of public instruction for the year ending June 30, 1888:

Scholastic population: White, males 3,384, females 3,173, total 6,557; colored, males 410, females 404, total 814. Number of pupils taught in the public schools: White, males 2,159, females 1,971, total 4,150; colored, males 295, females 283, total 578. Number of school districts, 101; districts reporting enrollment, 76; number of districts voting tax, 44. Number of teachers employed: Males 86, females 41, total 127. Average monthly salaries paid teachers: First grade, males $50, females $40; second grade, males $45, females $35; third grade, males $30, females $27.50. Amount expended for the support of the public schools: For teachers' salaries, $20,500.79; for building and repairing, $3,275; for treasurers' commissions, $565.60; total $24,341.39.

Assuming these statistics to be correct, only 63 per cent of the white and 71 per cent of the colored scholastic population were taught in the public schools. It must be noticed, however, that out of the 101 school districts, twenty-five failed to report the enrollment in the schools, which if ascertained and added to those that made reports, would largely increase the per cent of scholastic population attending. The fact that the school law does not compel full statistical reports to be made, is a strong argument in favor of its revision. Education for the masses is growing in popularity.

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On July 23, 1888, a normal institute was opened at Searcy by Prof. T. S. Cox, conductor. This institute was in all respects a grand success. Its beginning noted the presence of thirty-four teachers, though seventy-one were in attendance at the close. A strong effort had been put forth by the county examiner, Mr. B. P. Baker, to secure a large attendance, and his energies in the work was the cause of bringing out nearly all the progressive [p.124] teachers of the county, and many others friendly to education. Great interest was manifested, and much good work accomplished.

The Searcy Male and Female College is a chartered institution for the higher education of young men and women. The building is located within a campus of five acres, on a beautiful site in Searcy, convenient to the public square, and yet sufficiently removed to avoid the noise and bustle of business. It was organized in 1883, by Prof. W. H. Tharp (who conceived the idea of starting a reputable educational institution), and it at once become recognized as a school of a high order. Gen. D. MoRae is president and Col. V. H. Henderson is secretary and treasurer of the board of trustees, and W. H. Tharp is president of the faculty. The members of the faculty are selected from colleges and universities of national reputation and most of them have supplemented their college or university course by thorough normal training, and hence in their teaching are prepared to use the most approved methods. Following the Preparatory Department is the Collegiate Department, divided into these Schools: Ancient Languages, Modern Languages, History, Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Philosophy and Belles-Lettres, Engineering, Elocution, Biblical History, Pianoforte, Vocal Culture, Harmony, Theory and Art. A Normal Class is also taught, and the college cadets are organized into a company under the immediate supervision of the instructor in military tactics, Lient. Albert J. Dabney (U. S. Naval Academy) commanding company.

The buildings consist of college hall, president's office and mathematics, a two-story boarding hall, music and art department, primary department, president's residence and cooking department, all separate, the dining-hall being under college hall. The history of the founding of this institution is most interesting. Prof. Tharp was aided in his work of starting the school by Prof. Conger of Ouachita College, Arkadelphia, the latter serving eighteen months as one of the principals. Subsequently Prof. Tharp was left in entire charge. Upon starting thirty-seven pupils were enrolled. A noticeable growth attended the worthy efforts of the founder and last year 204 pupils were in attendance. The capacity of the college has been doubled and still more room is needed. Its graduates have included persons of ability and influence, who have attained to prominence in their varied walks. The collegiate course is being strengthened and improved yearly, and every effort is being made to make this the leading educational institution of the State.

Galloway Female College was organized in the spring of 1888, under supervision of the several Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in the State of Arkansas. The citizens of Searcy secured its location by subscribing $25,000 toward its erection. The college building stands between a half and three-fourths of a mile southeast of the court house, on an eminence in a beautiful native forest, consisting of eighteen acres. It was erected in 1888-89, and consists of the main building and an east, west and north wing, with the kitchen department on the east side of the north wing, and its entire length from east to west is about 200 feet. Above the southern or front entrance is a tower eighty feet high. The building, the walls of which are constructed of brick on a rock foundation, has four stories above the basement, and contains a chapel 48x60 feet in size and twenty feet in height, five recitation rooms, a dining-room forty-eight feet square and twelve feet high, two double parlors, four reception halls, sixty-four bed-rooms, three bath-rooms, eleven halls and a kitchen with four rooms, storeroom and pantry. In the basement is the furnace room with two engines. The building in general is heated with steam, the rooms are all supplied with fire-places, and it is lighted with gas. The corner, or memorial stone, sets in the south wall, east of the main entrance, and has on its face the following inscription:

Galloway Female College. C. B. Galloway, Bishop, Building Committee. P. A. Robertson, G. B. Greer, B. P. Baker, A. W. Yarnell, J. E. Skillern. Elliott & Elliott, A. B. Meiton, Builders, Architect.

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[p.125] Near the building is a superior bored well, ninety-three feet deep, with sixty feet of water in it. The grounds cost $2,000, and the building about $32,000. The building is well supplied with piazzas, and is exceedingly well ventilated. R. W. Erwin is president of the college. The first session opened in September, 1889. Too much can not be said in favor of the location of this college, on account of the healthfulness of Searcy, the morality of its people, and many other advantages.

Judsonia University is a Baptist school located at Judsonia. It was founded by the colony that came from the East and located about the year 1870. The school-house is a large frame structure. The faculty is composed of five teachers. It is a good school and has the advantages of being in a quiet, moral town, removed from the vices and temptations of large cities.

The several religious denominations of White County are the Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, South, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian.

Of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, there are the following: Searcy Station, Rev. J. M. Talkington, pastor, with a membership of 210; Searcy Circuit, consisting of six appointments, Rev. E. M. Baker, pastor, membership 386; El Paso Circuit, consisting of four appointments, Rev. H. F. Harvey, pastor, membership about 250; Lebanon Circuit, consisting of seven appointments, Rev. W. A. Pendergrass, pastor, membership 356; Bradford Circuit, consisting of seven appointments, Rev. C. H. Cary, pastor, membership 164; Beebe and West Point, C. H. Gregory, pastor, membership 225; Red River Circuit, only three appointments in this county, Rev. James A. Brown, pastor, membership about 150; and Kentucky Valley Circuit, with six appointments. Rev. M. B. Corrigan, pastor, membership 359; thus making an aggregate of 2,100 members. The Sunday-schools of this denomination have also a large membership. These organizations all belong to Searcy District of the White River Conference, of which Rev. George M. Hill is the presiding elder.

Of the Methodist Episcopal Church there is Beebe Station, Rev. R. R. Fletcher, pastor, membership 44; Judsonia Station, Rev. George H. Feese, pastor, membership 118; and Bald Knob Circuit, consisting of four appointments in White County and one in Jackson, Rev. F. M. Hughes, pastor. These comprise all the organizations of this denomination within White County, and all belong to the Little Rock District of the Arkansas Conference.

The Baptist Church organizations, pastors and memberships within the county, are as follows: Beebe, Isom P. Langley, 134; Bethlehem, W. H. Hodges, 27; Cane Creek, W. J. Kirkland, 20; Centre Hill, J. D. Doyle, 141; Elon, same pastor, 55; El Paso, same pastor, 206; Garner, L. F. Taylor, 12; Hepsibah, W. H. Hodges, 32; Higginson, R. J. Coleman, 13; Judsonia, B. F. Bartles, 116; Kensett, J. M. Davis, 38; Kentucky Valley, J. A. Chamblee, 39; Liberty, J. M. Davis, 112; Plateau, John Stephens, 26; Rose Bud, M. T. Webb, 78; Searcy, 137; Shiloh, W. J. Kirkland, 76; South Antioch, J. A. Chamblee, 57; Wake Forest, W. J. Kirkland, 13; West Point, J. M. Davis, 54. All of these belong to the Caroline Baptist Association, from the last published proceedings of which the above information has mostly been taken. Since then some changes may have been made in pastors, and the memberships may have increased. The aggregate membership as above given is 1,386.

There are two Presbyterian Church organizations within the county, one at Searcy, Rev. Richard B. Willis, pastor, with a membership of 53, and one near Centre Hill, Rev. W. S. Willbanks, pastor, and a membership of 14.

Below is the list of Cumberland Presbyterian Church organizations in White County, together with names of pastors and membership of each annexed: Beebe, Finis Wylie, 60; Stony Point, J. A. Pemberton, 40; Antioch, same pastor, 86; Pleasant Grove, same pastor, 40; Gum Spring, Finis Wylie, 60; New Hope, J. C. Forbus, 40; Good Springs, Rev. Barlow, 60; aggregating a closely estimated membership of 386.

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Of the Christian Church there are Beebe, Clear Water, Garner and Bald Knob. The first has a [p.126] membership of 70, and the others have a fair membership. Elder J. B. Marshall is pastor of the Beebe organization, and Elder Brown of Clear Water and Garner.

There are also a number of church organizations among the colored people, at Searcy, Beebe, Judsonia and other places. Sunday-schools are taught with much success in connection with most of the churches, and all in all much is accomplished in the cause of Christianity.

Saloons for the selling of intoxicating drinks are not allowed in the county.

The people are generally moral and law-abiding, and cheerfully extend the hand of welcome to all honest and industrious newcomers.

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H. K. Adams, merchant at El Paso, Ark., and one of the leading citizens of that city, was born in Rockingham County, N. C., January 29, 1846, being the son of Samuel and Francis (Reid) Adams. Samuel Adams was a farmer by occupation, and a native of Virginia, but most of his life was passed in North Carolina. He was married in that State (where he had a fine farm), and died there in 1870, at the age of sixty-three years. He was magistrate for a number of years, and an energetic, enterprising citizen, and in whatever place he resided that locality might well consider itself the better for his citizenship. His wife died in 1854. She was a sister of Ex-Gov. Reid, of North Carolina, and her mother was a lady of national fame, who had near relatives on the supreme bench of Florida. H. K. Adams is the fifth in a family of eight children, five of whom are now living: Fanny B. (wife of J. W. Thompson, teacher in the Edinburgh High School, in Cleburne County, Ark.), Henrietta (wife of W. P. Watson, a farmer of Monroe County, Ark.), Reuben (a teacher in Prattsville) and Frank R. (a printer, married, and residing in Texas.) Those deceased are: Samuel F. (who lost his life at the hands of raiders, in 1865), David R. (died in college at Madison, N. C., aged eighteen) and Annie E. (who died in infancy.) H. K. Adams was reared on a farm, receiving a good common-school education at the district schools, and at the age of twenty-one launched his bark and began life for himself. He had nothing with which to cope with the world but a stout heart and his wit, and though it was rather discouraging, he never lost heart, and as a natural result was successful. He began first as a clerk in a country store at Boyd's Mill, N. C. A year later he enlisted in Company E, Forty-fifth North Carolina Regiment, and served until the surrender, in May, 1865, participating in the battle of the Wilderness and numerous other skirmishes, but through his entire career was never wounded. At the battle of Spottsylvania he was taken prisoner and held at Point Lookout and Elmira, in all about six months. He was again captured on the retreat from Petersburg, a few days before the surrender of Gen. Lee, and carried to Point Lookout, and remained in prison six weeks after the close of the war. After this Mr. Adams returned to his native State and engaged in farming until 1869, then coming to Arkansas (St. Francis County) where he resided two years. His next move was to El Paso, and after tilling the soil some two years he was engaged as clerk for W. H. Grisard, a prosperous merchant, for several years. For two years he was with C. P. Warren, and at the end of that time (1884) formed a partnership with J. T. Phelps and J. C. Harkrider, under the firm name of Adams, Phelps & Co. A short time later Mr. Phelps sold his interest to the other gentleman, the firm name becoming Adams & arkrider. Mr. Adams eventually purchased the entire stock, and after a time formed a partnership with B. A. Neal, whose interest he bought, and then Mr. J. T. Booth purchased an interest, and since that time the firm has been known as Adams & Booth. They are doing a splendid business, and carry a well-assorted stock of general merchandise. Being wide-awake merchants and eminently responsible they command the respect of the entire community. Mr. Adams was united in marriage June 7, 1874, to Miss Florence Harkrider, a native of Alabama and a daughter of W. H. Harkrider, a farmer and mechanic of White County. Their union has been blessed with ten children, six of them now living: Martha F. (born in April, 1875), William S. (born [p.127] in July, 1876, died in August, 1883), Hugh K., Jr. (born in March, 1878, and died in September, 1879), David C. (born in November, 1879), Dean (born in May, 1881, died in August, 1883), Eva E. (born in November, 1882), Horace E. (born in July, 1884), Sarah Florence (born in November, 1885, died in July, 1886), Myrtle I. (born in January, 1887), and Grace (born in February, 1889). Mr. Adams is giving his children all the advantages of good schools, and is determined that they shall have every opportunity for an education, regardless of expense. Himself and wife are members of the El Paso Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Adams is at present a member of the school board and a notary public. He has served his township as bailiff for a number of years. In addition to his mercantile business he owns a small farm, which is carefully cultivated and yields excellent crops. In his political views he is a Democrat, but not an enthusiast.

James H. Adkins, a man of good repute and thoroughly respected in his community, is a Tennesseean by birth and is the son of Elcaney N. and Elizabeth (Hughes) Adkins. The mother of the subject of this sketch was a daughter of Harden and Sarah Hughes, of Tennessee. Mr. Adkins followed farming in Tennessee, and in 1845 immigrated to White County, Ark., and died shortly after his removal to this county, leaving three children: James H., William and Visey. James H. was born in 1844, and enlisted in the cavalry service when eighteen years old, in the Confederate army, and saw some hard fighting from the time of his enlistment, in 1864, until peace was declared. After the war he returned to this county and bought eighty acres of land and commenced to farm for himself. He now owns 140 acres, with over one-half of it in a good state of cultivation, and he vouches that his farm will produce almost everything. Mr. Adkins was married, in 1866, to Frances E. Woodle, a daughter of Turner and Catharine (Matthews) Woodle. Mrs. Adkins died September 3, 1867, leaving one daughter, Sceproney B. Mr. Adkins took unto himself a second wife (their marriage being solemnized in 1876). Mary F. Cullum, a daughter of Matthew and Margaret C. (Childers) Cullum, natives of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Adkins are the parents of eight children: Dora A., Martha A. (deceased), William O. (deceased), Henry B., James S., Cynthia L. (deceased), Robert C. and Ella A. Himself and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Adkins is an A. F. & A. M., belonging to the Mount Pisgah lodge No. 242. He takes a prominent part and is deeply interested in all work beneficial to the community.

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Hon. John M. Allen, well and favorably known in this vicinity as a prosperous farmer, and, indeed, throughout this portion of the State, was born in Tennessee, in 1839, being one of two children born to the marriage of Thomas J. and Anna E. (Black) Allen, the father a native of Tennessee, born about 1812, and a son of Daniel Allen, who was a descendant of the famous Ethan Allen. Thomas J. was reared and married in his native State, the latter event taking place about 1834, and there he reared the following family of children: William, John, Neal S., Richard J., Allie, Mary and Hall B., who is deceased. Mr. Allen was a farmer throughout life, and is now living in Arkansas with his son John,and is about eighty years of age. He is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and he and his wife, who died in 1872, were members of the Baptist Church. John M. Allen received excellent educational advantages in Tennessee, and completed his education in Pulaski College, after which he (in 1856) started out to fight the battle of life for himself and engaged in farming, and this occupation has received his attention up to the present time. In 1859 he married Emma Sparkman, a daughter of William Sparkman, of Tennessee, but in 1877 he was called upon to mourn the death of his wife, she having borne him a family of five children: William (who is married and resides in Beebe), Lizzie (Mrs. Hubbard, residing in Dogwood Township), Arch, Claude and Eugene. Later Mr. Allen wedded Mrs. Hannah (Walker) Seawell, and by her has three children: Adella, Eula and Lonnie. In 1860 Mr. Allen moved with his family to Butler, Mo., and from there, in 1861, enlisted in Company B, Col. Lowe's regiment, as captain, and was [p.128] shortly promoted to the rank of major. After the battle of Belmont his company was disorganized and his regiment transferred to the Army of the Tennessee and was in nearly all the principal battles of the war from that time until the close. He returned to Missouri after peace was declared and engaged in farming and the mercantile business, but becoming dissatisfied with his location he came to White County, Ark., in 1880, and a year later purchased the farm of 320 acres now belonging to him in Dogwood Township. He has 150 acres under cultivation, but, as his home is in Beebe, he only goes to his farm to attend to the gathering of his crops. He has always been found ready to assist worthy enterprises, and for years past has given much of his attention to politics, and is a member of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union of America, and is the present representative of that party in the State legislature from White County, Ark. He belongs to the State executive committee and is a Mason, holding a demit from Faithful Lodge No. 304. He and wife are members of the Baptist Church. Through his grandmother he is a distant relative of Chief Justice Hale.

Thomas Smith Anderson, a prosperous merchant and cotton dealer, of El Paso, Ark., was born in Madison County, Tenn., August 2, 1832, and is a son of Samuel Lindsay Anderson, who is of Scotch-Irish descent and was born in the "Palmetto State." His ancestors, as well as his wife's (Eliza Braden), came to this country while it was still subject to the British crown and fought in the Revolutionary War. The paternal grandparents were married in Newberry District, S. C., and removed to Tennessee between 1800 and 1812, their son, Samuel L., being born in 1800, and died May 22, 1884, his wife dying in Tennessee in 1847. A great uncle, Joshua Anderson, was under the jurisdiction of Gen. Jackson during the War of 1812, and took part in the battle of New Orleans. In 1858 our subject came to Arkansas and located in Puiaski County (now Faulkner), where, in company with his brother, James A. Anderson, he purchased 420 acres of land, and at the time of his brother's death, in June, 1885, had cleared about 100 acres. In July, 1861, Thomas S. Anderson enlisted in Company B, Tenth Arkansas Infantry, Confederate States army, and served as second sergeant until the fall of 1862, when he was promoted to brevet second lieutenant, remaining such until the summer of 1865. He was at the battle of Shiloh in charge of the commissary department of his regiment. He was captured at Port Hudson, La., and was a prisoner of war for twenty-one months, being confined at Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, Point Lookout (Md.), and then transferred to Fort Delaware, about forty miles from Philadelphia. He was exchanged at Richmond, Va., and started to rejoin his command at Marshall, Tex., but in his attempt to regain his regiment he was compelled to endure many hardships, and, owing to exposure, he contracted rheumatism, but finally managed to reach Shreveport, that garrison being under command of Gen. Kirby Smith, and with him surrendered. He arrived at home the middle of June, and again, in company with his brother, who had also been in the Confederate army, took up farming. On May 12, 1868, he was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Ann Laws, of Haywood County, Tenn, origin, and a daughter of J. P. and Minerva (Leathers) Laws, who were born in North Carolina. In 1878 Mr. Anderson purchased a stock of general merchandise and opened a store at El Paso, where he has successfully conducted business ever since, and, in connection with this, keeps a line of such furniture as is demanded in his community. He is also an extensive dealer in cotton, and his annual sales for this commodity amount to $10,000 to $12,000. Mr. Anderson votes with the Democratic party, and while a resident of Faulkner County, and since the war, he has served as justice of the peace. He is a Mason, having been initiated into that society in 1859; was secretary of El Paso Lodge for several years, but has been demitted to Velonia Lodge, being its Master one year. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

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Moses E. Andrews has been actively and successfully engaged in farming in White County since twenty-one years of age. He was born in Lincoln County, Tenn., in 1844, to the union of Samuel and Marion (Adking) Andrews, natives of [p.129] Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. They were married in Lincoln County, Tenn., and there remained until 1851, when they removed to Arkansas, and located in White County, near the place upon which the village of Judsonia is now located. This was then in the woods, but Mr. Andrews cleared up a good farm and made a home. He was a prominent Democrat, and served as justice of the peace for several years, and died May 20, 1867, at the age of fifty-six. Mrs. Andrews died in 1864, leaving a family of seven children, two of whom only are living: Moses E. (our subject) and Joseph D. (who is a farmer of White County.) Moses E. Andrews was married in 1873 to Elizabeth Eaton, a daughter of E. S. Eaton, an old settler of White County. She was born in 1851. They are the parents of two children: Benjamin W. and Rosella. Mrs. Andrews is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. Mr. Andrews is a prominent Democrat and a leading citizen.

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Moses Morgan Aunsspaugh, farmer and stock raiser of Little Red, Ark., is one of the much respected and esteemed residents of Denmark Township, where he has made his home for many years. He is the son of Benjamin and Ruhama (Hartley) Aunsspaugh, the former of German descent and a native of Pennsylvania. George Aunsspaugh, the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, came from Germany at an early day, located in Pennsylvania, and served in the Colonial army from that State in the capacity of drum-major in Gen. Washington's immediate command. The great-grandfather Hartley was a native born Englishman, came to America before the Revolution, settled in Pennsylvania, and served as a private soldier. Grandfather Aunsspaugh was a soldier in the War of 1812, and arrived in New Orleans the day after the battle, having served with the Ohio State troops. Benjamin Aunsspaugh came to Arkansas in 1833, in company with John Hartley and his family, and located in Jefferson County, of that State, all having traveled from Zanesville, Ohio, on a keel-boat, leaving that point in the early part of the fall of 1833, and arriving in the above county in December of the same year. Benjamin married Miss Ruhama Hartley in Jefferson County, Ark., and the following children were born to this union: Jobe (born 1834), Moses Morgan (born 1835), John (born 1837), George (born 1839) and Amoa (born 1840). The mother of these children died in the last of June, 1845, in White County, Ark., whither Benjamin Aunsspaugh had moved with his family in October of the previous year, and here the father also died in 1876. In this county Jobe, Moses and John grew to manhood. Moses Morgan Aunsspaugh was born on the keel-boat, upon which his father and the Hartley family journeyed from Ohio, on April 12, 1835. He attended school about three weeks and had got as far as "baker" in his spelling book when his school days suddenly terminated. He learned the blacksmith trade with his father and followed this occupation for a number of years. On January 17, 1858, he was wedded to Miss Sarah Winford, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of Samuel and Martha (Morris) Winford, who came to Arkansas in 1844, settled in Poinsett County, where the father died the same year. The Winford family consisted of these children: Margaret (married Thomas Anderson and became the mother of eight children; she died in 1859), Jane (married Dave Ellster, and has one child) and Sarah. To Mr. and Mrs. Aunsspaugh were born three children: Martha Ann Ruhama (born November 4, 1858), Samuel Benjamin Franklin (born August 31, 1862) and George Washington (born April 25, 1872). Martha Ann Ruhama married Albert M. Bryant on August 4, 1874, and became the mother of four children: John Thomas, Lindsay E., Oliver and Mary Ells. Samuel B. F. married Miss Martha Porter on March 4, 1879, and became the father of three children. He, his wife and all his children are deceased. Benjamin Aunsspaugh bought eighty acres of land in White County, improved it, and in 1846 moved to Searcy, where he carried on his trade as blacksmith. He and his son Moses ironed the first wagon sent out of White County to California in 1849. In 1851 he returned to the neighborhood of his old home, and there bought 160 acres of land, subsequently adding to this until he at one time owned 320 acres. At the time of his death he owned 240 [p.130] acres, with thirty acres under cultivation, and in connection with tilling the soil he also carried on the blacksmith trade up to that time. Benjamin Aunsspaugh was married the second time in 1853 to Mrs. Jane McDonald, a native of Alabama, and these children were the result: William (born 1854), twins (born 1855), James and an infant who died unnamed and another infant died unnamed. James W. married Mrs. Jennie Copeland, who bore him three children, two living. He resides on a farm in White County. Moses M. Aunsspaugh made his first purchase of land in 1858, paying 50 cents an acre for eighty acres. In 1862, much against his will, he was conscripted by the Confederates, and served three years in that army, participating in the battle of Helena, but did not fire a gun. He served his company in the capacity of cook, and returned home in 1864. He sold his first purchase of land in 1860, and in 1861 purchased 160 acres near Searcy, which was partly improved. He then cleared twelve acres, erected a log-house 16x16 feet and lived there for eight years, two and a half years of which time he rendered Union service in the Confederate army. In 1869 he sold his farm and moved to his present property, where he has since made his home. He first purchased 170 acres, but afterward added to this eighty acres, and soon had fifteen acres under cultivation, and resided in a log-house for six years. In 1875 he erected his present comfortable house, and there he has since resided. The same year he noticed a peculiar looking stone on his place, picked it up, called the attention of an experienced geologist to it, and it was pronounced gold quartz. Mr. and Mrs. Aunsspaugh are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and their daughter Martha D. and her husband are members of the United Baptist Church. Mr. Aunsspaugh is a member of the Agricultural Wheel No. 176.

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William C. Barclay, postmaster and merchant of Russell, Ark., of Jackson County, Ala., nativity, and whose birth occurred January 28, 1858, is the son of James C. and Melinda (Wright) Barclay, natives of Alabama. James C. Barclay is still a citizen of Alabama, and follows farming for a livelihood. The wife of James C. died in November, 1864, having borne him eight children: Anna, Penelope, Tommie, John P., James P., William L., Jane and Sarah, all living. Mr. Barclay again married, choosing for his second wife Miss Ransom of Jackson County, Ala., and the result of this marriage is one child, Wiley F. Barclay, born in 1868. In February, 1875, Mr. Barclay was married the third time to Miss Galbreath of De Kalb County, Ala., and to them has been given one child. The grandparents of William C. came direct from Ireland to Alabama. Our subject was reared in Jackson County. His advantages for learning were limited in his youth by reason of the Civil War and its attendant and subsequent hardships. But by constant study and close observation, he is well informed on the important events of the day. Mr. Barclay began for himself in July, 1870, as a farm hand, then as a salesman in a general merchant mill in Alabama. In 1877 he moved to Arkansas, settling in White County, and engaging in farming followed it for two years. At the expiration of the two years he accepted a position as salesman in Russell, but soon after accepting this he was appointed railroad and express agent of that city, which office he filled for one year. Mr. Barclay then started a general merchandise business, in this meeting with flattering success. He carries a good stock, which is valued at $2,500 to $3,000, and by his courteous manner and upright dealing has obtained a liberal patronage from the surrounding community. Mr. Barclay was united in matrimony, December 23, 1880, to Miss Fannie N. Watson, a daughter of Hiram B. and Henrietta (Bankston) Watson, of Columbus County, Ga. By this marriage two children have been born: Fred B. (born August, 1881, now deceased), and Frank Carlton (born November 28, 1884). Mr. Barclay received the appointment of postmaster at Russell in 1881, holding that position until 1885, when he was reelected, and is still filling the office, discharging the duties that devolve upon him in a manner that is entirely satisfactory to all and commendatory to one in that responsible position. He is president of the school board, and takes an active part [p.131] in all educational interests; contributes liberally to the relief of the poor, and is a thorough worker in all public enterprises. He is a Democrat in his political views and a Methodist in religious belief, though not a member of the church. Mr. Barclay is a Master Mason in good standing, also belongs to the Triple Alliance, a mutual benefit association.

John M. Bartlett is the son of George Bartlett, who was born in Kentucky in 1811, being married in Illinois, about 1830, to Mahala Gowens. She was brought up among the Indians and had Indian blood in her veins, her mother being a half Cherokee. Mr. Bartlett after his marriage settled in Illinois, where he remained three years. He them moved to Kentucky and remained there until his death, which occurred in May, 1864, his wife also dying within a few days. They were the parents of six children: Martha J., William, Thomas J., John M., Dudley and Elizabeth P. Thomas and Dudley are deceased. John M. Bartlett was born in Fulton County. Ky., in 1843. At the outbreak of the war, inspired by patriotism, he enlisted, May 1861, in the Fifth Tennessee Infantry and participated in the battle of Shiloh and in a number of skirmishes. After his term of service had expired he returned home before the close of the war and engaged in farming, and married, in 1864, Miss Josephine Baldridge, a daughter of one of the early pioneers of Kentucky. Following his union Mr. Bartlett immigrated to Arkansas, and settled in Van Buren County and three years later, came to White County, where he has since made his home. He has a fine farm of 120 acres, seventy-five of which are under cultivation. Mrs. Bartlett was a Free Will Baptist, and died in 1883, leaving four children: George (deceased), Jennie, Ida and Josephine. Mr. Bartlett was married the second time to Mrs. Sutton, a widow. By his second marriage he has one boy: Edgar. Mr. Bartlett is a member of the Christian Church, and is a member and the vice-president of the County Wheel. His influence in the affairs of this community has been of decided good.

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Judge J. J. Bell, the present efficient clerk of the circuit court and recorder of White County, is a native of Arkansas and a son of Robert S. and Louisa (Jacobs) Bell, natives of Kentucky and Vermont, respectively. Robert S. Bell was born in 1805, and when a young man moved to Arkansas and located in Monroe County, being one of the early settlers of that locality. In 1850 he became settled in White County, where he was engaged in his work as a Presbyterian minister, also serving as county clerk for four years. While in Monroe County he served as county clerk, and besides occupied the office of county judge for several years. He remained in White County ten years, but subsequently removed to the Chickasaw Nation, going there as a missionary and a teacher to that tribe. In their midst he remained until his death, which occurred in 1880. He was a son of James Bell, of Irish descent, who was a missionary Baptist minister, and died in White County. Louisa Jacobs was a daughter of Joseph Jacobs, of Vermont, who came to Monroe County at an early day, being one of the early settlers, and where he died. Mrs. Bell died in 1848, after which Mr. Bell married Arvilla A. Waterman, who is still living. By his first marriage he was the father of six children, our subject being the only one living. By his second marriage there are two children: Robert S., Jr. (who is a resident of the Indian nation), and Albert G. J. J. Bell first saw the light of day in Monroe County December 11, 1841, but accompanied his parents to White County when nine years of age. When sixteen years old he commenced farming for himself, at which he was occupied until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the Eighth Arkansas Infantry, serving as second lieutenant of Company K, and participating in the battles of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, and a number of others. He was captured at Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864, and was held twenty-one days when he was exchanged and rejoined his regiment. At the battle of Murfreesboro he was wounded by a gunshot in the forehead, and at the battle of Nashville he was again slightly wounded in the head. After the war he went to Tyler, Tex., then to Ouachita County, Ark., and in 1870 returned to White County, when he again [p.132] turned his attention to farming. In 1880 Mr. Bell was elected clerk of the circuit court, which office he held for four years. In 1887 he was elected to fill the unexpired term in the office of county judge, and in 1888 was again elected clerk of the circuit court. His official duties have been discharged in a manner above reproach, and to the satisfaction of all and his own credit. Mr. Bell was married May 22, 1865, to Miss Sarah A. Banks, who was born in Alabama August, 1846. She came to White County with her parents when a child. Mr. and Mrs. Bell became the parents of eleven children, eight of whom are still living; William H., George H., Franklin, Charles E., Joseph T., Richard L., Sarah A., and Katie. Mr. Bell is a member of the Agricultural Wheel and is a strong Democrat. He and his wife are also associated with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

John W. Benton has been worthily identified with White County's affairs for a long period. His parents, William and Malinda E. (Wilson), were natives of Virginia and Georgia, respectively. The former was born in 1803, and was a son of John Wilson, who moved from Virginia to Georgia when the father of our subject was a boy. William Wilson married in 1824, and was engaged in the milling business all of his life. He became the father of eight children: Willis R., James W., Catharine, William M., Lucinda, John W., Steven and Martha. Mr. Benton died in 1887, and his wife in 1843. John W. Benton's birth occurred in Georgia in 1839, he spending his early life in the mill of his father. In 1858 he was married to Rachel Burket, a daughter of William and Rachel (Hughs) Burket, in White County, Ark., whither he had moved some two years before. Mr. and Mrs. Benton are the parents of thirteen children: Linda E. (who married David Volenteer), Francis B. (who married Frances Nipper), John Steven (married to Katie Coffey), James W. (married to Emma Horton), William M. (who married Etta Scruggs), Willis R. (married Jennie Copper), Jessie A., David H., Fannie S., Elneo L., Charley W., Mamie L. and Henry V. Mr. Benton enlisted during the war (in 1863) in Capt. Thompson's company, and took part in the Missouri raid, being captured at Van Buren and taken to Little Rock. Mr. Benton has a fine farm of 160 acres, with over half of it cleared. Himself and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, Mr. Benton being one of the elders. He is a Democrat in politics, and an esteemed citizen.

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T. B. Bobbitt, M. D., is one of the most worthy men engaged in the practice of medicine in White County, and is much esteemed and respected by all his medical brethren. He was born in Gibson County, Tenn., November 8, 1849, and while assisting his father on the farm, he attended school at every opportunity, and by applying himself closely to his books he, at the age of twenty years, had a much better education than the average farmer's boy. Not being satisfied with the education thus acquired, he entered the high school at Gibson, Tenn., and formed while there a desire to enter the medical profession. In 1872 he entered the Nashville Medical College, graduated in the class of 1873 and the following year engaged in selling drugs. He next farmed one year and in 1876 began the practice of medicine in Madison County, Tenn., continuing there until 1879, when he settled in White County, at Antioch Church, and in 1886 came to Beebe. Since his residence here he has practiced his profession, kept a drug store and has farmed, and in all these enterprises has been successful, being now the owner of 500 acres of good farming land, lying in several different farms, and has 200 acres under cultivation. In 1873 he was united in marriage to Miss Eddie James, a daughter of Edward James, a native of Tennessee. They have four children: Nora (born March 1, 1875), Pinkie (born in 1879), Lawson (born in 1881) and Edgar (born in 1886). The Doctor is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and was a member of the K. of L. He and his wife and eldest daughter are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. His parents, T. J. and Elizabeth (Wallace) Bobbitt, were born in South Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and the former at the age of seven years was taken to Tennessee by his father, James Bobbitt, who had previously been an infinential planter of South Carolina. They were married in Gibson County, [p.133] Tenn., in 1835, and reared the following family: William H. (a lawyer of Humboldt, Tenn.), Caroline (wife of W. F. Lawson, at present mayor of Eureka Springs, Ark.), James (a carriage and wagon maker of Joplin, Mo.), Mattie (who died at the age of twenty at Eureka Springs, Ark.), Ellen (wife of H. M. Brimm, a druggist at Eureka Springs), Mollie (wife of William Boyd, an editor of Seneca, Mo.) and Lena (who died in infancy). Both parents are living in retirement at Eureka Springs and are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, the former a Mason and a member of the Union Labor party. J. N. Wallace, the maternal grandfather of our subject, was a soldier in the War of 1812, was a farmer and one of the pioneers of Tennessee.

Robert I. Boggs, a leading planter and stock raiser of White County owes his nativity to the State of Mississippi, and was born in June, 1843, being the son of John W. Boggs, of South Carolina. The former was born in 1815 and received his education in Yorktown, S. C., immigrating to Mississippi in 1840, where he married Catherine J. Smith in 1841. Mrs. Boggs was a daughter of John and Martha Smith, and a devout member of the Methodist Church. Her death occurred in 1889. Mr. and Mrs. Boggs were the parents of fifteen children: Mandy, Joseph W. (deceased), Robert I., James P., Newton J. (deceased), John (deceased), Martha (deceased), Lucy and Sarah (died at the ages of twenty-five and twenty-three, respectively), Franklin L. George P., Charley W., Margaret M., Addie E. and Harrison B. Mr. Boggs was a Democrat, and a man who manifested a great interest in all church and educational matters. He helped to organize the first church at Mount Pisgab, Mount Pleasant and Oak Grove, and has acted as class-leader in the Methodist Episcopal Church for fifty years. He is a member of the Wheel and also the Grange, and is enjoying good health, though passed his seventy-fourth year. Robert I. received his education in the county schools of White County near Searcy, and there married November 12, 1867, Miss Eliza J. Whisenant, of Mississippi, and a daughter of Nicholson and Nancy Whisenant, natives of South Carolina. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Boggs six children have been born: Ida M., James M., Edward, Robert C., Annie J. and John W. Ida and Edward are deceased; the rest reside at home. Mr. Boggs owns about 150 acres of good land, sixty in cultivation, and well stocked with all that is requisite to successfully operate a farm of that size. He is a member of the Wheel, in which he has held the office of president and vice-president, discharging in a highly commendable manner the duties of that office. He served in the late war on the Confederate side and entered in October, 1862, returning home in 1863, but again enlisted, remaining only a short time. In 1864 he enlisted again under Gen. Dobbins, his first hard fight being at DeVall's Bluff. He was wounded in the Big Blue Fight by a ball which struck him in the left cheek, but did not prove serious. Mr. Boggs received an honorable discharge and at once returned home, engaging in farming, which has been his occupation ever since, and proving very successful. He is a member of twenty years' standing in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and his wife has held a membership in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church for twenty-three years.

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M. Love Booth, retired farmer and merchant, was born in Middle Tennessee, Bedford County, in 1819, but owing to his father's early removal to Haywood County, he was reared there. The parents, James and Mary (Lofton) Booth, were both Virginians, and after residing in Tennessee for many years they removed to White County, Ark., and died at the home of their son in 1861. He was a member of the Baptist Church, a Mason, a lifelong Democrat, and was for years sheriff of Bedford County. After his wife's death, which occurred in 1851, he married again and came to Arkansas. M. Love Booth is the third of their six children, four now living: John (deceased, who was a farmer in Tennessee), William (a farmer of West Tennessee), Samira (deceased), M. Love, Susan (the wife of Henry Bacon, of Mississippi) and Louisa (who is the wife of a Tennessee farmer). Our subject has been familiar with farm work from his earliest boyhood, but his early advantages for acquiring an education were not so good. At the [p.134] age of twenty he was a farm hand, later a trader and stock breeder, and after his marriage to Miss Elizabeth Budrell he became an overseer, and successfully followed that-occupation for forty years. He then gave up that work and built a livery stable in Brownsville, his establishment there being the largest of the kind in the State. In 1858 he came to Arkansas and purchased 320 acres of land near El Paso, seventy acres of which he cleared the first year. He was signally successful until the war broke out, when all his personal roperty was lost. He did not espouse either cause, and was not molested during those turbulent times. When he came to El Paso there were only two farms open here, but now the greater part of the land is in a high state of cultivation. After the war he, with Thomas Warren, built a large mill, which was destroyed by fire, when he returned to his farm, which he again began to till. He became the possessor of 1,000 acres, and has cleared over 300 acres, and since giving each of his children a farm he still holds 310 acres. His wife died October 1, 1887, and since that time he has made his home with his children, and is at present living with J. T. Phelps, his son-in-law, in El Paso, where he has an interest in the store of M. L. Phelps & Co. Mr. Booth was the first man to build a store in El Paso after the war, and is now managing a livery stable in that place, and, although he has attained the age of seventy years, he is an excellent business manager and is very active. Although quiet in his habits of life, he has always been interested in the public affairs of the county, and has done his full share in making the county what it is. He joined the Masons while in Tennessee, and he as well as his children are members of the Baptist Church. His children's names are here given: Nancy (is the wife of Monroe Oakley, a prosperous farmer of White County), Rebecca (is the wife of John C. Harkness, a farmer of El Paso), Elizabeth L. (is the wife of Thomas K. Noland, a farmer of the county), Narcissus (is the wife of John Russ, a farmer and president of the State Wheel), Martha A. (is the wife of J. T. Phelps, a merchant of El Paso), Mosella B. (deceased) and three infants, deceased.

Gilliam Harper Booth, known to the citizens of White County as one of its wide-awake, energetic, ever-pushing men, is of Tennessee nativity, and a son of William A. and Delia Jane (Leathers) Booth, who claim Virginia and North Carolina, respectively, as the land of their birth. William A., the father of our subject, was born in 1811, and when a young man came with his parents to Mississippi, and later on removed to Fayette County, Tenn., and thence to Haywood County. He was married in Fayette County. In 1856, after the election of James Buchanan to the presidency of the United States, they removed to Arkansas. He was an emphatic Democrat, casting his vote with that party, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. William A. Booth was a son of Harper Booth, a Revolutionary War veteran, who served in that memorable conflict, and who died in 1859 at an extreme old age. The grandfather was a Virginian by birth, and a descendant of the Harper family from whom Harper's Ferry derives its name. Delia Jane Leathers was born in 1817, and was taken to Tennessee by her mother when a child of seven years. Mr. and Mrs. Booth were the parents of twelve children, four of whom are still living: Isabella J. (the wife of Dr. W. P. Lawton), Martha Ann (the wife of Capt. Rayburn, deceased), Gilliam H. (our subject) and Charles L. Gilliam H. Booth received his education at the public schools of West Point and at Judsonia University. His birth occurred August 26, 1850, in Haywood County, Tenn. He has been actively engaged in teaching school, clerking and farming, and owns a fine farm of 356 acres, with 150 under cultivation. In religion he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and a Prohibitionist, but, being a radical free trader, inclines toward the Democratic party, voting that ticket. In the community in which he lives he is regarded as a highly respected citizen.

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William F. Bradley is a traveling salesman for a Lynchburg (Va.) tobacco firm, and is a gentleman who enjoys the respect and esteem of the people of White County. He was born in Cald-well County, N. C., June 6, 1847, and is a son of Jackson and Martha (Ferguson) Bradley, who were [p.135] born, reared and married in that State, the latter event taking place in 1841. Mrs. Bradley was born in 1825, was of Scotch descent, her grandfather having emigrated from Scotland to North Carolina before it became a State, and took part in the Revolutionary War, being in sympathy with the cause of the Americans. Jackson Bradley was born in 1818, and was of Welsh descent, his ancestors having come to America long before the Revolution. After his marriage he was engaged in farming in his native state until 1855, and after residing successively in Mississippi, Georgia, and Missouri, he came to Arkansas in 1861, and to White County in 1875. He resided on a farm two miles east of Beebe till his death in March, 1887, his wife preceding him to the grave by ten years. Both worshiped in the Missionary Baptist Church. William F. Bradley was the third in a family of seventeen children, the following of whom are living: Madelia (Mrs. Thomas), Amelia (Mrs. Mosier), Susan (Mrs. Bailey), Burton and William F. The latter received his education in the various States in which his father lived, and after attaining his twenty-first year, he worked as a farm hand for two years, then attended school at Butlerville, Lonoke County, for ten months. After teaching one term of school he engaged as a clerk at Beebe, at the end of six years engaging in the same business in partnership with J. T. Coradine, under the firm name of Bradley & Coradine. At the end of two years they took a Mr. Burton into the business, the firm then becoming Bradley, Coradine & Co., continuing such one year. Mr. Bradley then sold his interest, and became associated with Richard S. Bradley under the firm name of W. F. & R. S. Bradley, general merchants; but a few months later they made an assignment, losing all their goods. After this misfortune Mr. Bradley began working as a salesman, then secured a osition as traveling salesman for Charles G. Peper & Co., of St. Louis, but at the end of a few months was compelled to give up this position on account of poor health. After recovering he worked for some time as a railroad clerk, then resumed clerking, continuing until May 1, 1889, when he accepted his present position with J. W. West & Co., tobacco manufacturers of Lynchburg, Va. He is nicely situated in the town of Beebe, and has a pleasant and comfortable home, and socially is a member of Beebe Lodge No. 145, of the A. F. & A. M. He has belonged to the city board of aldermen, and he and wife, who was a Miss Emma S. Dement, and whom he married November 4, 1874, are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. They have a charming young daughter, Maud E., who was born October 26, 1876, and is attending the schools of Beebe. Mrs. Bradley is a native of De Soto County, Miss., and is a daughter of James T. and Ellen (Binge) Dement, the former of Alabama, and the latter of Tennessee. Mr. Dement was a farmer, and in 1872 came with his family to White County, dying there a year later, at the age of forty-five years. His wife survives him, and lives with Mrs. McIntosh in Beebe. The following are her children: Betty J. (born in 1857, the wife of Dr. McIntosh, the leading physician of Beebe), Emma S. (Mrs. Bradley, born June 24, 1859), Ella (born 1861, wife of A. M. Burton, a prosperous merchant of Beebe), Jennie (wife of Maxwell Welty, a railroad agent at Beebe), and James T. (who was born in February, 1874, and is attending the high school at Beebe).

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William Sackville Brewer. Ever since his connection with the agricultural affairs of White County, Ark., Mr. Brewer has displayed those sterling characteristics–industry, perseverance and integrity, that have resulted in awarding him a representative place in matters pertaining to this community. The paternal ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War and settled in Virginia, the grandfather, Barrett Brewer, an Englishman, participating in that struggle. He married Malinda Pollard, and by her became the father of four children: Martha (Mrs. Sanders), Sarah (who first married a Mr. Harder, and afterward a Mr. Scott), Benjamin and John Pollard (the father of our biographical subject). The maternal ancestors were also English, and came to America while it was still subject to the crown. The maternal grandmother was a Sackville, belonging to the distinguished English family of that [p.136] name. John Pollard Brewer was married to Susan Jefferson Townsend September 1, 1833, and to them the following children were born: William Sackville (born June 10, 1834), Martha M. (born July 18, 1836), James M. (born July 3, 1838), Pollard J. (born October 24, 1840), Sarah W. (born March 5, 1843), Andrew T. (born November 19, 1845), Benjamin A. (born May 19, 1848), John B. (born January 22, 1851), Mary E. (born September 19, 1853) and Karilla W. (born July 2, 1855). The father and mother of these children were born October 15, 1812, and March 14, 1817, respectively, the latter being of German descent, and a daughter of Andrew Criswell and Elizabeth (Barnett) Townsend. The father was one of the early settlers of Alabama, and represented Pike County in the State legislature. William Sackville Brewer was born in Pike County, Ala., and was educated in the subscription schools and reared on a farm. At the age of nineteen years he left home and united his fortunes with those of Miss Eliza H. Clayton, their union taking place October 10, 1852. She was born in Fayette County, Ga., June 6, 1834, and is a daughter of Richard and Jane (Carter) Clayton, the paternal ancestors being emigrants from Ireland to America prior to the Revolution. Mr. and Mrs. Brewer have a family of ten children: Susan E. (born September 6, 1853, became the wife of W. J. Turner in 1872, and died in 1883, leaving two children), Howell C. (born December 8, 1855, and died September 3, 1868), John William (born January 8, 1858), Ara Anna (born March 30, 1860, and died September 12, 1864), James R. (born September 18, 1862), Lela Lewis (born January 8, 1865, married D. A. King in 1882 and became the mother of two children), Henry W. (born September 1, 1867, and died June 8, 1871), Minnie Lee (born August 4, 1870), Robert B. (born March 23, 1872) and Richard J. (born December 24, 1874). Mr. Brewer has been a resident of Arkansas since 1873, and for two years farmed on rented land near Searcy. He continued to farm rented land until 1878, when he bought the farm of 129 acres where he now lives, of which about thirty-five acres are under cultivation. The buildings on the place were badly dilapidated, but Mr. Brewer now has all the buildings in excellent repair and his farm otherwise well improved. Mr. Brewer and his wife are professors of religion, and he at one time belonged to the Masonic fraternity, and is now a member of the Agricultural Wheel.

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Charles Brown, M. D., was a native of Virginia, and was born May 3, 1783. He was the son of Bernard and Elizabeth (Dancy) Brown. He received his early education in Virginia, and later attended the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, from which he graduated about 1807, subsequently settling in Charlotteville, Albemarle County, Va., and commenced the practice of medicine. Mr. Brown was married April 1, 1813, to Mary Brown, a daughter of Bezakel and Mary (Thompson) Brown, originally of Virginia, who was born April 24, 1790. They were the parents of the following children: Bernard O. (deceased). Elvira (deceased), Elizabeth D. (now Mrs. Jones, of Virginia), Bezaleel T. (deceased), Charles T., Algerion R. and Ezra M. Mr. Brown held the office of high sheriff of his county for two terms. His death occurred in 1879, at the age of ninety-six years; at the time of his death he was still a strong man with a wonderful memory. Algerion R. Brown was born in Albemarle County, Va., March 5, 1831. He attended the University of Virginia and in 1850 left it and studied medicine with his father a short time, and in 1852 went to Marshall County, Mississippi, where he engaged in the mercantile business until the war broke out. Mr. Brown was married January 26, 1855, to Mary F. Williams, a daughter of Alexander and Martha (Delote) Williams, of North Carolina nativity. Mrs. Brown was a native of Tennessee. Mr. Brown enlisted in 1861 for three years or during the war, in Company F, of the Thirty-fourth Mississippi Infantry in the Army of Tennessee. During the first twelve months he was first lieutenant, afterward was on staff of "general inspector," and after the battle of Lookout Mountain he went back to his regiment and was placed in command of three companies for some time and was then promoted to captain of the engineer department of staff duty, filling this position till the time of surrender. He [p.137] participated in the battles of Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and nearly all of the principal battles during the terrible conflict. Mr. Brown removed from Mississippi to Tennessee in 1881, remaining there four years, then moved to White County, Ark., settling in Cane Township on eighty acres of land, where he now has about thirty acres under cultivation. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have a family of five children and one deceased: Martha E. (deceased), Mary W., Susan W., Charles E., Samuel H., Walter L. Himself and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Brown has served as delegate to the district and annual conferences, and is one of the stewards of the church. He is an energetic and well-educated man, and a fine talker, and takes an interest in all school and religious work. He was one of the committee from Mississippi to the New Orleans fair in 1883.

Dr. R. L. Browning, physician and surgeon, Judsonia, Ark., Prominent among the comparatively young men of White County, whose career thus far has been both honorable and successful, is the subject of the present sketch. His father, R. C. Browning was a native of Kentucky, and while attending school in Indiana, met and married the mother of the Doctor, her maiden name being Miss Eliza Frady. She was born in North Carolina, but was reared in Indiana. After their marriage the parents settled in Kentucky, and here the father followed teaching until 1849, when he moved to Sac County, Iowa, where he followed agricultural pursuits for a means of livelihood. He took an active part in politics, was county treasurer of Sac County one term, and in the fall of 1870 moved to Judsonia, where he continued tilling the soil. In 1877 he engaged in merchandising and still continues in that business. He and wife reside in Judsonia. Their family consisted of the following children: J. H. (married and living in Judsonia), W. C. (married and residing in Kirksville, Mo., engaged in merchandising), R. L., Maggie (now Mrs. Marsh, of Judsonia), Viola (now Mrs. Drake, of Judsonia). Dr. R. L. Browning was born in Sac County, Iowa, in 1859, assisted his father on the farm, and received his education in the Judsonia University, one of the best schools of the county. He commenced reading medicine in Judsonia in 1877, and in 1878-79 took a course of lectures at the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, graduating in the class of 1882. He then came back and commenced the practice of medicine, where he was reared, and continued the same until the summer of 1882, having met with success and built up a big practice. He was married in Judsonia, Ark., on November 27, 1882, to Miss Emily B. Ellis, a native of New York, and the daughter of John Ellis, of English origin. Mr. Ellis came to this country, settled in New York, was civil engineer, and also engaged in horticulture. He came to Judsonia, Ark., in 1882, and died the same year in San Francisco, Cal., the mother dying in New York in 1872. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Browning were born two children (only one now living): Harry R. (who was born in 1887), and Carroll Ellis (who died in 1884, at the age of eight months and twelve days). Dr. Browning is not very enthusiastic in regard to politics, but his vote is cast with the Republican party. Socially he is a member of Judsonia Lodge No. 45,I. O. O. F., at Judsonia, and has been Noble Grand of the order. He belongs to the Missionary Baptist Church and Mrs. Browning to the Episcopal Church. The Doctor is secretary of the Building Association, also of the board of Judsonia University, and is one of the first men of the county. He has been unusually successful in his practice and has won the confidence and esteem of all.

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Prof. Augustine W. Bumpass, a prominent citizen and teacher of White County, is a native of Madison County, West Tenn., where he was born, near Jackson, on January 22, 1851. He is the eldest son of Dr. E. L. and Lucinda E. (Young) Bumpass. His father was a native of Giles County, Tenn., where he was born April 15, 1816, being reared in Lauderdale County, Ala., and there educated both in literature and medicine. Gradnating at the Louisville Medical College, in the class of 1841-42, with the highest honors, he was for many years a prominent physician in Alabama, but removed to Madison County, Tenn., in the latter part [p.138] of 1850, where he resided until 1856, at which time he removed to Arkansas and settled in Prairie (now Lonoke) County. Here, in a wild and unsettled country, he purchased land and opened up a farm, which he conducted in connection with his practice until his death, December 3, 1883. He was a man of generous and humans impulses, a warm-hearted and devoted Christian, and a member of the Christian Church. He was a Master Mason and a member of the I. O. O. F., standing high in both of those societies. An old line Whig until the dissolution of that party, he then affiliated with the Democratic party until his death. The mother of our subject, Lucinda E. (Young) Bumpass, was a native of Alabama, where she was reared, educated and married. She was the daughter of Elder James Young, a prominent

minister of the Christian Church in Alabama. He died in 1852. Mrs. Bumpass died on December 5, 1881, aged fifty-nine years, eight months and nine days. Dr. Gabriel Bumpass, grandfather of Augustine W., was a native of North Carolina and died in Lauderdale County, Ala., in 1875, aged one hundred and seventeen years. He was the oldest physician in America, if not in the world, having practiced medicine for more than eighty years. He was a remarkable man in many respects, and as physician, farmer or merchant, was very successful. Our subject's parents were married in Lauderdale County, Ala., on May 18, 1845. To their marriage seven children were born, five sons and two daughters, five of whom are living, as follows: Mary E. (at Pine Bluff, Ark.), Augustine W. (near Searcy, in White County, Ark.), Samuel J. (at Lonoke, (Ark.), Edward K. and Ross H. (at Pins Bluff, Ark.), The two last named are mechanics and buggy and carriage manufacturers; Samuel J. is a farmer, stock-raiser and trader. Romelia C., the eldest, a daughter, and Robert W., the fourth child, are dead. A. W. Bumpass was reared in Tennessee to the age of five years, and from that time in Arkansas, where he was educated, obtaining a good academic instruction and preparing himself for the profession of law. However, he began teaching early in life and has paid but little attention to the law, except in the lower courts. Commencing for himself at the age of eighteen as a teacher in the public schools of his State, he has been occupied in teaching more or less for twenty years, gaining an enviable reputation in many counties where he has been engaged in the public and private schools and academies. He is a politician of some note, and represented his county (Lonoke) in the legislature, in 1879 and 1880, taking always an active interest in the campaigns of his party, Democratic. He was married in Lonoke County, Ark., on April 25, 1875, to Miss Virginia C. Kirk, a native of Marshall County, Miss., born April 11, 1856, a daughter of Richard L. and

Virginia (Hayes) Kirk. Her father is dead, but her mother is a resident of White County, at the home of her daughter. Prof. Bumpass and wife have five children, four sons and one daughter: Edward W., Herbert R, Robert H., Prentice and Mary Moyner. The Professor is a member of the Christian Church and takes an active interest in church and Sunday-school matters. He has been Sunday-school superintendent for many years, was notary public from 1885 until 1889 in White County, and is a highly educated, intelligent gentleman, having the respect and confidence of those with whom he comes in contact. Generous to a fault, he aids all worthy enterprises to the extent of his time and means.

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Patrick Burns was the second settler in White County, and for this reason, if for no other, deserves prominent mention in the present volume. Now the oldest resident of the county, he came here in 1844 and located some land, having to make the journey from Springfield on foot and passing about fifteen days en route. His arrival was in September and he remained in the wilderness country until the following February, when he returned on foot to Sangamon County, Ill., going thence to Ohio in the same manner. After about one year's stay in the Buckeye State he again came to White County and was engaged in farming until 1863. Going to Missouri he worked there at farm labor also, and in 1865 settled permanently on the farm where he now lives. His career since that time has been one of which he need not feel ashamed. Mr. Burns was born in [p.139] Washington, D. C., in 1814, being a son of Thomas and Katie (Larner) Burns, of Irish descent. Thomas Burns was a laborer, and after marriage settled in Washington, where he died from the cholera, in 1833. His wife had preceded him a few years. Patrick was reared up to ten years of age in Washington, and then passed his time on a farm in Virginia, attending the subscription schools of that State. He went to Ohio in 1835, but one year later removed to Morgan County, Ill. Three years following he became settled in Sangamon County, Ill., his home until 1844. His subsequent travels have been noticed. Mr. Burns first opened up a farm of 120 acres here, which he has given to Mr. Sparrow, his father-in-law. Mr. Burns was married in 1850, in Pulaski County, to Edith Sparrow, a native of North Carolina. He was formerly a member of the Grange, and is now connected with the Agricultural Wheel.

George T. Burton, like so many agriculturists of White County, Ark., is also engaged in fruit culture, and has been exceptionally successful in these occupations. His birth occurred in Indians, in 1849, and he is one of nine children born to Eli and Mahala (Conley) Burton, the father having been born in North Carolina in 1812, the youngest child of John P. and Mary Burton, who were born in the "Old North State." After living in his native State until he reached manhood, he moved to Indiana, settling in Lawrence County, where he followed farming and coopering and was married in 1834, his wife being a daughter of John Conley, who was born in North Carolina and came to Indiana at an early day. They reared a large family of children: Simpson, Wiley G., Catherine, Rebecca, Isom, John W., William H., George T. and Milton P. The father is a Republican in politics, and has held many public offices in the State of Indiana, and is still living. His wife died in 1852. George T. Burton received his education in the State University of Indiana, and in 1872, started out in life for himself, following the occupations of farming and fruit growing, which callings have received his attention up to the present time. After his marriage, in 1877, to Miss Mary E. Bundy, a daughter of William and Sarah (Cobbell) Bundy, of that State, he came to White County, Ark., and bought a farm of 160 acres, seventy-five acres of which he devotes to corn and fruit of various kinds, being especially successful in the cultivation of strawberries and grapes. He takes a deep interest in all matters pertaining to the good of the county and is agricultural reporter of White County for the Government. He is an earnest member of the Baptist Church and politically is a Republican. His children are: Eli N., Morton, Ethel B. and Benjamin H. Mr. Burton is a Mason and is a demitted member of the Grand Lodge of the State.

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Robert W. Canada, a well-to-do farmer and stockman, residing near Beebe, Ark., has been a resident of White County for a period of time. He was born in Madison County, Tenn., April 3, 1829, and is a son of Hugh and Melissa R. (Duckworth) Canada, who were born in North Carolina, in 1808 and 1810, respectively. They were married in 1828, and in 1832 removed from Madison to Haywood County, Tenn., and here the father's death occurred in 1856. Their children are Robert W., Catherine (born January 1, 1831, and died at the age of four years), William J. (was born on May 16, 1833, and lost his life in the Confederate service, being killed in the battle of Atlanta, in 1864, and is now filling an unknown grave), Joseph V. (was born April 16, 1835, and died February 17, 1879, a farmer of White County), James R. (was born July 27, 1837, and died at El Paso in December, 1879, a merchant by occupation), John F. (who was born February 8, 1840, and died at Okolona, Miss., in 1863, being a soldier in the Confederate army), Alpha C. (was born April 16, 1842, and died August 8, 1881, the wife of A. L. Fisher, a farmer of Union Township), Mary E. (was born February 21, 1844, and is the wife of Richard Hill, a farmer of El Paso, Ark.) and Miles C. (who was born on September 20, 1846, and is now a farmer near Stony Point). Robert W. Canada spent his youth on his father's farm and attended the old subscription schools of his youth. At the age of twenty-one he began life for himself, and spent the first few years of his freedom as an overseer. This he followed in connection [p.140] with farming until coming to White County, Ark., and a few months later entered 160 acres of land three miles east of El Paso, which he began to develop. Four years later he sold this farm and bought eighty acres near Beebe, but after residing here a term of four years he went to Illinois, and there made his home during 1865. In 1867 he made the purchase of his present farm of 100 acres, and by good management has increased his acreage to 500, and has 200 acres under cultivation, his land being well adapted to raising corn, cotton and fruits. Small grain does well also, and strawberries grow to perfection and are one of his most profitable crops. Since his residence in the State he has cleared over 200 acres of land and has built more good barns than any other man in the section of White County. Although his principal occupation has been farming he has been engaged in other occupations at different times, and in 1873 erected a livery stable in Beebe, the first establishment of the kind ever erected there. He managed this a few months and at the same time acted as constable, and later served as justice of the peace for eight years. In 1882 he kept a grocery in Beebe and during this time, and for three subsequent years, he acted in the capacity of postmaster of the town, having received his appointment in 1881. He has been a Republican since that party has been in existence, but he has never been an office seeker. He is a member of Beebe Lodge No. 145, of the A. F. & A. M., and has held all the offices of his lodge with the exception of Senior Warden. He is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and is one of the influential men of the county, and although he differs from the most of the citizens in his political views, yet he is highly esteemed and his opinions respected. When Gen. Grant was elected to the presidency Mr. Canada was the only man in Union Township who voted for him. He has always been an advocate of schools and has contributed liberally to the building of churches, school-houses and to the general improvement of the county. October 28, 1851, he was married to Miss Mahala Hendrix, a native of Hardeman County, Tenn., born October 24, 1838, a daughter of William and Nancy (Clements) Hendrix, who removed from their native State of South Carolina to Tennessee in 1856, and were among the pioneer settlers of White County. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Canada are Sonora E. (born October 27, 1852, and died December 7, 1856), Almeda (born November 10, 1855, and died June 3, 1857), William R. (born April 26, 1858; is a merchant in business with C. A. Price, of Beebe), Joseph B. (was born September 17, 1860, and is a farmer of Union Township), Martha A. (was born October 15, 1869, and is a school teacher, residing with her parents) and Mary M. (who was born September 24, 1874, and died August 29, 1876). Mr. Canada has given all his children good educational advantages, and he and his family attend the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, he having been a steward in that church for the past thirteen years. Mr. Canada's mother still lives and makes her home with him.

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R. W. Carnes, sheriff, Searcy, Ark. This gentleman was elected to his present office in September, 1888, and has filled that position in a capable and efficient manner ever since. He owes his origin to Carroll County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1849, and is the second in a family of five children born to John D. and Sarah (Dunn) Carnes, natives of Tennessee. The father was a physician and surgeon and died in Tennessee in 1857. He took quite an active part in politics in the early history of the country. The mother came to White County, Ark., in 1868, settled on a farm near Searcy, and here her death occurred in 1885. Of their family five are now living: R. W., Barbara A. and Alice (now Mrs. Magness), still residing in White County. R. W. Carnes passed his early life in duties upon the farm and in securing an education in the common schools of Tennessee. In 1868 he came to White County, following farming until 1882, when he engaged in general merchandising at Centre Hill, White County, and there continued for three years. In 1885 he embarked in the same business at Searcy, and continued at that for some time. He is not very active in polities, but votes independently and for the best man in the county, and in national affairs votes with the Democratic party. He is also deeply [p.141] interested in educational affairs and is a member of the school board. Socially he is a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., and has been Worshipful Master of the lodge. He was married in White County in 1875 to Miss Anna Montgomery, a native of White County and daughter of J. W. and Ophelia A. (West) Montgomery, the former of North Carolina and the latter of Monroe County, Ark. The father is now deceased. Mrs. Montgomery resides on a farm. Mr. Carnes lost his wife in 1880 and was left with two children: Anna Belle and John D. His second marriage took place in White County in 1884, to Miss Eluora Neelly, a native of White County and daughter of Samuel D. and Sally (Montgomery) Neelly, natives of Tennessee and North Carolina, respectively. Her parents came to White County in 1855, and there their deaths occurred a number of years ago, the mother in about 1874, and the father in 1885. They were the parents of three children: Sally Mattie, Neelly and an infant. Mr. Carnes has seen many changes in the country since coming here in 1868, and has always taken an interest in the country. He is one of the prominent and representative men of the county.

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William H. Carodine, known to be reliable and honorable, is a liveryman and planter of White County, and a native of Mississippi, being born October 3, 1843, in De Soto County. His father, William Carodine, was born in Tennessee, but immigrated to Mississippi, where he married Miss Emily Hall, also of Tennessee. Soon after their marriage they came to Arkansas (in 1860) and settled first in White County, but subsequently moved six miles west of Beebe, and in 1873 moved two miles south of this town, where the remainder of their life was spent. William H. was reared on a farm and passed his boyhood days in the pioneer schools, obtaining a good education there and in the common schools of Mississippi and Arkansas. In 1862 he started out in this world for himself, their first venture from home being to enlist in the Confederate army, under Col. Glenn McCoy's brigade, in which he served four years. He was in the battles of Prairie Grove, Pilot Knob, Jefferson City, Boonville, Lexington, Independence, and at Wilson's Creek, in Missouri. He was with Price on his raid through Missouri, and also at the battle of Helena where he was slightly wounded, but during his entire service in the war he was never once captured. At the time of the final surrender he was home on a furlough. At the close of the struggle Mr. Carodine rented a farm and began working it with nothing but his own exertion to depend on, yet it is not strange that he succeeded, for with his great determination of purpose, the lack of "filthy lucre" would not prevent him at least from making an attempt to cope with the many hardships incident to his start in life. In October, 1867, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Massey, a native of Tennessee, but whose parents came to Arkansas in 1858. To their union three children have been born, two of them now living: Mary Jane, William (deceased) and Jones D. Shortly after his marriage Mr. Carodine purchased his father's homestead and conducted that place for several years, but in 1878 he traded his farm for town property in Indiana, which he still owns. It consists of a lot and good residence in Bainbridge, Putman County, Ind. In 1878 he bought what is known as the Massey place (160 acres) and took up his residence at that place, remaining there until the fall of 1888. He then purchased the rolling stock in the livery business, which he is now successfully conducting. In connection with his other property he now owns eighty acres of land, two miles east of Beebe, and of that farm fifty acres are cultivated. The farm is in an excellent locality, and is adapted to all kinds of crops. Since his residence in White County he has opened over 160 acres of land, and has done his full share in developing the country round him, and it is to his credit, be it said, that very few have done as much. In 1875 Mr. and Mrs. Carodine took an extended trip through Texas, for the latter's health, and after an absence of a year they returned, her health being greatly improved. Mr. Carodine thought Texas a very fair country, but concluded that, as far as he had been able to judge, Arkansas had no superior. He is a member of Beebe Lodge No. 146, A. F. & A. M., also at one time was a Wheeler. In his political views he [p.142] sides with the Democratic party. He has been a member of the school board for a number of years, and with his family worships at the Beebe Methodist Episcopal Church.

W. B. Carter, Searcy, Ark. Among the most skilled and reliable druggists of Searcy may be classed Mr. Carter, who is a member of the well-known firm of Carter & Son. This firm is doing a good business and carries a full line of drugs, chemicals and everything kept in a first-class drug store. He came to Searcy in 1851, engaged in the dry goods and boot and shoe business, where the Perry Block is building, then purchased a frame building across the street, and later moved to the north side of the public square, where he erected the second brick building in Searcy. At this time the firm title was Carter, McCanley & Co., under which it continued until some time during the war. From 1861 to 1865 Mr. Carter was out of business, and in 1867 he engaged in general merchandising under the firm name of J. C. McCanley & Co. He continued with him until 1873, when he embarked in his present business on the north side of the square, and in 1884 moved to his present location. Mr. Carter was born in Prince William County, Va., in 1822, and was the eldest in a family of six children born to James P. and E. J. (Davis) Carter, natives of the Old Dominion. The father was a planter and opened up a large farm in Virginia, where he remained until 1838 and then moved to Independence County, Ark., where he entered land and there passed his last days. His death occurred in about 1860. His wife died in 1870. Of their family these children are now living: W. B. (subject) and T. E. Carter (who is married and resides on a farm near Sulphur Rock, Ark.). W. B. Carter was early initiated into the duties of farm life, and received his education in the schools of Virginia. He moved to Pike County, Mo., in 1837, engaged in farm labor, and in 1838 moved to Independence County, Ark., where he engaged in agricultural pursuits. He purchased land in that county, but sold it and in 1851 came to Searcy, then a very small rough place, but soon after a class of settlers moved in and the town was soon built up. Mr. Carter was an enrolling officer for some months during 1863, was taken prisoner and held during the winter of 1863 and 1864 at Johnstown Island. He was paroled in March of the last-mentioned year and taken to Point Lookout, thence to Richmond, and finally went on foot from Mississippi across the swamps to Southern Ark., where he joined the army. After the surrender he returned to Searcy. In 1867 he engaged in business continuously for thirty-four years, and is one of the oldest and most reliable merchants in Searcy. He is not active in politics but votes with the Democratic party, and held the office of justice of the peace for about four years. He was appointed postmaster under President Buchanan and served four years. He was married in White County in 1853 to Miss E. J. McCanley, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of James and Mary (Fletcher) McCanley,

natives of North Carolina. Her parents immigrated at an early day to Tennessee, and in 1851 came to White County, Ark., where both passed their last days. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Carter: Ella (now Mrs. Patterson, of Little Rock), and W. F. (who is married and resides in Searcy) and two deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Carter are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and socially Mr. Carter is a member of the Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., of which he has been secretary and warden for many years. He is a member of Tillman Chapter No. 19, R. A. M., of which he is King. He is also a member of the council, and has been for some time.

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Alfred T. Carter, a leading citizen and of an old and highly respected family, was a native of Mississippi, and was a son of Alfred and Drucilla (Willkins) Carter, of Tennessee nativity. Alfred Carter first saw the light of day in 1812, and lived in Tennessee (where he was married) until 1830, when he moved to Panola County, Miss., and in 1859 came to Arkansas, locating in White County, where his wife died in 1871, at the age of fifty-nine. He then married a Mrs. Conner, a widow, who is still living. The senior Carter was the father of seven children by his first wife, three of whom are still living: S. R. (a farmer of Logan County, Ark.), Alfred T. (our subject) and [p.143] Sarah (the wife of W. H. Bailey). By his second marriage he became the parent of two children, both living: Fannie and Alfred. Mr. Carter belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, as did also his first wife. He died in 1878. Alfred T. Carter was born in Panola County, Miss., on February 3, 1851, but has resided in Arkansas since eight years of age. At the age of twenty he commenced farming for himself, and in the fall of 1870, bought forty acres of land in the woods, and began clearing it. He now is the owner of 280 acres, with ninety under cultivation, which he has made by hard work and economy. On August 28, 1870, he was married to Miss Emma Ward, also a native of Panola County, Miss., and who was born April 22, 1854. They are the parents of eleven children, six of whom are still living: Ella J., Sallie M., Albert J., George O., John T. and Penina. Mr. Carter is a prominent Democrat, and was elected to the office of constable in 1882, which office he held for six years. Mr. and Mrs. Carter belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of which he is trustee, and officiated as class leader for several years.

J. M. Cathcart, one of the members of the popular and well-known Enterprise Basket and Box Company, manufacturers of fruit and vegetable boxes, etc., was born in Elkhart County, Ind., in 1844, and was the youngest of three children born to B. F. and Joanna (Calkins) Cathcart, the former having been born in that State in 1818, his youthful days being also there. His children are Royal (who died in infancy) and Harrison (who served in Company K, Ninth Indiana Regiment, and was killed at the battle of Shiloh). The mother of these children, who was a daughter of Caleb Calkins, died in 1845, and the father married again, his second wife being a Mrs. Mary (Newell) freland, daughter of John and Mary (Crockett) Newell, a native of Kentucky. She bore him one child, J. F., who resides in Arkansas, and is in business with our ubject, J. M. Cathcart. After her death he wedded Sarah J. Calkins, an aunt of his first wife, the children of this marriage being Anna and Royal W. and Rosa (twins). Mr. Cathcart is still living, but his parents, James and Paulina, have long been dead. J. M. Cathcart's youth was spent in following the plow on his father's farm in Indiana, and in attending the district schools, but these sober pursuits he put aside upon the opening of the Rebellion, and at the age of seventeen years he enlisted in Company C, Ninth Indiana Regiment, and after participating in a number of engagements he was captured and confined in the county jail at Stanton, Va., one month and in Libby two months. After being paroled he went back to Indiana, and was married there, in 1872, to Miss Anna Snyder, a daughter of William and Lavina (Knight) Snyder, natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. Cathcart was in the railroad business for about thirteen years, as clerk and station agent on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. Resigning his position as agent in 1881, he engaged in the manufacturing business with his brother, J. F., at Bristol, Ind. In 1885 they moved their machinery to White County, Ark., and established the Enterprise Basket and Box Company, known as the Cathcart Bros. They employ on an average about thirty hands, and during the fruit season have a much larger force. Mr. Cathcart is a member of the G. A. R., a Republican in his political views and is one of the aldermen of Judsonia. The junior partner of the firm, J. F. Cathcart, married Miss Flora Boyer, by whom he had two sons, John and James, born in 1880 and 1884, in Indiana John F. spent his youthful days on a farm raising fruit and in attending the public schools of Indiana. He engaged in the manufacturing business while still a resident of his native State, and after coming to Arkansas in 1885, engaged in the same calling. He is the inventor of the Cathcart's ventilated berry case, which has proved a decided success. His wife, who is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is a daughter of John and Hannah Boyer, the former a Pennsylvanian. Mr. Cathcart is an excellent musician and is the leader of the band in Judsonia.

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R. W. Chrisp, farmer, Searcy, Ark. This prominent agriculturist owes his nativity to Gibson County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1835, and is the ninth of seventeen children born to the [p.144] union of William and Mary J. (Elder) Chrisp, natives of the Old Dominion. The father was a tiller of the soil, and moved to Rutherford County, Tenn., entered land, and there remained until 1831. He then settled in Gibson County, Tenn., and made that county his home until his death, which occurred in 1863. He was in the War of 1812, and took quite an active part in politics. His wife died in Searcy in October, 1884. Of their family the following children are now living: R. W., Frances W. (now Mrs. Lane, of Gibson County, Tenn.), Horace (married, and resides in Higginson Township) and L. M. (who is married, and resides on a farm in the last-named township). One son, John W., enlisted in the army from Gibson County, Tenn., was Gen. Pillow's commissary, and died of pneumonia in 1863, at Memphis, Tenn. Another son, William B., was a member of the One Hundred and Eleventh Tennessee Infantry, and after the war was a cotton factor of Memphis. His death occurred in 1870. Two other sons, Henry and Starks, were in Gen. Forrest's cavalry, and both died in 1883. R. W. Chrisp was early taught the duties of farm life, and received his education in the subscription schools of Tennessee. In 1857 he came to White County, Ark., then being a single man, and taught the Gum Spring schools during 1858-59. He was married in White County in the last-named year, to Miss Sarah F. Neavill, a native of Jackson County, Ala., and the daughter of Elihu and Margaret (Jones) Neavill, natives of Alabama. Her father was in the Florida War, came to White County in 1844, and was for many years engaged in farming and in the tannery business, becoming quite wealthy. His death occurred in 1851 and the mother's in 1887. They resided in White County for over forty years. After marriage Mr. Chrisp settled in Gray Township on a timber tract of land, which he rented for a few years, and then, in 1867, purchased 240 acres, partly improved. This he sold, and bought forty acres in the timber which he immediately commenced clearing, erecting buildings, and added to this land from time to time until he now has 280 acres, with 100 acres under cultivation, besides a home farm of twenty acres just outside the corporation. Mr. Chrisp lost his excellent wife, October 9, 1887. The result of this union was the birth of the following children: William H. (married, and resides on the subject's farm), Vinnie R. (at home, attending Galway College), James Everett, Henry Beecher and Benjamin Clark. July 4, 1861, Mr. Chrisp was elected second lieutenant of Company K, but held first position in the Seventh Arkansas Infantry, commanded by Robert Shaver. He was in the battle of Shiloh, after which the company was reorganized, and he came to Searcy to recruit for the Trans-Mississippi Department. He then entered the ranks as private in the cavalry, and was temporarily promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in front of Helena. He was in the Missouri raid, participated in the battles of Pilot Knob, Ironton, Jefferson City, Newtonia and Mine Creek. He returned to White County, Ark., from Fayetteville, and engaged in farming, but later was occupied for about a year in merchandising in Searcy. He has taken an active part in politics, and although originally a Whig, votes with the Democratic party. He has taken an active interest in schools and has been a member of the school board for twenty years. In 1883 he was sergeant-at-arms for the State of Arkansas. He received the nomination for representative, but was declared disfranchised in the reconstruction days. Mr. Chrisp is a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., and is also a member of Tillman Lodge No. 19. He has been Worshipful Master of Searcy Lodge, and has held office in Chapter. He is practically a self-made man and all his property is the result of his own industry. Although fifty-five years of age he has never drank a drop of liquor.

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Arthur Smith Claiborn, eminently fitted and well worthy to be numbered among the successful farmers and stockmen of White County, Ark., is a son of John B. and Perlina E. (Thomason) Claiborn, the former a Tennesseean of Irish descent and the latter a native of North Carolina. They were married in Tennessee, and in 1859 moved to Kansas, purchasing a partly improved farm, consisting of 160 acres, in Prairie County. After considerably improving this land they moved to White [p.145] County, settling on a tract of railroad land, where the father died seven years later, September 17, 1874, his wife having died October 16, 1870. Their children are as follows: Mary Jane (who became the consort of L. D. Hendrickson, deceased, and is living in Kentucky with her five children), Millie C. (married Jasper Scott, and in 1856 moved to Illinois; her husband was killed at the battle of Nashville, in 1865, leaving her with six children), W. B. (was killed at Franklin, Ky., while a member of the Eighth Tennessee Regiment), Mary F. (was married to R. H. Ferguson, but died after having borne two children), John H. (residing in Texas, and by his wife, who was Miss Mary Ware, is the father of six children), Perlila C. (was wedded to John Hodges, and upon her death left two children), Pleasant T. (died at Jackson, Miss., while serving in the Confederate army), Arthur Smith (our subject), Thomas J. and Samuel B. Arthur Smith Claiborn was born in De Kalb County, Tenn., February 3, 1847, and was educated in the subscription schools of his native county, but it must be acknowledged that his advantages were very meager, and at the time he had attained his twenty-first birthday he had only received three months' schooling. He immediately began business for himself upon attaining his majority, and for two years raised crops of cotton and corn on shares, and at the end of this time was married to Miss Martha J. Hale, a native of Mississippi and daughter of Francis J. and Louisa (White) Hale, who were among the old settlers of Arkansas, having come to the State in 1859. Their marriage took place December 2, 1869, and of eight children born to their union seven are living: Elnora (born October 7, 1870), William B. (born August 20, 1872), James (born July 25, 1874), Mattie J. (born in September, 1876, and died in August, 1877), Annie (born October 16, 1878), Alcora (born March 28, 1882), Arthur S. (born February 27, 1885) and Aver A. (born February 26, 1886). After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Claiborn settled on eighty acres of land belonging to the latter, and in 1876 Mr. Claiborn became able to purchase 116 acres of wild land, which he has improved and to which he has added eighty acres. He now has seventy-five acres under cultivation, a good frame house, good barns and one tenant house. He rented his land on shares until this year (1889) but now rents for cash. Mr. and Mrs. Claiborn and two of their children, Elnora and William, hold memberships in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. Claiborn is a Democrat in his political views. He has always been a liberal contributor to the advancement of religious, social and educational institutions, and has also given generously to all enterprises which he deemed worthy of support.

Green B. Clay is a well-to-do farmer and stock raiser of Cadron Township, and was the youngest in a family of ten children of John and Diallia (Morris) Clay. Mr. Clay was a native of North Carolina. His family consisted of the following children: Nancy, Harriet, Louisa, Jackson M., Emily, Sarah, Susan, William H., Martha and Green B. (our subject.) He was reared on a farm in Tennessee, where he was born in 1827, and started out in life when he was sixteen years of age. In 1851 he was married to Mary W. Mizzells, a daughter of Miles and Elizabeth (Rooks) Mizzells. In 1868 Mr. Clay bought a farm in Tennessee. He subsequently sold it and moved to Arkansas, settling in White County, where he bought a farm of 560 acres, clearing about seventy-three acres, Mrs. Clay was the mother of eighteen children, eight of whom are still living: John M., Joseph H., Zacariah M., Francis M., James N., George A., Charles C. and Albert A. He was married the second time to Nancy E. Burton (nee Neal), a widow. To them have been given five children: Walter L., Nathan B., Stephen M., Neoma Parlee and an infant which is not named. Mr. and Mrs. Clay are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. He is a strong Democrat and a member of the County Wheel. He is deeply interested in all work for the good of the church, school or any public enterprise.

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J. C. Cleveland, M. D., was born in Independence County, November 19, 1852, and is the son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Butcher) Cleveland, natives of Georgia and Alabama, respectively. Mr. [p.146] Joseph Cleveland moved to Alabama when a young man, where he was married and in 1852, he removed to Independence County, Ark. He served his county a number of times in an official capacity, and in 1873 he represented his county in the legislature. He served eighteen months in the Confederate army, during which time he was taken prisoner and held at Fortress Monroe eight months before he was exchanged. He was with Gen. Price in his raid through Missouri and Kansas. He was a Republican and belonged to the Masonic fraternity, in which he had taken the Royal Arch degree. He died in the early part of the year 1887, at Newport, Ark., at the age of sixty-one. Mrs. Cleveland is still living and a resident of Newport, Ark., and is the mother of eleven children, nine of whom still survive: Martha E. (wife of J. W. Kennedy), J. C. (our subject), Henry P. (a lawyer by profession), Mary A. (wife of J. D. Cantrell), Susan A. T. (wife of L. D. Bownds), James F., Charles E., Samuel and Edward. Dr. J. C. Cleveland began his career as a school-teacher in his nineteenth year, following that profession till 1883, when he began the study of medicine. He graduated from the Missouri Medical College in 1888, first having taken lectures at the Kentucky School of Medicine, Louisville. Dr. Cleveland was married, November 7, 1875, to Miss Nancy E. Vick, a daughter of Dr. T. A. Vick. She died in 1885, having had three children, only one of whom survives, Lavina E., who is still living with her father. Dr. Cleveland was again married, in 1886, to Miss Nannie F. Goad, who is the mother of one daughter: Susan Estella. Mrs. Cleveland is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic fraternity and a strong Republican. He is now a resident of Bald Knob, where he has built up a large and successful practice, and is an enterprising and highly respected citizen.

John D. Coffey is a well-known citizen of White County and was born in Macon, Fayette County, Tenn., June 19, 1838. His father, David P. Coffey, was a Presbyterian clergyman, and first saw the light of this world in Tennessee in November, 1805. He was given all the advantages for an education to be had at that time, and applied himself so assiduously to his studies, that he became an accomplished and finely educated gentleman. He was married in his native State November 12, 1835, to Miss Mary C. Cogville, a daughter of Charlie and Pollie Cogville, and to their union fourteen children were born, of which John D. is the second child and the oldest son. Of that family seven are now living, six residing in this State. The Rev. Coffey immigrated from Tennessee, in 1854, and located near Searcy, where he died in 1883, his good wife surviving him but two years. He was a member of the Masonic lodge, and also a Royal Arch Mason, and was the originator of the first church that was ever organized in Stony Point, the denomination being the Cumberland Presbyterian. This township, where John D. Coffey now resides, derived its title from his father, in whose honor it was named. John D. served in the late war on the Confederate side, and enlisted in 1861, in Douglas County, in Brown's Tennessee Regiment. His first hard fight was at the battle of Shiloh, and he also engaged in numerous other engagements. He was captured at Port Edson, but was soon after paroled, and at once returned home to claim his promised bride, Miss Malicia G. Harris. After his marriage Mr. Coffey returned to the war and accompanied Price on his raid through Missouri, and received his final discharge from service in 1865. To Mr. and Mrs. Coffey have been born a family of eight children: John H., Mary, Josephus, Lucy E., David P., Hugh, James S., Minnie C. Mr. Coffey has a good farm of forty acres, finely stocked, and with all the conveniences and modern improvements to make the home comfortable. Himself and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and highly respected by every one.

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John Reed Coffey is a prominent farmer and miller of White County, Ark., and owes his nativity to the State of Tennessee, the date of his birth being December 19, 1856. His father, Wiley D. Coffey, was born in Bedford County, Tenn., October 6, 1827, where he received his education, and there married Narcissa A. Muse, August 5, 1850. [p.147] Mrs. Coffey is a daughter of Richard and Margaret Muse, and a very estimable lady. To their union eight children were born, five of them now living: Mary C., John R., Richard H., Sarah H., Joseph H. The other three died in infancy. Mr. Coffey is a teacher and minister, and owns 286 acres of good land with 100 in cultivation. He immigrated from Texas to Arkansas in 1871, locating in White County, which has been his home ever since. When he came to this county his worldly possessions consisted of a team of horses and a wagon, but he is now worth $5,000, and a farm well supplied with all the necessary stock for its successful operation. Mr. Coffey has educated three of his children for teachers. He has held a membership in the I. O. O. F. and in the Wheel, but has severed his connection with the latter order. He served in the Confederate War, enlisting in 1862, in Company A, Forty-fourth Regiment, and received his discharge in the same year. J. Reed Coffey acquired his education at home by the aid of the fire light, and when twenty-one years old began life for himself, working for two years, then returned home and worked with his father to pay a debt that hung like the sword of Damocles over the old homestead. At the age of twenty-eight years he was married to Sarah A. Harriss, their marriage occurring in October, 1885. She was a native of Illinois, and a daughter of Johnson and Keziah Harriss. They are the parents of two children: Clifton B. and Robert L. He owns 400 acres of good land, which lies southeast of Bald Knob and is well stocked with all the necessary appurtenances required to operate a farm. He is a Democrat politically, and as might be supposed by his home surroundings of English descent. Mrs. Coffey is a member of the Baptist Church, and a favorite in her wide circle of acquaintances. Mr. Coffey richly merits the reward which has attended his efforts during life. Active, industrious and prudent, he enjoys wide respect.

William R. Cook, a man of no little prominence throughout White County, Ark., is a wealthy farmer, stockman and fruit grower, residing near Judsonia, and, although born in Tennessee in 1836, he has been a resident of Arkansas since 1848, although he first resided in Independence County. He was the eldest of six children, born to John and Ann (Anderson) Cook, the former of whom was born in that state in 1814, and was educated as a Methodist minister, being a son of William and Margaret Cook. He was married in Tennessee in 1835 and followed farming there until his removal to Arkansas, his wife bearing him in the meantime these children: William R., Mary, Eliza, Lavinia, Arkansas and Andrew. They took up land in Arkansas and here the father died in 1879, and the mother in 1872. The maternal grandparents were Anderson and Dorcas Clark, Kentuckians, who came to Tennessee at an early day. William R. spent his youth in Tennessee but received the most of his education in Arkansas, and in the year 1860 started out in life for himself. A year later he joined Company B. Seventh Arkansas Infantry, First Arkansas Brigade, and took part in the battles of Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Big Creek, and was with Price on his raid through Missouri, and with Bragg in Kentucky. He received his discharge in 1865 and after coming home was married (in 1866) to Albina, a daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Price) Bownds, and by her became the father of four children: Ida, Ella, Maggie and John (the latter dying in 1881). Mr. Cook was the owner of 240 acres of land in Independence County, but sold this and removed to White County, purchasing 460 acres near Judsonia, of which he now has 225 acres under cultivation. He is a steward in the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which his wife is also a member. He belongs to Anchor Lodge No. 384, of the A. F. & A. M., and is Deputy Grand Lecturer of his district. In his political views he is a Democrat. In 1879 he was called upon to mourn the death of his wife, and he afterward espoused Isabel Sisco, a daughter of Zedichire and Thurza Sisco, the father a native of Alabama and the mother of Middle Tennessee. They came to Arkansas about 1838, and here Mrs. Cook was born. The father died in 1858 and the mother in 1862. Mr. Cook and his present wife have had two children, both of whom are now deceased: Reuben P. and Sterling, the former's death occurring in 1881 and the latter's in 1883.

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[p.148] Joshua J. Crow was attending school in this county at the time of the outbreak of the war, when he laid down his books, left family and friends to join the Confederate Army. He enlisted in Taylor's regiment of Texas troops, and later in the Second Trans-Mississippi Department, in the Second Arkansas Cavalry; also took part in the battles of Jenkins' Ferry, Helena, Poison Springs, Little Rock, and a number of other battles and skirmishes. After peace was once more declared he went to West Point and engaged in the mercantile business, remaining there until 1870, when he removed to Searcy and subsequently filled he position of traveling salesman for a wholesale grocery house at St. Louis, Mo., for the next six years.

In 1876 he started in the saw-mill business which he still follows. In 1877 he was married to Miss Emma J. Jones, a daughter of B. F, and J. C. Jones, and is the mother of three children: Frank F., Norman and Norton B. Mr. Crow owes his nativity to Mississippi (being born in Marshall County, June, 1844) and is the son of Joshua B. and Lavinia (West) Crow, natives of Alabama. Mr. Crow, Sr., was born in 1810, and when a young man removed with his parents to Northern Alabama, where he resided until his marriage when he immigrated to Marshall County, Miss., and lived there until 1847, then came to De Soto County, same State, and in February, 1849, came to Arkansas, locating in White County. He was a passenger on the second steamboat which came up Red River. He was a Democrat in politics, a member of the Masonic order, and in religious faith belonged to the Missionary Baptist Church, as did also his wife, and was one of the best-posted men in regard to real estate in his county. His death occurred in 1866 and his wife's in the same year, at the age of fifty-three. They were the parents of eleven children, seven of whom are still living: Mrs. J. N. Cypert, Mrs. T. D. Hardy (of this county), Mrs. T. P. Boon (of Los Angeles, Cal.), Joshua J. (our subject), M. C. (of West Point), Mrs. J. R. Hardy (of Mississippi) and Miss Ella Crow (of West Point). The mother of our subject was a descendant of Gen. Israel Putnam, of Revolutionary fame. Himself and wife are connected with the Missionary Baptist Church, in which they take an active part. He owns 1,400 acres of fine farming land, and is a prominent Democrat in his county.

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Jesse N. Cypert, is an attorney, at Searcy, Ark. Among the leading firms of attorneys in this city is the well-known one of Messrs. Cypert & Cypert, of which Jesse N. Cypert is the senior member. This gentleman is one of the pioneer settlers of Searcy, Ark., and was born in Wayne County, Tenn., in December, 1823, being one of eleven children, the result of the union of Jesse and Jemimah (Warthen) Cypert, the father a native of North Carolina, born 1781, and the mother of Pennsylvania, born 1783. The grandparents on the mother's side were of Welsh descent, and at an early day moved to North Carolina. Jesse Cypert, Sr., was married in 1802, then moved to Knox County, Tenn., where he farmed and resided until 1819, after which he moved to Wayne County, of the same State, and there his death occurred in 1858. He was a private in the War of 1812, Tennessee Volunteer, Carroll's brigade, and was in the battle of New Orleans under Gen. Jackson. He was sheriff and collector one term, and justice of the peace and member of the county court for a number of years. The mother died in 1857. Jesse N. Cypert's time in early life was divided between working on the farm, clearing and developing the home place, and in attending the subscription schools of Wayne County, Tenn., in a log-cabin with dirt floor, etc. Later he attended the district schools of that State. He then studied law in the office of Judge L. L. Mack, of Wayne County, and was admitted to the bar at Waynesboro, Tenn., in 1849. Subsequently he went to Walker County, Ga., engaged as clerk, and in May, 1858, came to Crittenden County, Ark., and began practicing at Marion. Here he remained for eight months, and in February, 1851, came to Searcy, Ark., where he began the practice of law and this has continued successfully ever since. In connection with this he also carries on farming. During the war, or in October, 1861, he served as captain of the Confederate army, Fifth Arkansas Battalion, and on the organization of the battalion at Pocahontas, Randolph County, Ark., in October, [p.149] Mr. Cypert was elected major. He was east of the Mississippi River, and after the battle of Shiloh he resigned and came home on account of health. Later he entered the commissary department, purchasing supplies for the troops, and was thus engaged until after the surrender of Little Rock. He was taken prisoner in October, 1863, detained at Little Rock about three weeks, and paroled as citizen the same month. He was in the convention that passed the ordinance of secession in 1861, and was a delegate to both conventions. He continued the practice of law after the war, and this has continued ever since. He has taken quite an active part in politics, votes with the Democratic party, and was a delegate to the convention that voted the State into the union in 1868. He was also in the convention in 1874 that furnished the constitution that the State is under now. Mr. Cypert was elected judge of the circuit court in September, 1874, and served eight years, two terms. Socially he is a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., Tillman Chapter No. 19, R. A. M. He was married in White County, in February, 1855, to Miss Sarah Harlan Crow, a native of Alabama, and the daughter of Joshua B. and Lavinia (West) Crow, natives of South Carolina. Her parents moved to White County, Ark., in 1849, settled on a farm near the present town of Kensett, and here the mother died in April, 1866, and the father in August of the same year. To Mr. and Mrs. Cypert were born three children, two living: Florence (now Mrs. W. M. Watkins, of Searcy) and Eugene (a partner in the firm of Cypert & Cypert, he having read law in the office of his father, and was admitted to the bar in 1884). The other child, Mary Alice, married H. A. Smith, a merchant of West Point, She died in February, 1886, and left one child, Eugene Austin, and the subject of this sketch is rearing this child. Mr. Cypert takes an active interest in all that pertains to the good of the county, and is one of the pioneers of the temperance cause. He ran for the legislature in 1854, on the temperance question and received a good number of votes. He was the first president of the Temperance Alliance, and served in that capacity for two years. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mrs. Cypert is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

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J. W. Darden, the efficient and popular lumber manufacturer and flour-mill operator of Rosebud, is engaged in manufacturing all grades of lumber of oak and pine. He commenced this enterprise in 1861 within one mile of where he is now doing business. In connection with this business he is engaged in operating a flouring-mill, his establishment being the second of the kind erected in White County and the first one in this vicinity. He has been a resident of Arkansas since 1860, and since that date has been a resident of Kentucky Township, removing thither from his native State of Tennessee. He was born in Warren County in 1833 and was the fourth in a family of seven children born to Robert and Elizabeth (Woten) Darden, who were also of Warren County, and were there married. In 1855 they moved to Greene County, Mo., where Mr. Darden had a blacksmith shop for some years, and in 1864 they came to White County, Ark., where Mr. Darden followed the same calling and also that of farming, occupying himself with these callings until his death, in 1886, his wife's death occurring some two years previous. The following are the names of the surviving children: J. W., Elizabeth (now Mrs. Clymer, of Taney County, Mo.), Mattie (unmarried and a resident of Faulkner County) and Sarah (now Mrs. Williams, a widow, residing in Faulkner County). J. W. was educated in the schools of his native county and commenced life for himself by trading in stock. He remained with his father for one year after the latter's removal to Missouri, then returned to Tennessee and was married there in 1856 to Miss Nancy Layne, who was a native resident of that State. Her father, George Layne, was a farmer, and died in Tennessee in 1848, his wife, who was a Miss Aramintie Dickerson, removing with her daughter, Mrs. Darden, to Arkansas, and dying in White County in 1867. Upon the beginning of the Civil War J. W. Darden was detailed by the Confederate Government to operate his mill, and in this work he has continued for nearly thirty years. After purchasing land he began [p.150] improving it, and now owns in this and adjoining counties 2,000 acres, with something over 100 acres under cultivation. He is rapidly converting his timber into lumber, and, although he lost about $10,000 by fire in 1875, he has retrieved this loss in a great measure and is now doing well. In politics he casts his vote with the Democratic party, yet is not an active politician. Socially he is an A. F. & A. M., belonging to St. Mary's Lodge No. 170. He also belongs to Tillman Chapter and Searcy Council. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Darden have been born four children: Allie (now Mrs. Dr. Moon, of Rosebud), William, Elzie and Lula.

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Dr. James M. Davie, an able and learned physician, but now retired from the active practice of his profession, is engaged in farming and stock raising on his farm, which comprises 1,000 acres, about one mile southeast of Beebe. He has something like 400 acres under cultivation and a number of acres that is yet in its wild state and very heavily covered with timber. The soil is good and is well adapted to raising all kinds of grain, and besides this property he has about 1,000 acres of equally as good land in Prairie County. He was born in Pearson County, N. C., December 13, 1830, but in 1836 came with his parents to Madison County, Tenn., and there made his home until 1856, at which time he took up his abode in Arkansas. His father, Dr. George N. Davie, was born in North Carolina of Scotch-Irish descent, his wife, Sarah Coldman, a native of North Carolina, being of Welsh lineage. The paternal grandparents, Edward and Margaret A. (Yarbrough) Davie, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of England, eloped from England to America, coming to North Carolina, and were married here. On the Davie side the family are lineal descendants of Sir Humphrey Davy. Dr. George N. Davie was born in 1800, his wife in 1805, their marriage taking place in 1829 and their deaths in 1836 and 1883, respectively, Both were finely educated, and the father was a physician and surgeon of considerable prominence, and his early death left our subject an orphan at the age of six years. His early childhood was spent on a farm and in attending the country schools, later entering higher schools, and at the age of twenty years was a pupil of the school at Huntsville, Tenn., having for a room-mate Dr. A. M. Westlake, of New York, who induced him to take up the study of medicine. They entered Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, Penn., and after an attendance of two years in that institution, graduated in the class of 1854. The two following years Dr. Davie spent in traveling over the States of Arkansas and Texas, and in 1856 located in Hickory Plains, Prairie County, Ark., and there practiced his profession one year. In 1857 he purchased his present farm in White County, but in 1861 gave up farm work to organize a company of 125 men for the State service, and was chosen captain of the same. In 1862, seeing the need of the general army, he disbanded and reorganized his company, and became connected with the regular Confederate service. He was promoted several times, and when the war closed was colonel of the Thirty-sixth Arkansas Infantry. He was badly wounded in the battle of Helena, was slightly wounded at Prairie Grove, and for several months was on post duty at Camden, and with this exception participated in all the engagements of his command. Upon hearing of Lee's surrender he stacked arms, in Teras, and started for home, and in the latter part of July, 1865, was paroled at Little Rock. He resumed the practice of his profession, regained what he had lost during the war, and until 1874 was a successful practitioner of the county, since which time he has devoted his attention to farming with the above results. He is a Democrat on general principles, but is an independent voter, and although often solicited by his friends to run for office, has always refused to do so. He is a demitted member of Beebe Lodge No. 145, of the A. F. & A. M., and also belongs to the I. O. O. F., and was connected with the Agricultural Wheel. In October, 1859, he was married to Miss Emma Z. Bowling, a native of Tennessee, their union taking place in Obion County, but her death occurred in July, 1872, she having borne four children: George C. (an intelligent and well-educated young farmer of the county), Mattie (who died in infancy), Isom [p.151] (who also died in infancy) and John C. On April 2, 1874, Mr. Davie led to the altar Caroline M. Bowling, a sister of his first wife, but on December 26, 1881, she died of that dread disease, consumption. His third union, on December 9, 1885, was to a Mrs. Hinson, a daughter of Major Thomas, one of the early settlers of Prairie County, Ark.

J. C. R. Davis is a prosperous general merchant of Rosebud, where he has been engaged in business since 1875. His store building, which he erected in 1885, is a substantial frame building, 22x60 feet, and in addition to handling merchandise, he buys and ships cotton. He has been a resident of White County, Ark., since 1874, coming from his native county of Barbour, Ala., being born in 1852. He was the youngest of nine children given to John and Mary (Mooney) Davis, the former of whom was born in North Carolina, and the latter in Georgia. Their wedding took place in the latter state in 1827, and later on they moved to Alabama (1846), and the father opened up a plantation. He died in 1871 and his wife in 1878. He and his father-in-law, Jacob Mooney, were participants in the Indian War of 1836, the latter being killed in battle. J. C. R., our subject, was reared to farm life and was educated in the schools of Alabama, being married there January 6, 1875, to Eugenie Stevens, whom he brought with him to Arkansas. By exercising judgment and ingenuity and prudence he has become the owner of 800 acres of land, lying in White, Cleburne and Faulkner Counties, and has about 200 under cultivation. Although he affiliates with the Democratic party he is not an active politician, but being the people's choice for the office of constable, he filled that position during 1877 and 1878. He is a Mason. In religion he and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. Their union has been blessed with six children, five of whom are living: John Green (who died in 1877 aged eleven months), Tay B., Ora O., Hattie C., Grover C. and M. E. Mrs. Davis is a daughter of Green and Margarette (McRae) Stevens. The father was a planter and in 1871 came to White County, Ark. Here he spent the remainder of his life, dying in 1885. His wife died in Alabama.

James D. Davis is a well-known farmer and stock raiser of Bald Knob, and came to Arkansas, locating in the woods of White County in 1871, when but nineteen years of age. The first four years he lived with J. H. Ford, while he was clearing up his farm, after which his marriage to Miss Delanie Watters was solemnized. She was born in Perry County, Ala., May 23, 1854, and is the mother of three children, two of whom are still living: William D. and Susie H. Mr. Davis first saw the light of day in Perry County, Ala., on November 26, 1852, and is the son of Huriah and Tobitha (Morris) Davis, who were also natives of Alabama, and married in that State, residing there until after the war. He enlisted in the Confederate army in 1861, in the Eighth Alabama Infantry, and died on the battlefield. Mrs. Davis then removed in 1878 with her children to Mississippi, where they remained several years, subsequently coming to Arkansas and locating in White County, where they made their home with James D., who had preceded them several years. In 1888 she went to live with a daughter at Springfield, Mo., where she now resides. She was the mother of nine children, six of whom are still living: Frances (now Mrs. Goodnight, of Mississippi), William C. (of Logan County), Caroline (wife of William Green, of Logan County), James D. (our subject), Nancy (wife of James Finney, of Springfield, Mo.) and Thomas H. (a farmer of Pope County.) Mr. and Mrs. James Davis are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, as were also his parents. In politics he is a Democrat, and also belongs to the Agricultural Wheel. He has been a very successful farmer and stock raiser, and deals in all kinds of live stock.

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John D. DeBois is a distinguished attorney at law and real-estate dealer of Judsonia, Ark., of which place he has been a resident since 1871, coming from Henry County, Tenn., where he was born in 1848. He was the elder of two children born to John and Mary C. (Guinn) DeBois, the former a native of West Virginia and the latter of North Carolina. The father was reared in the "Buckeye State" and was married in Tennessee, the latter State continuing to be his home until his death [p.152] in 1851, he having been a harness-maker by trade, and after marriage directed his attention to farming. His wife died in June, 1888, at Judsonia, Ark. John D. DeBois spent his early life on a farm and received his education in the academy of Henry, Tenn., and in the schools of Lebanon, Ohio. Upon his removal to White County, Ark., in 1871 he engaged in the mercantile business at West Point and in 1872 came to Judsonia and for some time was associated with Dr. J. S. Eastland in the drug business. During this time he began the study of law under the preceptorship of Coody & McRae, and in July, 1878, was admitted to the White County bar and has practiced continuously ever since. Since 1880 he has been in the real-estate business and now owns about 1,000 acres of land, comprising six farms, and has from 350 to 400 acres under cultivation. Mr. DeBois is a Democrat and has been a member of the State and County Conventions at different times. Socially he is a member of the Anchor Lodge No. 384, of the A. F. & A. M. In December, 1872, he was married to Miss Mollie V. Hicks, a daughter of John T. and Martha W. (Heigh) Hicks, originally from North Carolina, who came to White County, Ark., in 1854, settling in Judsonia. Mr. Hicks was a physician and surgeon of many years' standing, and while serving in the Confederate army during the late conflict between the North and South, he received a gunshot wound in the knee (in 1863) from the effects of which he died. His wife survives him, making her home in Wylie, Tex. The children born to this marriage are James Tatum, Flora Blanche, Mary Martin, Iola Opal, Duke Howard (who died in January, 1887, at the age of twenty-two months), and Pattie. Mr. DeBois has taken an active interest in school matters and has served as a member of the school board. He belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, while his wife worships with the Missionary Baptist Church, being a member of that church.

John J. Deener is a native of Virginia, and is a son of John Jacob and Tobitha (Hamolen) Deener, natives of Virginia. Mr. John Deener, Sr., was born February 25, 1790, and learned the millwright's trade when a boy, and lived in Virginia, where he married, until 1836, when they removed to Fayette County, Tenn. He then engaged in farming, in which he was very successful. Mr. Deener died in 1867, and his wife in 1849 at the age of forty-four. They were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and were the parents of seven children, three of whom are still living: Martha Ann (wife of William A. Old, deceased), John J. (our subject) and James B. The psternal grandfather of our subject was John Jacob Deener, and a native of England, and came to this country during the Revolutionary War in which he took an active part, on the side of the Americans, and served under Gen. Washington and under Gen. Francis Marion. After the war he settled in Virginia, where he died, leaving three sons: George, John Jacob and William. The Deener family as a race are of small stature. John J. Deener, our subject, was born April 22, 1830, and received his education at the Macon Masonic College, and when nineteen years of age he left school and worked on a farm, and also engaged in clerking in a store. During the war he was occupied in teaching school. After the war he went into partnership with Samuel E. Garther, of Williston, Tenn., in the mercantile business, where he remained about six years, then removing to Arkansas and locating on the farm where he has since resided. In 1883 he was elected assessor of the county, and held the office four years, also officiated as justice of the peace for twelve years while in Tennessee. Mr. Deener was married on November 13, 1851, to Miss Sarah A. Gober, who was born in Franklin County, Ga., in 1832. They were the parents of four children: Eliza Hamblin (wife of George W. Dobbins), Lula A. (wife of S. S. Putty), Richard S. (a Methodist Episcopal minister) and John J. Mr. and Mrs. Deener are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in which they take an active part. Mr. Deener also belongs to the Masonic order, and is a strong Democrat.

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G. W. Dobbins, county assessor, Searcy, Ark. Every life has a history of its own; and although in appearance it may seem to possess very little to distinguish it from others, yet Mr. Dobbins' career [p.153] as a farmer and stock raiser, as well as his experience in the political affairs of the community have contributed to give him a wide and popular acquaintance with nearly every citizen of White County–if not personally, then by name–and serves to make his career a more than ordinary one. His birth occurred in Monroe County, Ark., in 1851, and was the second in a family of three children born to A. M. C. and Frances Ann (Carlton) Dobbins, natives of North Carolina. The father was a prominent physician and surgeon, and after his marriage, which occurred in his native State, he immigrated to Tennessee, and there followed his practice until about 1850. He then moved to Monroe County, Ark., settled at Clarendon, followed his profession there until 1857, when he went to Izard County and settled at Evening Shade. He remained there until March, 1860, when he moved to North Carolina. His wife died in Izard County, Ark., on January 1, 1860, and in the fall of 1861 he enlisted in the Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment and participated in the battle of Seven Pines, where he received a gunshot wound. He was taken

prisoner at the second battle of Fredericksburg and confined at Rock Island, Ill., and was also confined at Johnstown Island, where he was paroled in June, 1865. He then returned to North Carolina, remained there until 1867, and then moved to Fayette County, Tenn., where he engaged in his practice. His death was caused by yellow fever in 1878. He was a strong temperance man. His children were named as follows: Frances Ann (now Mrs. Baxter, of Gray Township), G. W. and John M. (married and resides in Marion Township, White County). G. W. Dobbins was educated in the schools of North Carolina, and commenced for himself as a clerk in a store, where he remained two years with a salary of $8 per month. In 1869 he attended the Olin College, in Iredell County, N. C., and in 1870 went to Fayette County, Tenn., where he again engaged in clerking. This he followed until 1875 when, in that and the following year, he, in partnership with J. J. Deener, engaged in the mercantile business, thus continuing for nearly two years. He then followed farming in 1877, and the same year came to White County, Ark., where he purchased and improved a farm of 180 acres, and now has sixty-five acres under cultivation. He is raising considerable stock. He is not very active in politics but votes with the Democratic party, also with the Wheel or County Alliance, and is a member of the Agricultural Wheel. He was elected county assessor in September, 1888, and has been deputy tax collector twice, in 1885 and 1886. He has also been deputy tax assessor two terms, in 1885 and 1888. He has been a member of the school board four years, and takes an active interest in educational affairs. He was married in Fayette County, Tenn., on August 26, 1873, to Miss Eliza H. Deener, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of J. J. and Sarah A. (Gober) Deener, natives of Virginia and Georgia, respectively. Both are living at the present time, and reside in White County, whither they moved in 1877. To Mr. and Mrs. Dobbins were born these children: Lula Alma, Jessie Eva, Samuel Harold, George Milas, Mary Sadie, Shelly Gober and an infant. Mr. and Mrs. Dobbins are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he has been church secretary since 1878. He takes a deep interest in church affairs.

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Charles L. Douthat received his education at Buchanan, Botetourt County, Va., and when eighteen years old, was employed as salesman for nearly two years, and then worked at the tinners' trade for about three years. He then went to Memphis, Tenn., where he was employed as salesman in a wholesale grocery house, until 1859, when he came to West Point and started in the mercantile business, with a capital of a few hundred dollars, which he had saved out of his salary. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate army, in the First Arkansas State Troops, but which soon after disbanded, when he then joined Ben McCullock's First Arkansas Mounted Rifles, and was with that command until the close of the war. He was elected to take an official position, but preferred remaining in the ranks as a private. On coming out of the army, Mr. Douthat was financially broken, and again returned to Memphis, and was employed by a wholesale grocery house as salesman, [p.154] where he remained about two years, then returned to West Point, and entered into business with W. C. West, and afterward with A. T. Jones, with whom he was engaged for three years, then running the business alone. He has built up a large trade, and carries a fine stock of goods. Mr. Douthat was born in Rockbridge County, Va., in 1831, and was the son of William H. and Susan (Lewis) Douthat, natives of Richmond, Va., and of Irish descent, the ancestors coming to this country before the Revolutionary War. Robert Douthat, the paternal grandfather of our subject, was the owner of the Rock bridge, or Natural bridge, and was the proprietor and builder of a large woolen mill, and brought many workmen from Ireland. William H. Douthat was a prominent Mason of Virginia, and died in 1858, his wife surviving him till 1883, at the age of seventy-two years. They were the parents of twelve children, nine of whom are still living: Mary J., Robert R., Charles L. (our subject), Henry C., Susan, Fielding (now a stock raiser in Montana), Warner L. (in California), Sarah and Annie (who still lives in Virginia). In 1866 C. L. Douthat was married to Mary C. Whitney, who was born in Fayette County, Tenn., in 1842. They are the parents of three children: Effie L., Alma and Charles W., all of whom are at home. Mr. Douthat and family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He is a strong Democrat, and a prominent citizen of West Point.

William T. Dowdy, a sharpshooter in the late war, came to White County in 1855 with his father, who bought 320 acres of wild land and commenced improving it, and cleared up forty or fifty acres before the war. His father, Andrew J. Dowdy, was a native of North Carolina and came to Tennessee when he was a young man, where he was married, in 1835, to Sarah Sutherland, of Tennessee origin, and a daughter of Thomas Sutherland. After his marriage he was employed as overseer on a plantation for thirteen years. He was the father of three children: Anna E. (afterward Mrs. Barger), William T. (our subject) and James S. (deceased). William T. owes his nativity to Western Tennessee, being born in 1839, and spending his younger days in that State. He was married in White County, in 1860, to Emeline E. Barger, a native of Tennessee, and who died on December 10, 1860. He was married the second time on April 17, 1866, to Elizabeth Sessums, also of Tennessee. They are the parents of four children, two of whom are still living: Richard A. (editor of the Economist at Searcy, Ark.) and James A. Mr. Dowdy enlisted in 1861 for twelve months, and afterward for four years or during the war, in Company D, of the Thirty-first Arkansas Infantry, and was one of the Confederate sharpshooters who did such valuable service for the Confederate cause. He took an active part in the battles of Corinth, Stone River, Chickamauga and a number of others, and was taken prisoner on July 22, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga., and then to Camp Chase, Ohio, when he was released on parole, February 12, 1865, and went to Richmond, where he received a furlough. He then went to Western Tennessee, where he remained until the close of the war. He then returned home and has since engaged in farming. He owns a farm of 200 acres, with sixty-five acres under cultivation. Mr. and Mrs. Dowdy are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Dowdy is also connected with the County Wheel. of which he has been chaplain since first entering the society. He is also a constituent of the Centre Hill Lodge No. 114, of the Masonic order. Mrs. Dowdy was a daughter of Richard J. and Rachel (Little) Sessums. Mr. Sessums was born in North Carolina in 1805 and died in 1863. He was married in 1833, and was the father of five children.

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R. A. Dowdy is editor and publisher of The Arkansas Economist, the official journal of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union of Arkansas, Searcy, Ark. Mr. Dowdy has had charge of the paper since its name was so called, or during 1889. It was made the official organ July 26, 1889, at Hot Springs, and it has quite a circulation and is building up a good State circulation. Prior to the above-mentioned date it was a local paper. Mr. Dowdy took charge of the paper in May, 1888; was partner until April 1 of the following year, [p.155] when he purchased the full interest in it. The paper was organized in October, 1887, under the name of "White County Wheel," and remained thus until after the meeting at Hot Springs, when it was issued under the present name in August, 1889. Mr. Dowdy was born in Des Arc Township, White County, Ark., in 1868 and is the eldest in a family of four children born to the marriage of William T. and C. E. (Sessums) Dowdy, natives of Tennessee and Kentucky, respectively. The father came to White County, Ark., in 1859, settled in Des Arc Township, and here met and married Miss Sessums. Both are now living and reside in White County. R. A. Dowdy received his education in the district schools, and then took a course in Quitman College in 1885. After leaving college he engaged in teaching in Cleburne County for a few terms but later engaged in editorial work on his present paper. Socially, Mr. Dowdy is a member of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union, and takes a deep interest in all things pertaining to the good of the county.

T. A. Duncan enjoys the reputation of being not only a substantial and progressive farmer, but an intelligent and thoroughly posted man on all matters of public interest. In his dealings with his fellow-men he has been upright and honorable, and his character will stand any investigation which may be given it. His native birthplace was Jackson County, Ala., where he first saw the light of day in 1830, he being the eldest of eight children born to Jesse and Nancy E. (White) Duncan, who were Tennesseeans, the father reared at Nashville and the mother near Winchester. They were married in Tennessee and at an early day removed to Alabama, and here Jesse Duncan followed the occupation of millwrighting and erected one of the first mills in the county, also opening a large plantation. He died in 1884 and his wife in 1883. Their children are; T. A. (living in White County, Ark.), W. R. (who is married and resides in Texas), James H. (married and living in Alabama), J. C. (married and living in Kansas), Mary (Mrs. Selby, living near Iuka, Miss.) and Elizabeth (who also resides at Iuka). T. A. Duncan's early life was like the majority of farmers' boys, and he assisted his father in clearing up the home farm and began that work for himself at the age of nineteen in Alabama. He was married in Jackson County, of that State, in January, 1849, to S. B. Pace, and upon the opening of the war he enlisted from Jackson County in the Confederate army, for three years, or during the war, becoming a member of Berry's artillery. He was in the battle of Peach Orchard Gap (Ga.), Jackson (Miss.), Resaca, and was taken prisoner at Spanish Fort and sent to Ship Island and afterward to Vicksburg. Upon being paroled in 1865 he returned to Jackson County, Ala., and in 1872 came to White County, Ark., and bought a timber tract of 180 acres which he began clearing and upon which he erected good buildings. He has 110 acres of his 400-acre farm under cultivation, all of which he has cleared since coming to the county. He is a Democrat, has been magistrate nine years, and taken an interest in the finance of the county, which was in bad shape at that time, and succeeded in settling affairs. He is also a member of the school board, and has always taken a deep interest in school matters. He and wife are the parents of the following children: William F. (who is married and resides in White County, Ark.), Cassie (who died in 1885 at the age of twenty-eight years, was married to Mr. Holleman), B. E. (who is married and lives in the county), J. J. (married and living in Cleburne County), Minta (who married A. J. Holleman after the death of Cassie, and lives in White County, Ark.), Nancy (Mrs. J. F. Lawrence), C. A. (who married F. W. Raney, and also lives in White County), Mila and Jo (still with their parents). Mrs. Duncan's parents, William and Elizabeth (Wininger) Pace, were both members of old Virginia families, and moved to Alabama about the year 1827, being among the earliest to enter land in that State. The father died in 1870 and his wife one year later.

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James Dupriest is a farmer and ginner of Marshall Township, and owns 850 acres of land, of which 300 acres are under fence, 200 in pasture, and 100 acres under cultivation. He is a native of Georgia, his birth occurring in 1821. His father, Martin Dupriest, was also of Georgia [p.156] origin, where he was educated and subsequently married, and to this union was born a family of eight children. James D. was a twin, being sixth in order of birth and a prosperous boy. He lived in Georgia until 1840, when he moved to Alabama with his father, locating in Coosa County and there remained seventeen years. He was married to Sarah Malcolm and moved to Arkansas in 1856, and by her had two children who died in infancy. His ife died in 1864 and in 1865 was married to his second wife, Mrs. Louisa Henry, and to this union has been born a family of seven children: Ebbie, Burton, Thomas, Cathron, Cullen, McFerrin, Joseph. His second wife had one son by her first marriage, Fenton Henry, he being a thoroughly and highly educated man. James Dupriest honors the Democrats with his vote and takes quite an interest in politics though not an enthusiast; he is also a Mason, belonging to the Blue Lodge. Himself and wife worship with the Methodist Church to which they belong.

Dr. J. S. Eastland is one of the foremost physicians and surgeons of White County, Ark., and his practice lies among the wealthiest and most intelligent people of the county. He has been a resident of Judsonia since March, 1872, having, prior to this, been a resident of Richland County, Wis. He was born in Hinds County, Miss., December 18, 1844, and was the second of a family of ten children born to David J. and Mary E. (Cameron) Eastland, the father born in Genesee County, N. Y., and the mother in Hinds County, Miss. When a young man the father went to the vicinity of Schoolcraft, Mich., and at the age of twenty years removed to Mississippi, and was engaged in teaching school in an academy at Cayuga, and was married there about the year 1841. From 1852 until the present time he has been engaged in milling in Richmond County, and is making his home on a large farm which he purchased near Sextonville. Dr. J. S. Eastland was about eight years old when he was taken to Wisconsin, and he received his education in the schools of Richland County. In 1868 he enlisted at Madison, Wis., in Company H, Seventeenth Wisconsin Infantry, and was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. He was a participant in the engagements at Chattanooga, Resaca, Buzzard's Roost, Kenesaw Mountain, and was with Sherman in his memorable march to the sea, and in the Carolina campaign. He was at the grand review at Washington, D. C., but received his discharge at Madison, Wis., in June, 1865. After returning home he began reading medicine, and took a course in the Eclectic Medical Institute during the winter of 1869-70. The following year he entered Blakely Hospital of Philadelphia, Penn., and after graduating the same year he came to Arkansas, taking up his abode in Randolph County, but only remained there until 1872, since which time he has been a resident of White County. In September, 1886, he opened a fine drug store at Judsonia, which is in a flourishing condition, and in addition to managing this establishment and practicing his profession, he is employed as surveyor of the Iron Mountain Railroad. He is a Democrat, a member of the board of medical examiners of White County, and socially is a member of Anchor Lodge No. 384, of the A. F. & A. M., and was Worshipful Master of the lodge for some years. He was married in White County, in 1873, to Miss Samantha W. Boatwright, a native of White County, and a daughter of Charles W. and Virginia (Subbaugh) Boatwright, who were natives of Virginia. In 1856 they settled at West Point, White County, Ark., but Mr. Boatwright is now residing at Jonesboro, Ark. The mother died in 1889. When Dr. Eastland first came to White County the country was, in a great measure, unsettled, and there was a great deal of sickness among the settlers, but it is now much healthier. Mrs. Eastland is a member of the Baptist Church.

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J. W. Edie. Among the early settlers of Judsonia will be found the name of J. W. Edie, who came from Buchanan County, Iowa, and settled in the town in 1873. After following the lumber business for some twelve years he began making a specialty of sash, doors and blinds, and does an extensive business. He was born in Harrison County, Ohio, December 6, 1834, and is the eldest of two children born to Thomas and Levina (Palmer) Edie, who were born in the "Keystone [p.157] State." They immigrated to Ohio with their parents in 1819 and 1821, respectively, and were married in that State in February, 1834. The father was a farmer, and followed that occupation both in Ohio and after removing to Iowa in 1853, in the latter State paying much of his attention to the manufacture of lumber also. These occupations received his attention until his removal to Judsonia in 1877, and from that time until his death, in February, 1883, he lived a retired life. His wife survives him. The paternal grandparents, James and Mary (Ward) Edie, were born in Pennsylvania and England, respectively, and settled in the State of Ohio, in 1819; the great-grandfather was a Scotchman. The maternal grandparents, James and Margaret (Arnold) Palmer, were born in Maryland, and moved to Ohio in 1821, from which State they removed to Iowa in 1853, making the latter their home until his death in 1857, at the age of eighty-one years. He was a soldier in the War of 1812. His wife died, in 1868, at the age of eighty-three years. The children of Thomas and Levina Edie are: Margaret (now Mrs. Wagner, of Judsonia, whose husband is in the Government employ) and our subject (who was reared on his father's farm and received his education in the schools of Ohio. After his removal to Iowa with his parents, he resided there until 1856, when he was married, in Buchanan County, to Miss Rebecca J., a daughter of Joseph and Mary (Garner) Chitester, of Pennsylvania. The father was a millwright, and in 1845 moved to Shawneetown, Ill., and, in 1850, to Iowa. Since 1885 they have resided in Judsonia, Ark., and have passed the sixtieth milestone of their wedded life. After his marriage, Mr. Edie made his home in Iowa until 1873, then came to Judsonia and engaged in business as mentioned above. He is not an active politician, but votes the Democratic ticket, and has been mayor of the town in which he lives three terms, and has also been a member of the city school board. Socially he is a member of Anchor Lodge No. 384, of the A. F. & A. M., and has been Worshipful Master of his order. He belongs to Tillman Chapter No. 19, and Occidental Council No. 1. Mr. and Mrs. Edie are worthy members of the Baptist Church, and their union has been blessed in the birth of eight children, seven being now alive: Silas A. (died in 1878, at the age of twenty-two years), C. F. (is unmarried, and is an engineer on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad), Ida (now Mrs. McDearman, lives in Judsonia), T. M. (is married, and lives in the town; a carpenter and joiner by trade), Ada Aletha (Mrs. Sims), A. J. (a resident of Little Rock), Eva (Mrs. Croy, of Darke County, Ohio) and Stella. Mr. Edie is public-spirited, and is a member of the board of directors of the Judsonia University.

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William H. Edwards. Among the many old settlers of White County, Ark., there is none more highly esteemed than the subject of this sketch, for in his walk through life he has been honest and upright in every particular. He was born in Madison County, Tenn., August 7, 1811, and is a son of Sanford and Mary (Thetford) Edwards, both of whom were born in Greenville District, S. C., the former in 1787 and the latter in 1805. They were married in Tennessee, reared their family in the western portion of that State and there spent their lives, the father's death occurring in 1874 and the mother's in 1869. They were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and he was a soldier in the War of 1812, and in his political views was an old line Whig, but was not an enthusiast in politics, being one of those quiet men whose life was without reproach. Their family was as follows: Nancy (deceased, was born in 1806 and became the wife of a Mr. Fussell), Anderson (deceased, was born in 1808), William H. (the subject of this memoir), James F. (deceased, was born in 1814 and died in May, 1889, a farmer of White County), Rebecca (deceased, was born in 1817, and was the wife of James Stowbuck, a blacksmith of Tennessee), Ina (deceased, was born in 1819), Joseph (was born in 1822, and is a farmer of White County), Elizabeth (was born in 1823 and is the wife of Enoch Terry, of Texas), Sophronia (deceased, was born in 1828 and is the wife of William Tedford), and Sanford (who was born in 1831 and is a farmer of Tennessee). William H. Edwards received very poor chances for acquiring an education, owing to the newness of the country [p.158] during his youth and to the fact that his services were required on the home farm. On June 4, 1835, he was married to Miss Lucinda Dockins, and to them were born the following children: James M. (a farmer of White County, born in 1836), William L. (born in 1837), George W. (born in 1839) and Mary E. and Rebecca J. (twins, born in 1841, Rebecca being the widow of James Powers), Mrs. Edwards died in 1844 and January 28, 1846, Mr. Edwards married Lucinda Wilson, daughter of James Wilson. She was

born in Tennessee in 1825 and by Mr. Edwards became the mother of four children: Sarah Ann (born in 1847 and died the same year), Joseph M. (residing near his father, was born in December, 1848), Susan A. (was born September 26, 1851, and died August 1, 1852), an infant (died, unnamed) and Noah A. (who was born November 15, 1854, and is a farmer of this county). After his marriage Mr. Edwards worked for his father two years and then began tilling his father's farm for himself, continuing until 1852, when he purchased a farm of his own, on which he resided for seven years. Since that date he has resided in White County, and in 1860 purchased the farm of 160 acres where he now lives. He has seventy acres under cultivation and his farm is well adapted to raising all kinds of farm produce. He was reared a Whig, but since the war, in which he served on the Confederate side three years, he has been a Democrat. He became a Mason at Stony Point twenty-six years ago, but is at present a member of Beebe Lodge No. 145, A. F. & A. M., and has held every office in that order. He is also a valued member of the Agricultural Wheel and has always taken hold of every movement that had for its object the social or educational welfare of the community in which he resided. He has ever lived in peace and harmony with his neighbors and he and family are worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Thomas J. Edwards. Hayden S. Edwards, the esteemed father of the subject of this memoir, was born in Shelby County, Ky., on April 2, 1811, and was a son of Rev. James P. Edwards, one of the first Baptist ministers that came to the State of Arkansas. He was also a surveyor and came to this State to assist a corps of engineers, and was over a large part of the State. Hayden S. was married to Miss Mary Lumkins, a native of Knox County, Tenn., on January 26, 1832, and in 1853 removed to Arkansas, locating in White County, on the farm now owned by his son, Thomas J., who took charge of the farm and cared for his parents the latter years of their lives. Hayden Edwards was a school-teacher in his younger days, and also served in the Mexican War as wagon master. He was a strong Democrat and a member of the Masonic order, and was connected with the Missionary Baptist Church, as was also his wife. He died in 1887. His wife was born in 1815, and died in 1882, leaving a family of six children, Thomas J., the principal of this sketch, being the only one living. He was born in Ballard County, Ky., on April 17, 1841. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate army, under Col. Patterson, and took part in all of the battles in the Missouri raid. He was wounded at Little Rock, and was taken prisoner but soon escaped. After the close of hostilities he returned home and found his family stripped of every thing of value, and as he was without means he was obliged to start from the beginning, but with a will that overcame all obstacles has risen to an eminence of success, and is now the owner of 280 acres of land in the old homestead and eighty south of Bald Knob, and has about 130 under cultivation. In 1884 he was married to Miss Ida N. Maxwell, a daughter of Joseph Maxwell, and who is the mother of one daughter, Mary Stokes, who was born February 5, 1885. Mrs. Edwards is a member of the Methodist Church. Mr. Edwards is a Democrat and a prominent citizen of White County.

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James H. Edwards, one of White County's leading citizens, is a son of James and Eliza (Simmon) Edwards, natives of Haywood County, Tenn., who moved to Arkansas in 1850, and located in White County, and later moved to Cleburne County, where Mr. Edwards, Sr., still lives, in his sixty-eighth year. He is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church, and also of the Masonic order. He is still engaged in farming, and [p.159] owns 460 acres of fine land. His wife died on August 26, 1889, at the age of sixty-two. They were the parents of fourteen children, ten of whom are still living: John F., Thomas H., Tennie (wife of J. W. Blasingim), James H. (our subject), Mary J. (wife of J. R. Fortner), Martha Ann (wife of Frank Epps), Ann Eliza (wife of Richard Davis), Nannie, Benjamin and Henry. James H. Edwards claims White County as his birthplace, his birth occurring on April 26, 1854, and remained on his father's farm until twenty-seven years of age, though part of the time was spent in farming for himself. He married Miss Emma Fortner, a daughter of J. E. and Mary C. Fortner, and who was born in White County, in 1861. Joseph E. Fortner was born in Wayne County, N. C., December 4, 1812, and died in White County, Ark., July 5, 1888. In 1832 he was genuinely and soundly converted to God and joined the Presbyterian Church. After a few years of devotion to that branch of God's church he joined the Methodist Church, in which he kept his membership until God called him home. From North Carolina he moved to Tennessee, and from there to Arkansas, where he lived for thirty-four years, being among the pioneers of this country. He was the father of fifteen children. His seat was never vacant at church, unless sickness kept him away. Mr. and Mrs. Edwards are the parents of two children: Adga May and Hollice Taylor. He owns a fine farm which is well under cultivation, and has been a very successful and highly respected citizen. Himself and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Politically he is a prominent Democrat, and also belongs to the County Wheel.

Thomas B. Ellis. Benjamin Ellis was a native of the Old Dominion, where he was married to Mary Malone, also of that State. They removed to Kentucky in 1807 or 1808, and the following year moved to Alabama, where they made their home until their death, Mrs. Ellis passing away in 1853 and Mr. Ellis in the following year. They were the parents of eleven children: Benjamin R. (married and residing in Shelby County, Tenn.), Sallie M. (Harris), Nancy H. (Norris), Mary H. (deceased), Thomas B. (the subject of this sketch), James B. and William T. (both deceased), Joseph F. and John W. (residents of Alabama). Thomas B. Ellis was born in Madison County, Ala., in 1820, where he resided for over thirty years, and where he was married to Judith A. Critz, of Alabama, who died in 1850, leaving two children: Mary E. (now Mrs. Hussey, of Searcy, White County) and Olivia C. (now Mrs. Goodlow, also of that place). Mr. Ellis was married the second time, in 1851, to Mary A. Corrington, of Marshall County, Miss., who died in 1860, leaving three daughters: Sarah A. (Mrs. Menus, residing near Nashville, Tenn.), Martha E. (now Mrs. Lanier, of Searcy), Roberta A. (now Mrs. Dickey, residing near the old homestead). His third and present wife, was Mary A. Montgomery, a daughter of Edward and Tobitha Montgomery, of White County, Ark., to whom he was married in 1860. They are the parents of four children: Virgil B., Nora, Thomas B. and John E. (deceased). Mr. Ellis came to Arkansas in 1856, settling in Des Arc Township, White County, where he bought a farm of 560 acres with 110 cleared, and on which he still lives. He enlisted in 1861 as a forager, in which capacity he served a short time, and was then given an honorable discharge on account of age. He returned to his farm, which he found in a state of decay and dilapidation. He has since resided on the farm and been very successful as a farmer, remaining here until the last year, when he removed to Centre Hill and started in the grocery business. Mr. Ellis is a member of the Masonic order, and belongs to Centre Hill Lodge No. 114, and is Master of his lodge. Mr. Ellis and family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Ellis is a prominent Democrat, and held the office of constable shortly

after the war.

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James Figg was born in Gates County, N. C., January 31, 1804, and received a practical education in the schools of his native State. He was married March 19, 1829, to Miss Margaret Lewis of North Carolina, who was born March 19, 1809. To their union ten children were given: Mary J. (deceased), Sophia A. (Mrs. W. H. Hallford), F. C. (Mrs. Samuel Gray, deceased), John L. (now residing in Alabama), one child who died in [p.160] infancy (unnamed), Martha R. (who married F. M. Rice), George A. (deceased), Emma J. (Mrs. L. Byrd), Joseph J. and Mary E. Mr. Figg was a man who took an active interest in political affairs, being a Whig up to the time of the war, and a strong secessionist. A farmer and mechanic by occupation, he owned 120 acres of land highly cultivated at the date of his demise. He was a Master Mason and had held office as Tyler in Newton Lodge No. 224, in Alabama, and was a member of Mount Pisgah Lodge No. 242 in Arkansas at the time of his death, which occurred February 10, 1873. He and wife were members of the Methodist Church, South, and he was one of the prominent factors in organizing the church in the neighborhood where he lived; ever taking an active interest in all church and educational matters. Joseph J. Figg received his education in Alabama, and at the age of twenty-one immigrated to Arkansas and settled in White County, where he is now residing. Reaching an age where he realized that it was not good for man to be alone, he selected for his life's companion Miss Mary F. Andrews, who was born February 16, 1853, a daughter of Benjamin and Elizabeth Andrews. Their marriage was consummated January 13, 1875, and five children have blessed their union: Lelia V. (born May 20, 1877), James L. (born February 2, 1879), Robert G. (born June 20, 1881), Maggie E. (born November 22, 1883), and one who died in infancy. Mr. Figg is a farmer and school-teacher, and owns 120 acres of hill and bottom land, with twenty-five acres under cultivation. He is Master Mason, and has held office as Junior Deacon for one term in Mount Pisgah Lodge No. 242; he was also formerly a member of the Wheel, but has recently resigned. During his connection with that order he acted as secretary of the lodge; he has held the office of justice of the peace for three consecutive terms in the township in which he resides, serving in an acceptable manner. Mrs. Figg is a consistent member and an earnest worker of the Baptist Church.

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W. E. Fisher. It has long been acknowledged that, no matter what a man's occupation in life may be if his energies are directed toward advancing the interests of the community in which he resides, he is a useful and respected and prominent man. W.E.'s early life was surrounded with many hardships and privations, and his early education was acquired by reading at night by the flickering light of a brush fire after his day's work was done. Upon commencing life for himself the occupation he had been taught when young naturally became his by adoption, and he now owns 353 acres with about 155 acres under cultivation. Mr. Fisher was born in Wilson County, Tenn., November 25, 1819, and on August 11, 1840, he was married to Miss Martha Adkinson, her death occurring on September 19, 1852, after having borne a family of seven children: Anderson L. (born August 23, 1841, was married to Miss Martha Canada, became the father of six children, and is a farmer of White County), David (born in 1843 and died in infancy), David L. (born September 19, 1844), Cordelia M. (was born December 23, 1846; first married John Winford, by whom she became the mother of three children, and after his death she wedded John Drenon), Amanda J. (was born February 14, 1849, and married Thomas Martin, a farmer of Pope County, becoming the other of seven children), Eliza J. (was born February 16, 1851, and married Paton Burris, who left her a widow with one child, and she afterward married Frank Massey, a farmer of Searcy County). In January, 1855, Mr. Fisher wedded Mrs. Susan Brown, of Carroll County, but she too died on May 31 of the following year. He espoused his third wife, Miss Harriet Agours, of Fayette County, Tenn., June 24, 1857, and their children are as follows: Mary E. (born June 30, 1863, is the wife of S. J. Crabtree, editor of the Arkansaw Hub at Beebe, by whom she has one child living and two children deceased), Martha E. (was born April 2, 1858, and is the wife of James Martin, who keeps a meat market in Brinkley), Laura E. (was born February 23, 1865, and wedded John Watson, and they also have one child living and one deceased), Harriett A. (was born October 25, 1867, and is the wife of John Shelton, only one of their two children being now alive), George W. (born September 27, 1859), Joseph E. (born [p.161] April 7, 1861), Maggie

(deceased), Sallie (born November 13, 1871) and Jimmie (born July 16, 1873), All Mr. Fisher's children have received good school advantages and are intelligent young people. Our subject removed with his family to Arkansas on November 23, 1860, and located about three-quarters of a mile west of the farm on which he is now living, where he purchased 162 acres of land, and after making his home here for about nine years he bought the farm on which he is now residing. Mr. Fisher affiliated with the Democrat party until 1885, when he united with the Agricultural Wheel, and has been a member of the State Deputy Organization and has also served faithfully and well in the capacity of State lecturer. At the present time he is chairman of the State Central Committee. He is a man who has always taken a deep interest in public affairs, and is well informed in all matters pertaining to county, State and national matters, taking that side in politics which he deemed best calculated to promote the interests of the people. He has served his county in the State legislature and filled this position to the entire satisfaction of his constituents. He holds membership in Beebe Lodge No. 144, of the A. F. & A. M., and has served as Senior Warden and is a Royal Arch Mason of El Paso Lodge. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, as are also eleven of their children. Mr. Fisher is a son of Anderson Fisher and Sinie Johnson, the former of English ancestry, his people having come from England prior to the Revolutionary War. Anderson Fisher was a scout under Gen. Jackson in the War of 1812, and for a few years prior to his death drew a pension, although he had refused to do so up to that time. He died in 1876 at the age of eighty-three years, four months and six days. He was the father of ten children: Jeremiah, Eliza, Sarah, James, W. E., Leonard B., Elizabeth, John H., Anderson M., Lucinda A., and Cordelia, who died in infancy, the remainder of the family growing to manhood and womanhood.

J. B. Foreman is a successful planter of South Carolina nativity, and has been a resident of White County, Ark., since 1859. He was born in York District, in 1836, and was the third in a family of seven children born to the marriage of James T. and Elizabeth Luraney (Rowell) Foreman, who were also born in York District, S. C., and were there married. The father was a planter and the year following his wife's death, which occurred in South Carolina, October 6, 1859, he removed to White County, Ark., where he became the owner of 620 acres of timber land. He died on this farm March 26, 1873, and left three children to mourn his loss: William Rowell (who is married and resides in Howard County, Ark.), Elizabeth L. (who is a Mrs. Mann and lives in the county) and J. B. The latter left South Carolina, a young man, and came direct to White County and purchased 160 acres of land on credit, but before getting it in shape to be tilled was compelled to rent land. In 1862 he joined Company B, Gen. McRae's regiment, and was in the battles of Helens, Prairie Grove, Little Rock and Cache River, and then joined the cavalry under Col. A. R. Witt, and was in the Missouri raid, taking part in the battles of Pilot Knob, Jefferson City, Independence, Kansas City and thence to Fayetteville. Upon his return home he resumed farming, and has opened up sixty acres of land. He is a Democrat, a member of the Agricultural Wheel, a Mason, belonging to St. Mary's Lodge No. 170 of the A. F. & A. M., and he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He was married in White County, in October, 1860, to Martha Ellen, a daughter of Valentine and Alice (Carr) Harlan, who were born in Georgia, the father a farmer and carpenter by trade. He came to White County, Ark., in 1857, and here died in 1873, his wife dying November 18, 1877. Mr. and Mrs. Foreman have these children: James V. (a resident of Kentucky), William Edward (in Kentucky), Ann H., Martha E., Wade H., Bernie P. and Alice E. Mary E. died August 80, 1886, when nearly five years old.

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John C. Fussell, farmer and stock raiser. The life of this gentleman affords an example which might well be imitated by the young men of the present day, for his capital on commencing life [p.162] for himself was limited, and throughout his career he has been industrious and frugal. He was born in Madison County, Tenn., February 23, 1845, and was brought to Arkansas by his parents in 1859, they having been married in 1840. They first settled on railroad land in White County, but later pre-empted 160 acres of wild land and began building a home, but traded this in 1876 for eighty acres where our subject, John C., now lives. Wyatt Fussell, the father, prior to coming to Arkansas, was a business man of Jackson, Tenn., and kept one of the best livery stables in the place. He was marshal of the town for several years, and in his political views was an old line Whig. He and wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Mattox, were members of the Baptist Church, and their deaths occurred in Arkansas, August 12, 1889, and Tennessee, in 1853, respectively. Of six children born to them four lived to be grown: William N. (who is a physician of Denmark, Tenn.), John C., Elmira (deceased, the wife of J. J. Rogers, a farmer of Lonoke County) and Mary E. (the wife of J. B. Shelton, of White County). John C. Fussell was reared to a farm life, and although his facilities for acquiring an education were very poor, he acquired a thorough knowledge of the three R's. Until twenty-five years of age he worked for his father and sisters, then was married to Miss Mary E. Powers, a daughter of A. M. Powers, a farmer of Tennessee, who came to Arkansas in 1860. Their union resulted in the birth of three children, two of whom are living: Jam**** W. (a young man residing with his father) and Betty O. Jennie died in childhood. Mr. Fussell is a man who has always been interested in the welfare of his county, and always supports enterprises which tend to benefit the same. He is a member of Stony Point Lodge No. 20, of the Agricultural Wheel. His wife is a daughter of A. M. and Eliza (Moore) Powers, who were Tennesseeans, and as above stated came to Arkansas in 1860, locating near Beebe, where he became the owner of a large number of slaves, and resided for fourteen years. He and his wife reared a family of eight children to manhood and womanhood, their names being as follows: Mary E. (Mrs. Fussell), Robert (a mechanic), Nancy (wife of William L. Edwards, a farmer of White County), Martha (wife of James Edwards, also a farmer), Jennie (widow of William Hartbrooks), William (a farmer of Beebe) and Sophia (is wife of John Lestie, of Lonoke County).

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Uriah E. Gentry is a native of South Carolina and a son of Cornelius and Mary (Johnson) Gentry, also natives of that State, where they lived until after their marriage, removing thence to Georgia when our subject was a child. Later they became located in Tennessee, and in 1836 in Alabama, where the father died in 1842 at the age of thirty-nine. After this unhappy event Mrs. Gentry went to Mississippi with her family and located on the head waters of the Tom Bigbee River, going in 1856 to Texas, and remaining until 1868 when they came to Arkansas, settling in Independence County. The family consisted of nine children the following being the only ones living at this time: Susanah (now Mrs. Provence), Thomas, Uriah E., M. V. and Parthenia (wife of Elisha Bass). Uriah E. Gentry was born in Spartanburg, S. C., on July 12, 1830, and continued with his mother until twenty-two years of age when he commenced for himself as a farmer. In 1863 he enlisted in the Confederate army, in the Twenty-ninth Texas Cavalry, in which he served only a short time, having received a wound; after this he was put on detached duty. Upon the close of the war he rented a farm in Texas for two years, but coming to Independence County, Ark., here bought a farm and remained until 1874 when he sold out and located in White County. He now owns a farm of 200 acres with a large portion of it under cultivation, and has also helped his boys in getting a substantial start in life. Mr. Gentry was married after reaching manhood to Mary Davis, who died in 1864, leaving a family of children, two of whom only are living: Robert C. (a farmer of this county) and Louisa (the wife of a Mr. Saulefor, of Independence County). In 1865 he was married to Miss Winnie Bass, who died in 1868, having borne two children: Thomas R. and Jerry L., both farmers of this county. In 1869 Miss Elizabeth Thomas became Mr. Gentry's third wife. She died in 1872. In 1873 his fourth [p.163] matrimonial venture resulted in his marriage to Miss Estelle Churchwell. They are the parents of six children: Carrie L., Mary T., Sallie, Jessie B., Ora B. and Mattie J. Mr. and Mrs. Gentry are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The former belongs to the Masonic order, and is a prominent Democrat. He is recognized as one of the leading men of his township and enjoys a well-deserved popularity.

M. N. Gentry, groceryman, Searcy, Ark. The family grocery trade of Searcy is well represented by honorable commercial men, who are full of enterprise. Among those who hold a leading position in this line is Mr. Gentry, firmly established in his business and enjoying an excellent trade. He carries a full line of queensware, groceries, etc., and started his house in 1876. In April, 1882, he was burned out, and in the same year erected a good one-story brick building, 100x25 feet. Mr. Gentry moved to Independence County, Ark., in 1868, remained a short time, and in the same year moved to West Point, White County, where he resided until 1869. He then moved to Gray Township and followed farming. He owes his nativity to Tishomingo County, Miss., where he was born in 1856, being the third in a family of four children, the result of the union of N. J. and Jane (Eaton) Gentry, natives of South Carolina and Alabama, respectively. The father when a boy moved to Alabama, was married in that State, and followed agricultural pursuits for a livelihood. In 1856 he moved to Red River County, Tex., remained there until 1866, then moved to McLennan County, where he resided until 1868. He then moved to Independence County, Ark., and later to White County, purohased land, improved it, and in 1876 engaged in business

under the firm name of Ward & Gentry, which title continued until 1878, after which it was changed to Gentry & Son, remaining so until 1887. The father died in June of that year. Socially he was a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M. The mother is still living, and resides at Searcy. Since 1887 the firm title has been M. N. Gentry. The children of the above-mentioned couple are named as follows: W. C. (married, and resides in Navarro County, Tex., engaged in farming), J. T. (married, residing at Hillside, Tex., and is a railroad agent), M. N. and Mary (who resides in Searcy). Mr. Gentry was reared to farm life, and received his education in the schools of Texas, and in White County, Ark., attending one year in Searcy. He assisted his father in clearing and developing the home place, and remained on the farm until he engaged in business in 1876. Socially he is a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., and served as Junior Warden for six years, Senior Warden for one year, and Worshipful Master for two years. He is at present one of the masters of ceremonies. He served four years as a member of the city council, one of which was known as the Dade council, and during that year sheds were erected over the springs. Mr. Gentry takes an active interest in everything for the good of the county. He aids in all enterprises for the public good, and is one of the substantial citizens.

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C. S. George, clerk of the county and probate court, Searcy, Ark., is well known to the residents of White County, as one, who, in all his relations to the public, has proven himself faithful to the trusts committed to him. Whether in his private or official capacity no taint of dishonor can be found. He was born in Coahoma County, Miss., in January, 1853, being the fourth of eight children, born to C. L. and Catherine M. (McDermott) George, natives of Kentucky and Ohio, respectively. The parents were married at Helena, Ark., and later settled in Mississippi, where the father followed agricultural pursuits. His father took an active part in politics, was clerk of Phillips County, Ark., was also assessor in the early history of the county, and county judge of Coahoma County, Miss., and in 1867 moved to Lawrence County, Ark., where he purchased an improved farm. From there he moved to Searcy, in 1876, lived a retired life, and there died in November, 1881. His excellent wife still survives and resides in Searcy. O. S. George was reared to the arduous duties of the farm, and received a fair education in the schools of Mississippi and Arkansas. He commenced for himself as deputy clerk of Lawrence County, Ark., in 1871, served two years and [p.164] moved to White County, Ark., in 1876, locating at Searcy. He then entered the office as deputy county clerk in 1880, served eight years, and in 1888 he was elected clerk of the county, having the honor of being the only one elected on the Democratic ticket. He has been connected with the recorda of White County longer than any one else now living. He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity, Searcy Lodge No. 49, is also a member of Tillman Chapter No. 19, R. A. M. Mr. George was married in Searcy, in February, 1880, to M. B. Isbell, a native of White County, and two children living are the fruits of this union: Herbert L. and Leland S. Those deceased were named: Lillie (who died in 1882) and Charley (who died in 1884). Mr. George is a member of the school board, and takes an active interest in all that pertains to the good of the community. Mrs. George is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Robert N. Gill, though one of the younger citizens of the county, has risen to a worthy place among its farmers and merchants. He was born in Tennessee in the year 1855, and is the oldest in a family of five children in the family of W. F. and Ollie A. (McDowell) Gill. The former was a native of Tennessee, and spent his life in farming, which occupation proved very successful to him. Moving to Marshall Township, White County, Ark., in 1853, he purchased 300 acres of land, and at once proceeded to carefully cultivate this property. His wife died in Arkansas in 1875, leaving five children: Robert, James N., Ellen, Molly, and Georgia A. Mr. Gill subsequently married again and reared a family of four children; he was called to his final home in 1889. Robert N. passed his early life on a farm, and received a good education in the schools of Arkansas. He was married in 1874 to Miss Johanna Thompson, daughter of Henry Thompson, and a native of Arkansas. To their union six children have been born: Frank M., Ora B., Olie E., Johnie M., Jessie Lee and Elmer. Mr. Gill is an expert mechanic, and has built many houses in the country, which are excellent specimens of his skill. In 1887 he embarked in merchandising business in Romance, where he carries a large and carefully selected stock, and is building up a substantial and lucrative trade, also owning a fine farm of 120 acres, of which seventy-five acres are under cultivation. He has observed a very great change in the country since taking up his residence here, and in the general growth and advancement has borne a faithful share. In politics Mr. Gill is a Democrat, and with his wife worships at the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Emmet O. Gilliam was the fifth son in a family of six children, of William and Mary (Spencer) Gilliam, natives of Virginia and North Carolina, respectively. William Gilliam was at one time a resident of Mississippi, and later became settled in Tennessee, finally coming to White County, Ark., where he opened up a farm of 160 acres, in Gray Township. After remaining here for three years, he sold out and moved to Des Are Township. The children of himself and wife were named: Albert A., William S., Robert H., Leona L. (deceased), Emmet O. (our subject) and Edward C. Emmet O. Gilliam was born February 8, 1860, in White County, on the farm where he now lives. Consequently he is numbered among the community's younger citizens. In 1880 he took charge of the old homestead, consisting of 160 acres, of which 100 acres are under a high state of cultivation. Mr. Gilliam is a strong Democrat, and although a young man in years, takes an active and influential interest in politics. His energy and determination promise to render him one of the leading men of his county.

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James Monroe Gist, M. D., medical practitioner and a resident of Beebe, Ark., was born December 31, 1833, in Carroll County, Tenn., being a son of Joseph B. and Dorcas (Mitchell) Gist, the former of English descent. In 1739 the Gists first came to America and Dr. Gist can trace his ancestry back five generations. Grandfather Mitchell was a participant in the battle of New Orleans and in 1858 came to White County, Ark. He was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Scott in 1812, while a resident of Kentucky. Dr. James M. Gist received his early education in the private schools of his native county and began his medical studies under Dr. J. W. McCall, of Carroll County, and [p.165] took his first course of medical lectures in the medical department of the University of Tennessee at Nashville, during the winter of 1857-58 and 1859-60, graduating in the latter year. In 1858 he had removed to Arkansas and after his graduation he returned here and settled at Austin, Prairie County. In the spring of 1860 he moved to Stony Point, White County, being there united in marriage June 5, 1861, to Miss Mary Eleanor Thomas, a native of Marshall County, Miss., a daughter of John Franklin and Nancy Thomas, both of whom were of English descent, the former a native of North Carolina and the latter of Mississippi. To the Doctor and his wife two children were born: Nancy Dorcas (born January 10, 1867, was married to J. E. Fisher in 1885 and died, July 9, 1887, at her home in Texas, of cardiac rheumatism, having given birth to a daughter, Myron Gist Fisher, December 6, 1886), Minnie Laura (the younger daughter, was born October 22, 1869). When Dr. Gist first came to Arkansas game was very abundant, the country being very wild and unsettled. There were two log school-houses in the southern part of the county in which religious services were often held, but the morals of the people were at a very low ebb. In the summer of 1862 the Doctor joined the Confederate army as a private in Col. Dandridge McRae's regiment, but was detached from his company and assigned duty in the hospital serving in the Trans-Mississippi Department, in which service he remained for a period of eight months, being discharged by reason of disability. He returned to his home at Stony Point where he was living at the time of his enlistment, and again engaged in the practice of his profession. In 1865 he embarked in mercantile pursuits with H. B. Strange at Stony Point, carrying a general stock of goods, but the firm dissolved partnership in 1872. Dr. Gist then engaged in the drug business for about eight years. In 1873 he was elected by the Democratic voters of his county to represent them in the State legislature, serving two terms in the regular session and in the extra session called by Gov. Baxter in 1884. In the spring election of 1876 he was chosen mayor of Beebe and has served at different times two or three terms. The Doctor has held a membership in the Masonic fraternity for a number of years, and has attained the Chapter order. He and wife are members of the Christian Church and are charitable and hospitable.

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George W. Goad, planter and stock raiser of Denmark, Ark. This enterprising agriculturist is a son of John and Elizabeth (Hardin) Goad, natives of Kentucky, born 1806 and 1809, respectively. The father was of English descent, and his ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War. They first settled in Virginia, but as the country developed moved farther west, and were among the first settlers of Tennessee. Benjamin Hardin, the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a participant in the War for Independence. John Goad and Elizabeth Hardin were married in Graves County, Ky., in the year 1826, and to their union were born the following children: Susan (born August, 1827), George W. (born July 21, 1830), Mary (born 1833), Nancy (born 1836), Sarah Ann (born 1839), John (born 1841), James J. (born 1844), Elizabeth (born 1847), an infant (died unnamed) and Louisa S. (who was born in 1853). Seven of these children grew to maturity. Elizabeth died in the spring of 1852, John died in 1861; Louisa died in 1864 and Mary died in 1853. John Goad left his home in Kentucky to move to Arkansas, and located in Denmark, White County, of that State, on February 3, 1846, after a tedious journey overland of two months. His was the first family to settle in that part of White County. In 1847 he took a claim of 320 acres, improved it and resided upon the same until 1875, when he sold out. He then settled upon Section 31, Denmark Township, and after the death of Mrs. Goad, which occurred in the fall of 1875, he married a lady by the name of Miss Clarissa Pinegar, and resided in Denmark Township until his death, which occurred on December 3, 1887. Five of his children are still living and all married. Susan is now living with her second husband, G. C. Caruthers, and is now residing in Independence County. She had eight children by her first husband, Steven Whilton. Nancy, married Nicholas Lovell and became the [p.166] mother of seven children. Sarah Ann, married George Swick (deceased), became the mother of five children (one living) and is now living with her second husband, Wiley Westmoreland, James J. Goad married Miss Quintilliss Barnes, resides in Jackson County and has one child living. George W. Goad received a limited education in the common schools of Kentucky and at the fireside at home. He was reared principally to the arduous duties of the farm, but also learned the tanner's trade with his father, which business the latter carried on, both in Kentucky and Arkansas. George W. Goad selected for his wife Miss Elizabeth J. Riddle, a native of Tennessee, supposed to be of Irish descent, and the wedding took place on December 25, 1851. Ten children were born to this marriage, six now living: James E. (born September 19, 1852), William (born January 16, 1854, and died March 29, 1864), Mary J. (born February 10, 1855), Harmon M. (born April 23, 1856), Stephen (born May 29, 1857), John (born December 29, 1858, and died April 6, 1864), Lewis W. (born June 16, 1860), an infant (born and died in 1862), Andrew (born February 2, 1863,) and Elizabeth T. (born November 15, 1866, and died August 28, 1868). Mrs. Goad died on November 15, 1866, and Mr. Goad took for his second wife Mrs. Julia A. Wilson, whom he married on August 1, 1867. The following children were the result of this marriage: Margaret (born May 20, 1868), Gabrey (born February 22, 1870), George H. (born January 18, 1872), Jacob (born November 25, 1875), Susie (born August 6, 1880). Of the first children, Mary married William Morgan on December 25, 1873, and has seven children; James married Miss Virginia McCauley, and became the father of seven children; Stephen married Miss Mollie Yarbrough, and has three children; Harmon married Miss Jane Wagoner, in 1882, and has five children; Lewis married Miss Florence Wagoner, in 883, and has two living children. And of the second marriage, Margaret married Roy M. Hodges, on January 27, 1889, and has one child. Mr. Goad was in the Federal army during the war, served about one year in Col. Baxter's regiment, which was organized at Batesville in the latter part of 1863 and fore part of 1864. The regiment participated in a number of severe skirmishes. Mr. Goad made his first purchase of land in 1855, buying forty acres, upon which he has since made his home. By subsequent purchase he added to the original tract until he owned 480 acres, but now owns 340 acres, with 100 acres under cultivation. He gave his children a liberal portion of land. Mr. Goad is a Republican in politics, is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and he and wife are members of the Regular Baptist Church.

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Joseph H. Grammer is a native of Virginia, and was the eldest in a family of five children, born to P. W. and Mary B. (Tyus) Grammer, both of whom were also Virginians by birth. P. W. Grammer was reared on a farm in the Old Dominion, and in 1836 moved to Haywood County, Tenn., where he died in 1853, his wife preceding him one year. They were the parents of the following named children: Joseph H., Rebecca, Edmond W., B. F., and one whose name is not given. Joseph H., the subject of this sketch, first saw the light of day in Petersburg, Va., in 1829, removing to Tennessee with his parents when seven years of age., He commenced farming for himself in 1851, and in 1853 was married to Miss Josephine W. Pettey, a native of Alabama, and a daughter of G. G. and Elizabeth (Capell) Pettey, of Virginia birth. Two years after his marriage Mr. Grammer came to Arkansas and settled in Des Are Township, White County, where he bought 320 acres of land, near the present site of Centre Hill. To himself and wife eight children have been born, three being deceased: William Henry (deceased), Emmett L., William N., Nora., Fannie E., Hattie Lee, Jennie B. (deceased) and Jennie D. (also deceased). They also have three grandchildren. Mr. Grammer is a strong Democrat, and has been called upon to serve in various official capacities, He held the position of deputy sheriff of White County, was postmaster of Centre Hill for a number of years, and was appointed postmaster of Mount Pisgah, in April, 1889, by President Harrison. Mr. and Mrs. Grammer and children are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The former has been engaged in farming [p.167] all his life, and in connection therewith has given his attention to the mercantile business for a number of years, commencing that branch of trade in 1872, at Centre Hill, and in 1889 at Mount Pisgah; his family, however, still residing on the farm. Mr. Grammer is a member of the Masonic order, and belongs to Centre Hill Lodge No. 114, and to Chapter No. 19. He has been instrumental in aiding many worthy movements hereabouts and helped to build the first church and first schoolhouse in White County.

B. F. Grammer, a Tennesseean by birth, a farmer by occupation, a Methodist in his religions preferences, a Democrat in politics and a veteran of the Civil War, has been a resident of White County since December, 1856, a period of sufficient length to render him well and favorably known. His parents were P. W. and Mary B. (Tyus) Grammer, both natives of Virginia, as were also their parents. B. F. Grammer was united in marriage in January, 1861, to Miss Sarah J. Neal, who was born in Fayette County, Tenn., a daughter of James and Mary (Smith) Neal, also of Tennessee origin, and who came to Arkansas in about 1852. Mr. Grammer enlisted in 1862 for three years' service during the war in the Thirty-sixth Arkansas Infantry, and participated in the battles of Oak Grove and Pleasant Hill, whither his regiment was sent as reinforcement to Gen. Dick Taylor who had been in a siege of eighty-three days. His next engagement was at the ford of the Saline River, after which he was sent to Marshall, Texas, on garrison duty. Upon the close of the war he returned home and again engaged in farming. Mr. and Mrs. Grammer are the parents of seven children, all boys: John B. (married, and resides at Centre Hill), James H. (attending school), Elmer, Horace, Edwin L., Marvin F. and Tyus C. Mr. Grammer has a farm of 125 acres, which he has cleared himself, besides some timber land. Himself and wife and three oldest sons are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. His acquaintance throughout this territory is a wide one and he enjoys universal esteem and respect.

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Philip Yancey Graves. The estate upon which Mr. Graves now resides, and to which he has given such close attention in its cultivation, embraces 520 acres, a well-improved farm, substantial and convenient buildings being a leading feature of these improvements. He is a son of John and Mark (Yancey) Graves, the former a native of North Carolina, and the latter of Tennessee, their marriage taking place in the latter State, where the father died in 1841. Philip Y., his son, inherits Scotch blood from his paternal ancestry, and was born in the State of Tennessee, on October 8, 1830, and after his father's death, being the eldest of the children, the support of his widowed mother and three younger children devolved almost entirely upon him. He worked out by the day and month, and at the age of fifteen years, began working on a tract of timber land, on which his father had held a claim, and which was partly improved. He began clearing off the timber and making it into shingles and clapboards, for which he found a market at Somerville, Macon, Moscow and other pla ces. After clearing off the timber from about five acres, and erecting thereon a good log-house, he was compelled to give up all claim to the land, as others had a clearer title than he. In 1855, in company with Joseph Hollis, he purchased some cypress timber near La Grange, Tenn., and this was made into shingles and sold at that place for the academy and college, which were in process of erection at that time. He followed this occupation in Shelby and Hardeman Counties, but in 1857 he gave this up and moved to Tippah County, Miss., where he rented land and engaged in general farming. About one year later he removed to Arkansas, and was married in Mississippi County, of this State, to Mrs. Elizabeth Hollis (nee Tingle), the widow of Joseph Hollis, his former partner. In the fall of 1859 he returned to Mississippi, but owing to rheumatism contracted from exposure while pursuing the shingle business, he was compelled to give up work for about four years. From 1861 to 1865 he farmed in Marsball County, then returned to Arkansas and purchased 160 acres of land, four miles north of Beebe, upon which were some log buildings and other improvements, twenty acres being under cultivation. He now has 150 acres under the plow, and seven acres in an orchard [p.168] consisting of peach, apple and plum trees. He finds a market for his fruit at Beebe, his peaches averaging about 50 cents per bushel, and the apples 60 cents. He also ships to St. Louis. His land is well adapted to raising any kind of grain or grasses, and he has raised as high as twenty-two bushels of wheat to the acre. Mr. Graves is a Democrat, a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and he and family are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at Antioch, Ark. Mrs. Graves had five children by her first husband, two of whom are now living: Arminta (married in 1866, R. W. Bell) and Caroline (who became the wife of S. S. Hayney in 1868, and is now Mrs. F. W. Rodgers). The children of Mrs. Graves' second marriage are: Penelope (born March 22, 1859, is the wife of N. M. Parker, who has a farm near Beebe, but works at the carpenter's trade. They have three children: Fred D., John W. and Gertrude). Ella was married to John H. Pendleton, a native of Tennessee, in 1881, and has two children: James D. (born March 6, 1884) and Bettie Estelle (born November 13, 1885).

Alfred Greer enjoys a deserved reputation as a prominent planter of White County. Born in Davidson County, Tenn., February 22, 1820, he received his education in Alabama, near La Fayette. His father, Elijah Greer, was a Virginian by birth and when about twenty-two years old immigrated to Kentucky, where he married Miss Mary Acors, of that State. To them a family of fourteen children were born, twelve of whom grew to maturity, Alfred being the thirteenth child. Elijah Greer manifested a great interest in politics, and served in the War of 1812 as a fife-major. He was a farmer by occupation, and moved from Kentucky to Tennessee in 1810, going in 1830 to Georgia, and settling in Pike County. He resided in that State until his death, in 1841, his wife surviving him only three years. Alfred was married October 13, 1839, in Alabama, to Miss Elizabeth J. Waters, a daughter of William and Feriberry Waters. and their union has been blessed by the birth of ten children, three boys and seven girls: William V., Elisha J., Hiram A., Mary F., Nancy, Feribey, Lucinda, Susan F., Georgia F. and Margaret E. who died in 1846. Mr. Greer owns 160 acres of land, with seventy-five under cultivation. He is a member of the Wheel, in which he has held the office of chaplain for three months. He served in the late war, and enlisted in 1864 under Capt. Choshea, as a home guard, and at the final surrender, returned at once and resumed his occupation of farming, which he has continued with good results since that time. Mr. Greer and wife are members of the Baptist Church, in which the former has acted as deacon. He was one of twenty-four who organized Mount Olive Church, and many other enterprises, which have proven of substantial worth, may be attributed in a large degree to his energy and support.

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James E. Gregory. There are a number of men prominently identified with the agricultural affairs of White County, but none among them are more deserving of mention than Mr. Gregory, who was born in Rutherford County, Tenn., on September 5, 1837. He was reared in his native county, and after attending the common schools until nineteen years of age, he took a one-year's course in Bethel College, Carroll County, Tenn. After entering on the active duties of life, he clerked one year for Woods & Herrell, of Bell Station, Tenn., and in 1859 came to Arkansas, and spent nearly one year in this section of the State, hunting and enjoying himself in his own way. Upon returning to the State of his birth, he again clerked several months, then returned to Arkansas for the purpose of purchasing land for his friends, but before they could make a settlement the war came up and Mr. Gregory enlisted, November 4, 1861, in the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, and served three years as second lieutenant of Company F, known as Fork Deer Rangers, being under that intrepid soldier, Gen. Forrest, and with him participated in many battles. He was captured three times, first at Brays Station, Tenn., January 18, 1863, and for four months was kept a prisoner at Alton, Camp Chase and Fort Delaware, and was exchanged at City Point, Va., May 4, 1863. His second capture was in November at Corinth, Miss. After the battle of Harrisburg [p.169] he returned home and never rejoined the army. From that time until the present, with the exception of 1865, 1866 and 1867, when he was engaged in milling, he has followed farming as an occupation. In 1872 he came to White County, Ark., and purchased 214 acres of land, two miles west of Beebe, on the Iron Mountain Railroad, and after living the life of a bachelor for one year he was married, March 17, 1873, on his father's birthday (he being sixty-one years old), to Miss Mary Burns, and by her became the father of the following family: Maud Lee (deceased), Odem S., Richard, Isabella and Elena. On February 6, 1882, he was called upon to mourn the death of his wife, and after remaining a widower until November 7, 1888, he led to the altar Mrs. Henrietta McClelland, the widow of Newton McClelland, of Crockett County, Tenn. Since locating on his present farm he has cleared about ninety acres of land, and in all has 140 acres under cultivation, his farm comprising 260 acres of exceedingly fertile land. He is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, the I. O. O. F. and the K. of H., and being interested in the cause of education, he is a member of the school board of his district. His parents, Madison and Julia E. (Mason) Gregory, were born in Rutherford County, Tenn., March 17, 1812, and May 2, 1817, respectively, and were married in their native county about 1835, remaining there until 1846, when they removed to Haywood County, making their home there until their respective deaths. The father was an extensive planter and slave holder, and at the time of the Civil War was the owner of thirteen negroes. His plantation comprised 480 acres, and 300 were under cultivation. He and wife were Methodists, and he died at the home of our subject on August 15, 1881, his wife preceding him to the "Silent Land" July 18, 1880. Their children are as follows: James E., Mary F. (deceased), Sarah E. A. (wife of Young Wortham, a farmer of White County), the next in order of birth was an infant who died unnamed, Isabella (wife of James H. Hubbard, a farmer of Parker City, Tex.), Susan P. (deceased, was the wife of James Hart, a farmer of Crockett County, Tenn.), Emeline (wife of John Blades, a druggist of Pettey, Lamar County, Tex.), Mosella (wife of Henry Graves, a farmer of Pettey, Lamar County, Tex.), Madison (a farmer, residing near Alamo, Tenn.) and Joseph H. (a farmer of Johnson County, Tex.). Edwin Gregory, the paternal grandfather, was a Virginian, and was one of the early settlers of Rutherford County, Tenn., whither he moved in 1808, there following the occupation of farming. The maternal grandfather was Joseph Mason, a Revolutionary soldier, and a native of Tennessee. He was for many years a planter, and also kept a tavern, his establishment being midway between Nashville and Murfreesboro. He educated himself after having children large enough to go to school, all attending the sessions together. He filled the office of esquire forty-nine years in succession; all cases stood as he rendered judgment, but one. He freed sixty-seven slaves, and owned 1,500 acres of land. His father was one of the first settlers of Nashville, Tenn. He raised eight children: Elizar, Julia, Polley, Allen, Rinier, Martin, Susan and Isabellar, all lived to be grown and have families. Joseph died in November, 1868.

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Dr. Albert Griffin, physician and surgeon, of El Paso, and a graduate of Shelby Medical College of Nashville, Tenn., is a native of Louisiana, and was born in Assumption Parish September 6, 1836, the son of Solomon and Charlotte T. (Edney) Griffin, originally from North Carolina. They were married in West Tennessee in 1834, and the same year moved to Louisiana, where Mr. Griffin engaged in the sugar business, owning a large refinery and plantation. His death occurred in 1837 at the hands of some slaves. Immediately after her husband's demise Mrs. Griffin returned to Williamson County, Tenn., and resided there until 1840, when she was married to Dr. Bruce, a native of North Carolina, but who had been for years a resident of Tennessee. She accompanied him to his home in Haywood County, and died there in 1872. Dr. Bruce was a prominent physician, and his record is one that will be an honor to his children and their offspring. By her last marriage Mrs. Griffin-Bruce was the mother of seven children, five of them now living. Albert Griffin, the subject of this sketch, was the only child of his [p.170] mother's first marriage. He received his primary education in the schools of Brownsville, Tenn., supplementing this course by an attendance at Andrew College at Trenton, Gibson County, Tenn. He then took one year's course in the Emory and Henry College, in Washington County, Va., leaving that school at the age of twenty years with an excellent English training. In the spring of 1857 young Griffin began the study of medicine under the efficient tutelage of his step-father, Dr. Bruce, with whom he continued for one year, adding to this one year's instruction with Drs. Taliaferro & Turner. In the fall he entered Shelby College, from which he graduated in 1859, as before intimated. The year 1860 witnessed his marriage to Miss Mary E. Laws, a native of Tennessee, and a daughter of James P. Laws, of White County. Dr. Griffin enlisted in Carroll's Partisan Ranger Regiment during the war, but was detailed to attend the sick at home by the request of the people of his county. He has been a member of his school board for years, and Mrs. Griffin belongs to and is an active worker in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Dr. Griffin has a beautiful little home in the suburbs of El Paso, which is made cheerful with carefully attended flowers and shrubs. He is a Democrat, and exerts no little influence in local politics, having held various positions on committees in his party. He takes an active interest in schools, churches, etc., is an enterprising citizen and a valuable acquisition to any place.

Elijah Guise has been a resident of White County, Ark., since 1868, and his example of industry and earnest and sincere endeavor to succeed in life, especially in the occupation of farming, is well worthy of imitation. He was born in Hardeman County, Tenn., in 1846, and was the youngest of a family of seven children born to Enoch and Nancy (Patterson) Guise, both of whom were born in the State of Alabama. They were reared and married, however, in Tennessee, and were engaged in farming there until their respective deaths, in 1863 and 1866. Enoch Guise was a minister of the United Baptist Church, and in his early days of labor for the cause of the Master, he was compelled to take long rides in order to preach at his different appointments. His children are: Gann (living in White County), Rebecca (Mrs. J. H. Sellers), Alvira (Mrs. Daniel Campbell), J. L. (residing in White County), Rachel (Mrs. James Sellers) and Elijah. The latter, after remaining with his father until he was eighteen years of age, began farming for himself, in his native county. He was married, in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1866, to Miss Lenora Ann Singleton, a native of De Soto County, Miss., and a daughter of Dr. A. J. and Margaret L. (Guinn) Singleton, both of whom were born in Georgia and Tennessee, respectively. They were married in Mississippi, moved to Tennessee and thence to Arkansas, in 1859, settling in Izard County, from which county he enlisted, in 1861, in the Eighth Arkansas Regiment, Infantry, Company A, and afterward took part in the following battles: Greenville, Corinth, Iuka, Chattanooga, Murfreesboro, Lookout Mountain and siege of Vicksburg. He was one time taken prisoner, but shortly afterward exchanged, and rejoined his family in Mississippi, and in the latter part of 1865 went to Memphis and was in business in that city for one year. He then farmed near there until 1868, when he purchased land in Big Creek Township, Van Buren County, Ark., and there erected a mill. In 1869 he removed to Cleburne County and there died, in 1882, still survived by his wife, who is a resident of White County. A. J. Singleton was also a minister of the Primitive Baptist and a physician of repute. After coming to Arkansas, in 1868, Mr. Guise bought a partly improved farm of 160 acres, and this farm has greatly improved in the way of buildings and in the amount of land he has cleared, having now forty acres under cultivation. He is a Democrat in politics and has held a number of local offices, and is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church. He and wife have had three children: Joseph Andrew, Lillie Ann (who died at the age of two months, in 1867) and Emma Florence (who died in 1874, when five years of age).

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John M. Hacker is a farmer and fruit grower of Harrison Township, White County, Ark., and was born in the "Hoosier State" in 1831, being the third in a family of eight children born to John [p.171] and Cynthia (Becler) Hacker. The father was born in the State of Tennessee and inherited Irish and Scotch blood from his ancestors. He was the second of five children and after spending his younger days in Tennessee he moved to Indiana, going thither after the celebration of his marriage, which occurred in 1827. The children born to him in his adopted State are as follows: Malinda, Joseph D., George W., Margaret A., Mary E., Conrad D., James K. and John M. In 1832 the family moved from Indiana to Illinois, settling on a farm in the southern part of the State, and at a still later period moved to t. Louis, where the father engaged in the mercantile business until 1843, when he moved to Jefferson County, of the same State, where he died four years later. He was survived by his wife until February, 1888, when she, too, died. The early childhood of John M. Hacker was spent in Illinois and Missouri, but his education was received principally in the latter State. Being of an enterprising disposition, he determined to start out in life and seek his own fortune, and accordingly, in 1853, went west to California and spent some time in mining in Eldorado County, becoming thoroughly familiar with western life and the hardships and privations which the miners were compelled to undergo in those days. After his return to Franklin County, Mo., he engaged in farming and in 1862 was married to Martha F. Johnson, daughter of Thomas J. and Mary F. (Falweele) Johnson, who were Virginians, the grandparents having been early settlers of that State. The paternal grandfather was in the War of 1812, and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was an uncle of Mr. Hacker. Mr. and Mrs. Hacker have a little daughter, born in August, 1881. They are quite well-to-do and own 112 acres of good farming land in Missouri, 130 acres in Harrison County, Ark. (which is under fruit culture), and the farm on which he now lives, comprising 130 acres, seventeen of which he devotes to strawberries. He has an orchard of about 4,000 trees and he has just purchased a farm of forty acres in Fulton County, on which he expects to raise fruit. He is a member of Anchor Lodge No. 384, A. F. & A. M., and he is deeply interested in churches and schools, he and wife being members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

 

James William Hall was born in Calhoun County, Miss., on January 12, 1850, and is a son of Hiram and Sarah (Holifield) Hall, natives of Madison and Gibson Counties, Tenn., respectively, the former of English birth. The father moved to Chickasaw County, Miss., in 1844, and engaged in farming and cotton ginning there until January, 1869, when he sold out and moved to De Soto County, and eventually became the owner of large tracts of land in that county. Here he died on January 17, 1888, his wife having departed this life in 1859. Of seven children born to them fou rare living: John Calvin (who was captured in the battle of Fort Donelson in 1862, and died in prison at Indianapolis, Ind., in the same year), Samuel H. (living), Henry T. (deceased), James William, Sarah S., Senath A. (who became the wife of John W. Wynn, and the mother of two children: she died in 1876 at the birth of her second child, who died at the same time as the mother). The first child, Virginia, is living in Crawford County, Ark., and Hiram E. James William Hall followed the life of the farmer's boy, and received a fair education in the subscription schools. May 8, 1870, he was married to Margaret A., a daughter of G. W. McKinney, of Monroe County, Miss., and for a number of years after he and a brother operated and managed a mill which their father had erected, our subject having an interest in the business, which was fairly successful. On October 7, 1872, he removed to Arkansas and located upon the farm on which he is now living, his worldly possessions at that time consisting of $200 in cash, two mules, a wagon and some household furniture. His original purchase of land comprised 160 acres in a wild state, but he has now 440 acres and 100 acres under cultivation. His children are: Beulah Ann (born March 5, 1871, and died June 22, 1872), Sarah Cornelia (born December 24, 1872), Hiram Luther (born on December 3, 1875, and died November 12, 1886), Helen Caroline (born May 24, 1878) and Georgia Etta (born January 12, 1886).

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Jacob Alah Hammons, planter and stockman, Hammonsville, Ark. Among the many successful [p.172] agriculturists of White County, none are more worthy of mention than the subject of this sketch, who owes his nativity to Autauga County. Ala., where his birth occurred on March 7, 1822. His parents, John and Hannah (Dodson) Hammons were honored and respected citizens in the community in which they lived, and the father was a native of Virginia, his birth occurring in that State in 1784, The paternal ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War, and some of them were soldiers in that world-renowned struggle. Grandfather Dodson was a native of England, and came to America before the Revolutionary War. Grandmother Dodson was a native of Germany. John Hammons was a soldier in the War of 1812. Jacob Alah Hammons received a limited education in the subscription schools of Cherokee County, Ala., and was one of eleven, children born to his parents: John W. (born in 1817), Elizabeth (born 1820), Jacob A. (born 1822), Jane (born 1824), Martha (born 1826), Luzella (born 1828), Lavina (born 1830), Mary and Susan (twins, born 1832), William P. (born 1835) and Thomas. Luzella died in 1868. In 1846 Jacob A. Hammons went to Cherokee County, Ga., where he assisted in erecting a mill which he afterward operated. In 1847 he returned to Cherokee County, Ala., purchased a tract of eighty acres of land, about ten acres of which was under cultivation, but with no other improvements, and there remained until 1849. He then came to Arkansas, followed agricultural pursuits, and in 1852 was united in marriage to Miss Jane Goodman, a native of Cherokee County, Ala., born on May 18, 1837. Two children were born to this union: John W. (born July 19, 1855) and Minerva L. (born October 6, 1858). In 1856 Mr. Hammons purchased a tract of land with about four acres under cultivation, and a small log-hut being the only improvement on the place excepting the fencing. Mr. Hammons erected a log house, 16x16, in which he lived for about a year, and then erected another log house, 18x18, in which he resided until 1870. He then erected the fine frame house which is such an ornament to his farm, and in which he has resided since that time. One hundred and twenty acres of the first purchase are under cultivation, and he is now the owner of 320 acres of land. Some of his land has been under cultivation for thirty-five years, and although it has never been fertilized, it produces fine crops. In 1864 he enlisted as a private in a company of Col. McRae's regiment, and served one year, participating in the Missouri raid under Gen. Price. Mr. Hammons is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

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John William Hammons, merchant and farmer, Hammonsville, Ark. For a number of years past the town of Hammonsville has been noted far and wide for its excellent mercantile establishments, and particularly that of Mr. Hammons, who is one of the representative business men of the place. Aside from this he is also engaged in farming, and is the owner of 106 acres of land. He was born in Van Buren County, Ark., on July 19, 1855, and is the son of Jacob D. and Jane (Goodman) Hammons. In 1857 the father moved to White County, Ark., and there reared a large family of children, seven now living. John W. Hammons was reared in White County, Ark., and received his education in the private schools of that county. He assisted his father on the farm for some time, and then commenced business for himself by teaching school, which profession he followed for some time. In 1874 he made a prospecting tour through California and Oregon, in which States he sojourned for nearly three years, and while there followed various lines of industries, viz.: mining, farming, saw-milling, teaming, etc., obtaining some knowledge of farming and mining as conducted in those States. In 1877 he returned to Arkansas, and there resumed the profession of teaching, organizing a school at Hammons' Chapel, near what is now the village of Hammonsville. This he conducted for two years, during which time he also followed agricultural pursuits, having purchased 160 acres, which he hired help to clear and improve. On January 28, 1878, he was united in marriage to Miss Mattie Nelson, daughter of George Nelson, and her death occurred in 1878. In 1879 Mr. Hammons married Miss Mollie J. Nelson, of White County, Ark., and a sister of his former wife. By this marriage [p.173] six children were born: Edgar L. (born June 13, 1880), John R. (born November 4, 1882), Eva (born in 1883), Grover Cleveland (born March 2, 1885), Troy M. (born November 23, 1886) and an infant son (born in August, 1889). Edgar died in November, 1881, and Eva in 1884. In 1879 Mr. Hammons moved to his farm, followed tilling the soil, and also speculated in patent rights. He also ran a well-auger. In 1885, in partnership with J. T. Phelps, he erected a store building at Hammonsville, and engaged in merchandising under the firm title of Phelps & Hammons. The partnership lasted but a short time, and in 1887, in company with Messrs. Moore & Rollon, at Quitman, Cleburne County, Ark., he again engaged in merchandising. In 1888 he bought the interest of his partners, and located at Hammonsville, where he has since remained. About September Mr. Hammons completed the building in which he now does business, and it is a large, commodious structure. His stock of goods consists of a good line of dry goods, boots and shoes, clothing, groceries, drugs and plantation supplies. In politics he is a stanch Democrat, and has held the office of justice of the peace. At present he is the postmaster at Hammonsville.

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Abraham Hancock. John Hancock was a native of North Carolina, and was born July 26, 1804, and was married in 1828 to Miss Martha Harrington, who was born in North Carolina June 10, 1809. In 1836 he moved to Madison County, Tenn., and there engaged in his trade of blacksmithing until 1858, and after a residence of several years in Van Buren County came to White County, where he now resides with his aged wife. Mr. Hancock is of Irish descent and an own cousin of Gen. W. S. Hancock. He has held the office of sheriff in Van Buren County, but has never aspired to office. His wife is of English descent, and both are adherents of the Baptist faith. To them have been born a family of nine children, all living, in which Abraham, the subject of this sketch, is the eldest. He is a native of North Carolina, and was born November 22, 1830. He was reared on a farm and learned the saddle and harness-maker's trade, which has been his principal work, but is also a good carpenter. He was given a good education in the common schools of his native State, and at the age of twenty-one began life for himself, first as office boy in a bank and later as clerk for a cotton ginner. He was married on March 20, 1851, to Miss Leana C. Jones, and to their union one child was born, Martha R. (now the wife of J. J. Martin, a farmer of Faulkner County, Ark.) Mrs. Hancock died in September, 1857, and in March, 1858, Mr. Hancock was united in marriage to Miss Rebecca A. Bertram, a native of Tennessee. To this union five children have been born, two of whom are now living: John S. (a farmer of White County, and who married Elizabeth Landers, a daughter of Thomas Landers, of White County) and Vera A. (born March 14, 1883). Those deceased are William H., Paralea A. and Lena. In May, 1861, Mr. Hancock enlisted in Company B, Twelfth Tennessee Infantry, and served until the surrender in 1865. He participated in the battles of Belmont (Mo.), Shiloh (Tenn.), Richmond (Ky.), Murfreesboro (Tenn.), Chickamauga (Ga.), Missionary Ridge, and at the latter place was wounded by a gunshot, and was helpless for one year. At the battle of Shiloh, he was shot through the hip, and from that wound he still suffers. The last engagement that he took part in was the encounter at Franklin, where he was injured, and which disabled him for some time. During the entire war Mr. Hancock served as orderly-sergeant, his military record being one without a blemish. He received his parole in 1865, and at once returned home; here he resumed his trade of harness making until 1871. He then came to White County and purchased a farm of sixty acres. One year later he moved to El Paso and worked at his trade there, and has since been engaged at farming and carpentering up to the present time. Mr. Hancock has erected some twelve or fourteen ginpowers in White County alone, and there are many marks of his handiwork in different parts of the country. He is a Democrat in his political views, but is an independent voter. He has held the office of constable and deputy sheriff in Tennessee, and in 1885 was elected to the position of justice [p.174] of the peace of Royal Township, which office he is at present filling. Mr. Hancock is an honorary member of El Paso Lodge No. 65, A. F. & A. M., and was secretary of said lodge for eight years; he is also a member of Lodge No. 6, and is E. S. W. P. of that lodge. Mr. and Mrs. Hancock are members of the El Paso Baptist Church, and the former always gives his support to all laudable enterprises for the public good. Mr. Hancock is a member of New Hope Wheel No. 32, in which he was the efficient secretary for years, and is an ardent worker for his order.

 

Edward Harper, an influential citizen of Romance, is the son of the late Edward Harper, Sr., who was born in North Carolina in 1774, and was an only son of Samuel-Harper. His parents died when he was a small boy and he was left with an uncle. He married, in about 1801, Elender Scallorn, a native of Maryland, after which he moved to Alabama, where he engaged in farming, thence moving to Tennessee and in 1855 came to Arkansas, settling in Prairie County, where he died three years later. His wife died in 1862, leaving a family of eleven children: Overton W., Jefferson B., Andrew J., Durinda, Edia, Malinda, Pomelia, Edward (our subject), Joseph A., William A. and Sarah A. Edward, Jr., was born in Alabama, in 1821, and spent his early life in Western Tennessee, where he received a good common-school education. He taught school in Tennessee for a number of years, and was married in 1851 to Mary Kyle, who was a daughter of Marvin and Sarah (Dement) Kyle, originally of Alabama and Virginia, respectively. To this marriage the following children were given: Martha S. (now Mrs. J. B. Matthews), William K., Edward L., Julia T., James H., Ellen O. (deceased), Jefferson D., Sidney K., Marvin A., John F. and Adolphus. In 1856 Mr. Harper came to White County, Ark., where he purchased 240 acres of land, and now has nearly 100 acres cleared and under cultivation. Himself and wife are members of the Methodist Church. Mr. Harper belongs to the Masonic order, affiliating with Mount Veran Lodge No. 54, and has taken the degree of Royal Arch Mason. Mr. Harper is a highly respected citizen, and has held the office of justice of the peace for twelve years.

Rev. Henry F. Harvey, one of the leading planters and a popular minister of White County, Ark., is a native of Tennessee, and was born in 1842. His father, Jesse F. Harvey, was born in Alabama, in 1818, where he received his education, and afterward immigrated to Mississippi with his parents, there marrying Miss Mary C. Wyatt, in 1841. To their union was born a family of twelve children, of which Henry F. is the oldest. Jesse Harvey and his estimable wife were respected members of the Church (Methodist), and always manifested a great interest in all worthy enterprises. Henry F. was educated in Mississippi, and moved from that State to Arkansas with his parents in 1869. His marriage with Miss Sarah J. McCleskey was consummated on November 26, 1867. Mrs. Harvey was the daughter of John and Nancy McCleskey, and was born in 1849. To their union eight children have been born, six boys and two girls, seven of whom are now living: John F., Mary Ida, Luther B., William P., Eugene B., Walter W., Samuel J. and Mattie M. Mr. Harvey owns 232 acres of land, with 125 cultivated. He is a member of the Masonic Lodge, and has held the office of secretary of Lodge Chapter, Centre Hill No. 45, also affiliates with the Wheel, in which he held the office of State Chaplain for one year. He has been a member of the council for twelve years. He served in the late war on the Confederate side, and enlisted in 1861, under Gen. Buckner of Kentucky. His first hard fight was at Fort Donelson, where he was captured and carried to Camp Morton, Indianapolis, and imprisoned for seven months. He was then exchanged and again captured in Virginia, near Petersburg, and taken to Point Lookout, Md., and incarcerated for seven months, then exchanged at Richmond, where he received his parole. After the war he returned home at once and began teaching school, which he continued for one year, and then commenced farming and preaching, his present occupation. He is an eloquent and brilliant speaker, and makes many converts to his faith (Methodist), to which he and wife belong.

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Richard D. Harris, familiarly known as "Uncle [p.175] Dick" Harris, was the eldest son in a family of thirteen children born to Newton and Nancy (Spencer) Harris, natives of North Carolina. Newton Harris, the father, was born in 1801, and married in 1821; he was the son of a soldier in the Revolutionary War. He was the father of the following children: Richard D. (our subject), D. C., Louisa, Roland (deceased), Victoria M. (deceased), Milton, M. D., Newton (deceased), Wesley (deceased), Sidney (deceased), Steven D. and Dolly. Richard D. Harris first saw the light of this world in Tennessee in 1824, and was married October 20, 1846, to Arcissie Bowman, a daughter of Maj. William and Cassander (Wade), who were of Maryland nativity. Mr. Harris settled on a farm in Tennessee after his marriage, and in 1862 enlisted in Company C, of the Forty-seventh Tennessee Cavalry, and participated in the battles of Corinth, Richmond (Ky.), Perrysville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Kenesaw Mountain and Franklin. He received his discharge in 1863, on account of deafness and a weakness in the back. He then entered the cavalry under Forrest, but served only a short time when he returned home badly disabled. He had eight brothers in the Confederate army, one of whom, Leven, only was wounded. His first wife died October 2, 1858. She was the mother of nine children: Cassander (deceased), Ella (now Mrs. John Banks, of Tennessee), Molly (now Mrs. Reid), John D., E. A., Abbilow (McDinworthy), Decksy (Turnage) and Effie. Mr. Harris came to Arkansas, settling in White County, in 1871, where he purchased a quarter section of land, of which there were about sixty acres cleared. He was married the second time in 1881 to Elizabeth McDougald, a daughter of Alexander and Ellen (Wade) McDougald. Mr. Harris is a strong Democrat, and cast his first presidential vote for James K. Polk. Mr. and Mrs. Harris are members of the Presbyterian Church, but most of his children are Methodists.

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Hubbard P. Heard, a most successful agriculturist and stock raiser, of White County, received his education in this county, where he grew to manhood, and remained at home until the organization of the Third Arkansas Confederate Cavalry, in the early part of 1861. His regiment took part in sixty-five engagements, and of the 104 men which started out, only eight returned, and he had many narrow escapes. He was in the siege of Corinth, at Beauregard's retreat into the river, at the battles of Shiloh, Thomas' Station (where three flag bearers and the colonel of his regiment were killed), Missionary Ridge; also at the capture of Knoxville, and many others, including those in the Georgia campaign, where he was in constant fighting for sixty days. He was taken prisoner near Holly Springs, and carried to Cairo, Ill., where he was kept for nearly three months; then he was exchanged with 1,100 Confederate soldiers. After peace was declared he returned home, and at the death of his father commenced farming, and in 1880 he engaged in the saw-mill business, which occupation he followed for five years, since which time he has given his attention exclusively to farming and stock raising, and owns 400 acres of land, with 150 under cultivation. Our subject was born in Heard County, Ga., August 1, 1840, and is the son of Hubbard P. and Mary (Ware) Heard. The paternal grandfather of Hubbard P., Jr., Thomas Heard, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and also in the War of 1812, and was county judge of Heard County, which was named in honor of him. Hubbard Heard, Sr., was born in 1800, and was married in Georgia, and came to Arkansas and located within ten miles of Augusta, Woodruff County, in 1840, and in 1849 removed to White County, where he was engaged in farming and stock raising the rest of his life. He was a prominent Democrat and a constituent of the Masonic order, and both he and his wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mrs. Heard died in February, 1862, at the age of sixty-one, leaving six children, five of whom are now living: Eliza (widow of John Griffin), Sophia (widow of John Wesley), Amanda (widow of James Asque), Martha (widow of David Duke) and Hubbard P. (the principal of this sketch). After the death of his first wife Mr. Heard married Mrs. Sarah Pierce, who is now deceased. The senior Heard died in White County in 1866, and was highly respected by all who knew him, and had been a very successful [p.176] farmer, but met with heavy losses financially during the war. Hubbard P. Heard was married in 1870 to Miss Jennie Martin, a native of Tennessee, and who was the mother of five children, four of whom are still living: Dora V., Joseph W., Hubbard, Jr., and James H. He was married to his second wife, Olive B. Markham, in 1884, who lived but three years after their marriage, and was the mother of one daughter, who died soon after her mother. Mr. Heard is a Democrat in politics and in secret societies belongs to the Masons.

 

Col. V. H. Henderson, Searcy, Ark. In preparation of this brief outline of the history of one of the most influential citizens of White County, appear facts which are greatly to his credit. His intelligence, enterprise, integrity and many estimable qualities, have acquired for him a popularity not derived from any factitious circumstance, but a permanent and spontaneous tribute to his merit. He is at present proprietor and manager of Searcy College and is also actively engaged in the realestate business. He owes his nativity to Haywood County, West Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1833, and is the fourth in a family of nine children born to the union of T. C. and Eunice (Haraldson) Henderson, both natives of South Carolina. The parents moved to Tennessee at an early day, thence to St. Francis County, Ark., in 1849 and located in what is now Woodruff County, where the father followed agricultural pursuits. He died in Mississippi in 1844, and the mother afterward came to Arkansas and thence to Texas in 1858. Col. V. H. Henderson came to Arkansas at the age of sixteen years, engaged in merchandising in Cotton Plant in 1857 and continued at that until the beginning of the war. In that year he enlisted at the above-mentioned place in Capt. Stephen's company, was elected second lieutenant, but served only a short time when he was discharged on account of ill health. He then engaged in the pursuit of farming on a large scale, and in connection carries on merchandising extensively at Cotton Plant. He came to White County in 1884 for the purpose of recruiting his health, which had become impaired, and purchased a farm of 240 acres, which he improved and which is now known as the Griffin Springs, a great watering place. He also raises some fine stock and is extensively engaged in the real-estate business. He has been active in building up the town and is deeply interested in educational matters. Socially, he is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and in politics, although not active, votes with the Democratic party. He selected for his companion in life Miss Sarah J. Simpson, a native of Mississippi, and was married to her in Woodruff (then St. Francis) County, Ark., in 1857. Her death occurred in 1871, leaving one child as the result of this union: Robert C., who is now married and resides at Cotton Plant. Col. Henderson was married to his second wife, Miss Martha A. Davies, a native of North Carolina, in 1872, and the fruits of this union are four children: Freddie Davis, Mary Virgie, Carl C. and Ross K. Col. and Mrs. Henderson are members of the Presbyterian Church.

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John T. Hicks, attorney, Arkansas. This gentleman is the junior member of the well-known law firm of House & Hicks, and practices in this and adjoining counties. He was born in Searcy, Ark., on July 21, 1861, and was the second in the family of six children born to William and Martha A. (Lytle) Hicks, natives of North Carolina, born near Hillsboro. The father, when about eighteen years of age, came to Searcy, Ark., read law at that place, and was admitted to the bar. He then began practicing and followed this during life. He took an active part in politics and was senator from this district in 1866. Prior to that he was county judge. He was a prominent Mason, was a Chapter member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, and was a member of Tillman Chapter No. 19. He met the mother of the subject of this sketch while attending college, and was married to her in Fayette County, Tenn., in 1857. Six children were the result of this union, two of whom are living: John T. and Willie (who resides in Searcy). The father was a progressive man and took an active part in building up the town and county. He was also deeply interested in educational matters, and as a man, well and favorably known. He was a member of the Episcopal Church. During the late war, or rather at the beginning of the late war, Mr. [p.177] Hicks had strong Union proclivities, but after the State seceded, he joined with the State, recruited a company, and was promoted to the rank of colonel. He was in the battle of "Whiting Landing," was wounded by a shell at Helena, and was with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri. After the war he returned to Searcy, resumed his practice, and died August 13, 1869, at the age of forty-one years. He was the son of Howell T. and Sally (Roberts) Hicks, natives of North Carolina, who came to Searcy in 1846, settled in Gray Township, and engaged in tilling the soil. The grandfather died in 1858, and the grandmother in 1881. The maternal grandparents of the subject of this sketch, John C. and Sarah (Graham) Lytle, were natives of North Carolina. At an early day they moved to Tennessee, where the father followed farming, but also continued the trade of a mechanic. The grandmother died in Tennessee, and her husband came to Searcy (1870), where he is now residing. John T. Hicks was liberally educated in the schools at Searcy and at Fayetteville, Ark., after which he took a course at the University of Virginia. After this he took a law course in 1881-82 and was admitted to the bar in 1883, after which he commenced practicing. He was married at Searcy in 1883, to Miss Minnie Snipes, a native of White County and the daughter of Dr. J. A. and Elizabeth (Murphy) Snipes, natives of North Carolina and Virginia, respectively. Both are residing at Searcy. Mr. and Mrs. Hicks have two children: Everette B. and Willie B. Mr. Hicks takes an active part in politics and was mayor of Searcy from 1884 to 1887. Socially, he is a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, Masonic fraternity, and is Junior Warden in that order. He is a member of Tillman Chapter No. 19, R. A. M. He is a member of the Episcopal, and she of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

 

N. B. Hilger, a native of this county, is a son of John and Catharine (Yenglan) Hilger. John Hilger was born in Monhan, Germany, on the Rhine, in 1802, and spent his school-days in that country and was married there. A few years after his marriage he emigrated to America with his family, locating in White County, Ark., where he entered a quarter section of land, and at the time of his death, in 1853, owned 900 acres of land. His wife was born in 1807 and died in 1878, leaving thirteen children: John, Bardoia, Philip and Shibastas (who were born in Germany) and Elizabeth, Catharine, Louisa, Louie, Minerva, Nancy, Mary, N. B. (our subject) and Margaret (who were born in this county). N. B. Hilger was married, in 1868, to Frances Elliott, who died the following year, leaving one child, also deceased. In 1873, he married Lucy A. Crump, a native of Alabama, and who is the mother of three children, two of whom are living: Noah and Laurie. He owns the old homestead on which he lived when a boy, and has 440 acres of land, about half of which is under cultivation and which he helped to clear. Socially, he is a member of the Masonic order and is school director of his district, and is a successful farmer and raises good stock, and is well and favorably known throughout the township.

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Rev. William H. Hodges. The father of our subject was James L. Hodges, a native of South Carolina, where he was born about 1787, and was the son of William and Elizabeth Hodges, also of South Carolina. Mr. Hodges, Sr., was married, in about 1810, to Sarah Comings, and they were the parents of eleven children: Francis, Nancy, Thomas, Elizabeth, William H., Sarah, Margaret, James, Mary, Martha and Benjamin F. William H. was born in South Carolina on March 22, 1822, and came to Mississippi with his parents when but eight years of age, where he was reared on a farm. He was married, in 1844, to Sarah F. Roseman, a daughter of Samuel and Frances (Hill) Roseman. After his marriage he settled on a farm, where he resided until 1869. As the result of this union the following children were born: James S., Casandria E. (deceased), Thomas H, John F., William A., Benjamin F. (deceased), Marshall L., Sarah F., Archie N. (deceased), Emmett L. and Joseph T. They also have twenty-seven grandchildren. Mr. Hodges commenced preaching the Gospel in Choctaw County, Miss., in 1863. In 1869 he came to Arkansas and settled in White County and in Cane Township, on 240 acres of land, of which he now has about 100 acres under cultivation. Mr. [p.178] Hodges is pastor of the Bethlehem Missionary Baptist Church. He has been a very active worker in his labors and has organized four churches in this neighborhood.

 

John G. Holland, one of the editors and proprietors of the Beacon, owes his nativity to Wake County, N. C., where his birth occurred on December 10, 1845. He is the son of Willis B. and Lucinda (Barbee) Holland, natives of Wake County, N. C., the former born in 1818 and died in 1869, and the latter born in 1814 and died in 1888. The parents moved from North Carolina to Henderson County, Tenn., in 1851, and nearly two years later to White County, Ark., where the father followed several different avocations–farming, surveying and civil engineering. He was also deputy county surveyor for several years. Both he and wife were members of the Missionary Baptist Church; he was a Royal Arch Mason, and of the Council degrees, and in his political views affiliated with the Democratic party. Of the five children born to this union, John G. Holland is fourth in number of birth. He received a liberal education in the schools of White County, and during the late war served a few months in the Confederate army in the capacity of private. At the age of twenty-one years he turned his attention to the reading of law under Judge Cypert, and in 1867 was admitted to the bar. He practiced his profession until 1882, when he turned his attention to the newspaper business. He was associate editor of the Arkansas Beacon, and in 1883 became partner. In December of the same year John R. Jobe became a partner in the paper, and they have so continued ever since. In 1877 he was mayor of the city of Searcy, continuing in that capacity one year. In 1885-86 he was justice of the peace. He is at present president of the school board of Searcy. In 1877 he was elected assistant clerk of the lower house of the General Assembly, and in 1879 was elected to the position of chief clerk in the same; in 1881 he was elected secretary of the senate, and has served in that capacity ever since. On January 14, 1879, he married Miss Ella M. Henley, daughter of B. F. and Mary J. Henley, and she died in April, 1889, leaving five children: Lillie C., Della, Percy, Bessie and Lewis F. Mr. Holland is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church at Searcy, and is clerk of the same. He is a Council Mason, is a member of the K. & L. of H., and in his political views affiliates with the Democratic party.

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W. G. Holland, M. D. In recording the names of the prominent citizens of White County, the name of W. G. Holland, M. D., is given an enviable position. He was a faithful student in his chosen profession, and truly merits the prominence accorded him in the medical fraternity, as well as the confidence and respect shown him by the entire community. He owes his nativity to Tennessee, and was born in Henderson County, April 6, 1847. His father, Dr. James C. Holland, was born in Wayne County, N. C., December 12, 1807, and he received his education in his native State, and in 1833 he was united in marriage to Rebecca, daughter of Frederick and Lucy Collier, and by her became the father of six children: Julia F., Eliza, Maria R. (deceased), Charles E. (deceased), W. G. and his twin brother (who died in infancy). Mrs. Holland died at Searcy, May 10, 1861, and for his second wife, Dr. Holland chose Miss Ellen Kirby of Tennessee. Dr. Holland was both physician and silversmith by occupation for over fifty years. He immigrated to Arkansas from Tennessee in 1853, and located in Searcy, where he resided until his death in 1887. He was a man of considerable influence, and a politician to some extent. He was a devout member of the Methodist Church, as was also his wife. He held a membership in the Masonic lodge for over forty years, being a member of Searcy Lodge No. 49, and Tillman Chapter No. 19, where he discharged the duties of secretary and treasurer up to the date of his death. W. G. Holland received a good practical education in the schools of Searcy, but obtained his medical knowledge in the University of Louisville, Ky., during the years 1869-71. After his graduation Dr. Holland returned to his home and built the foundation of his present large and lucrative practice. He was married December 8, 1872, to Annie Goad, a daughter of Henry and Mary Goad, and their union has been blessed with three [p.179] children: Mary E., William E. (deceased), and an infant, who died unnamed. Mrs. Holland died August 10, 1887, and in 1889 Dr. Holland was united in marriage to Rachel V. Fancette, their marriage occurring September 1. Dr. W. G. Holland served in the late war, entering in 1864 under Gen. Shelby. He was wounded at Pilot Knob, September 28, 1864, and also captured and taken prisoner to Alton, thence to Rock Island and Richmond, Va., where he was exchanged in March, 1865, receiving his parole at that point. He at once returned home and entered the literary school for three years, and began the study of medicine in spring of 1868. Dr. and Mrs. Holland are members in high standing of the Methodist Church.

 

A. B. House is accounted a prosperous farmer and stockman of Red River Township, and like the majority of native Tennesseeans, he is progressive in his views and of an energetic temperament. He was born in Maury County, in 1822, and is the youngest in a family of nine children born to Joseph and Alcy (Bedwell) House, the former of whom is a native of North Carolina, born in 1775. When a lad he was taken to Tennessee, and about the year 1800, was married in that State and engaged in farming and raising stock, his land amounting to 200 acres. He died in 1862, and his wife in 1845, both having been earnest and consistent members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Their children are: Mary (deceased), Reuben (who is married and lives in White County, Ark.), John (married and lives in Tennessee), Patience (Mrs. Haines, now deceased), Charlotte (the wife of John Myers, is also dead), William (and his wife, formerly a Miss Bedwock, are deceased), Marcenie (is the wife of Mr. Brazele and resides in West Tennessee), Jane (and her husband, D. House, are both dead) and A. B. (the subject of this memoir). The paternal grandfather was John House, and the mother's father was Reuben Bedwell, a native of Tennessee. A. B. House resided in his native State until he arrived to manhood, then came to White County, Ark. He reared his family in his native State, and with the assistance of his wife, Eliza Wilkes, whom he married in 1840, he succeeded in giving them good edncations. Their names are: Thomas (who married Mary Minifee, by whom he has two children, resides in Arkansas), Joseph (who married Ina Dowdy and lives at Little Rock, the father of four children), James P. (married Lou Parcell, but is now a widower and lives in Augusta with his one child) and Mary (who married Mr. Harville. She died, leaving one child, who was reared by his grandfather). Mrs. House died after their removal to Arkansas, in 1884. She was a daughter of Thomas and Ruth Wilkes, and was one of a family of thirteen children. After coming to Arkansas Mr. House settled on a woodland farm of 140 acres, and now has eighty acres under cultivation. He raises some of the finest stock in the county and many of his animals have won first premiums at the county fairs. He is a Democrat and a member of the Masonic order and he and his present wife, who was Martha McMillan and whom he married in 1884, are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, his first wife being also a member of this church.

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Andrew J. Hughs is the son of Harden Hughs, a highly respected man who was born in Tennessee, in 1791, and took a prominent part in the French and Indian Wars of 1813 and following. He was married in 1813 to Miss Sallie Jones, and they were the parents of eight children: Thomas, Katie, Polly, Betty, Andrew J. (the principal of this biography), Marian, Louisa and Harding. The senior Hughs immigrated to Arkansas and settled in White County, in 1842, where he purchased a quarter section of land and on which he lived until his death, which occurred in 1858, his wife surviving him until 1871. Andrew J. owes his nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in 1828, and was fourteen years of age when his parents came to Arkansas. He was married on January 30, 1850, to Miss Sarah Marsh, who was born in Tennessee, January 7, 1831, and was the daughter of Roland and Sarah (Webb) Marsh-Her parents both died in Tennessee, in 1835, and she then came to Arkansas with her brothers, John and Harvey Marsh, who located in White County. Mr. and Mrs. Hughs were the parents [p.180] of eleven children, four of whom are deceased: Francis M. Mary M. (deceased), Thomas F., Harden M., Martha (now Mrs. Asia Buchanan), Sarah Jane (now Mrs. Woodell), John A. (deceased), Ulysses M., Rachel A., Cymantha and Emma. They are also the grandparents of sixteen children. Mr. Hughs has 300 acres of land, with 180 acres under cultivation, which he and his father before him have farmed for the past forty-five years, and which Mr. Hughs says is as fine a piece of land as there is in the State. He and his wife have been members of the Methodist Church for over thirty-five years, and take a very active part in all church work. He also belongs to the County Wheel. He takes an active interest in all public matters, and was on the Review in 1866 and helped to reconstruct the State.

 

D. W. Holiman is a citizen in good standing, and is held in high esteem by his associates. He was left an orphan at the age of four years, and cared for and reared by his older brothers and sisters, on a farm in Mississippi. At the age of twenty-one he started out for himself, and came to Arkansas, and located in Van Buren County, and four years after removed to White County. In 1876 he married Lucinda Bouliand, a daughter of J. W. and Martha A. (Harvey) Bouliand, originally of Kentucky, and who came to Arkansas at an early day, and settled in White County. His nearest town and market at that time was Little Rock. Mr. Holiman was the youngest son in a family of ten children, born to Willis and Eliza (Virnan) Holiman, natives of South Carolina, and parents of the following children (and two others deceased, whose names are not given): James P., Malinda, William H., John, Martha, Bell, Willis and D. W. (our subject, who was born in Mississippi in 1849). D. W. Holiman and wife are the parents of four children: Martha J., Willis W., Eddie Lee, Hettie J., all of whom are at home. He has a farm of 258 acres, with fifty under cultivation. In religious belief, he and his wife are members of the Baptist Church, in which they take an active part. He is also a member of the County Wheel. Mrs. Holiman has seen a great change in White County during her lifetime, having been born and reared in this county. Mr. Holiman is a strong Democrat, and a good citizen.

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George Irwin is a general farmer and fruit grower of Harrison Township, White County, Ark., and although a native of Kentucky, born in 1822, he has been a resident of this State for the past thirteen years. His father, Joseph Irwin, born in Kentucky in 1782 in a small neighborhood stockade, called Fort Hamilton, in the western part of Nelson County, was of Scotch-Irish descent, being one of a family of nine children born to John Irwin, who came from Ireland before the Revolutionary War. Joseph spent his youthful days on a farm, and on March 30, 1808, was married in Kentucky to Sarah Thompson, and by her became the father of the following sons: Hardin, James, Joseph, George, John and Benjamin. In 1828 he moved to Indiana, and died in Knox County, in 1858, having been a member of the Whig party, and he and wife members of the Baptist Church. His wife's death occurred in Parke County, Ind., in 1862. George Irwin acquired a fair education in the subscription schools of his native county, but at the age of seventeen years he left home and went to the pineries of Wisconsin, and until the spring of 1850 followed the lumbering business. In 1850 he resolved to seek his fortune in California, and after reaching the "Eldorado of the West," he engaged in mining, and succeeded far beyond his expectations. At the end of two years he returned to Indiana, and settled down to the peaceful pursuit of farming, and there, in 1854, was united in the bonds of matrimony to Catherine Black, a daughter of Thomas and Lavina (Dudley) Black, of Sullivan County, Ind. After remaining in Indiana some ten years, Mr. Irwin immigrated to Dallas County, Iowa, and twelve years later came to White County, Ark., buying, almost as soon as he reached the county, 160 acres of land where he now lives. He has sixty acres under cultivation, and owing to the attention which he gives to the minutest details of his work he is doing well. He belongs to the Agricultural Wheel, and although formerly a Republican in his political views, he is now a Prohibitionist. He and wife are members of the Baptist Church, and are the parents of these children: May (Mrs. [p.181] Charles Briggs, residing in White County), Bronghan (who died in 1887), Dudley, and Grace, the youngest, who was eighteen years old in March, 1889.

 

James M. Jackson, of Russell, Ark., was born in Perry County, Ala., February 18, 1853, and is the son of Lorenzo D. Jackson, of North Carolina. The former's birth occurred in 1811, and at the age of twenty-two years he moved from North Carolina to Alabama, where he was residing at the time of his death, in 1865, when fifty-four years old. He was a farmer by occupation, and quite successful in his chosen profession. In his party views he sided with the Democrats, though not a political enthusiast. He was a member of the Baptist Church and a zealous worker in religious and all charitable enterprises. His wife, Anna (Winston) Jackson, was a daughter of James Winston, and a native of North Carolina. Her marriage with Lorenzo D. Jackson was consummated in 1833, and after her husband's demise she resided with her son, James M., until her death in 1886. To Mr. and Mrs. Jackson a family of eight children were born, three sons and five daughters, four of whom are now living: Anna (wife of L. D. N. Huff, of White County, Ark.), Fannie (first married to Britt Perry, now the wife of Henry C. Strange, of White County), Mary S. (Mrs. John Huff), James M. (the subject of this sketch) and Lacy J. (wife of Reuben Bennett, now deceased). William L. died in the Confederate army, and was one of the first volunteers of the war. Thomas was killed at the battle of Sharpsburg, in the Confederate army, and Martha died in Alabama. James M. received his education in the common schools of his native State, and at the age of eighteen came from Alabama to White County, Ark., where he launched his own canoe, and began life for himself. His choice of an occupation was farming, to which he had been carefully drilled by his father. Mr. Jackson now owns 160 acres of good land in a fair state of cultivation, divided into two farms. He is also interested in a large grist-mill and cotton-gin at Russell. Active, energetic and industrious in his efforts, he is on the high road to prosperity. He was first married, January 10, 1877, to Miss Nannie, daughter of William and Emily Plant, Mr. Plant is a native of Tennessee, but moved to Arkansas in 1859, his being one of the oldest families in this county. Mrs. Jackson died November 20, 1877, leaving one child, William D. In 1886 Mr. Jackson was united in marriage with Miss Virginia L. Shelton, of Arkansas, and at that time a resident of Jackson County. To this union two children have been born: Robert L. and Frank Earl. Mr. Jackson served as township bailiff and deputy sheriff for two and a half years, discharging the duties of that office faithfully and to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. He is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the Baptist Church at Russell, Ark. In societies he is identified with the Masonic order, is a Knight of Honor and a member of the Triple Alliance Mutual Benefit Association. He is a liberal contributor to his church, and the needy are never sent from his door empty-handed. Indeed too much praise can not be accorded Mr. Jackson for his upright course, for he is noble-minded, generous, and of that caliber of men who build up a community to places of thrift and enterprise.

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J. R. Jobe, who is one of the editors and proprietors of the Beacon, owned by Holland & Jobe, became connected with the paper in December, 1884, and has continued with it ever since that time. He was born at Ringgold, Ga., on August 24, 1855, and was the fifth in a family of thirteen children born to David and Sarah (Hardin) Jobe, natives of East Tennessee and Georgia, respectively. The father was a farmer by occupation and came to Columbia County, Ark., in 1857, settled on a farm, remained there one year and then removed to Des Arc, Prairie County, Ark., where he followed mercantile pursuits until 1861. He then moved to Pope County, Ark., remained there until 1863, when he moved to White County and settled in Union Township, where he followed agricultural pursuits until his death, which occurred in May, 1888. His excellent wife, still living, resides at Russellville, Pope County. J. R. Jobe's early life was divided between assisting on the farm and in attending the district schools of White County, although he greatly improved his education by [p.182] personal application in later years. He started out on the highway of life at the age of twenty years, engaged in farming until he was elected county clerk in 1882, and in October moved to Searcy, where he filled the above-mentioned office to the satisfaction of all for two years. He then purchased the interest of the Beacon from Rev. Z. T. Bennett, who was the founder of the paper in 1878, and has been connected with it ever since. He is active in politics and votes with the Democratic party. He was married in White County in November, 1878, to Miss Cora E. Harris, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of Dr. D. C. and Susan E. Harris, natives of Tennessee, who came to White County, Ark., in 1874. Her mother died in 1879, but her father resides at Beebe, and aside from being a practicing physician is also engaged in mercantile pursuits. By his marriage Mr. Jobe became the father of three children: Edgar Wilmett, John Bertram and Lucille. Mr. Jobe was elected in January, 1886, to fill an unexpired term of city recorder and ex-officio treasurer, and has filled that position satisfactorily since that time. He is also corresponding secretary of the Arkansas Press Association, and is now serving the second term.

Wiley A. Johnson, the senior member of the well-known and representative firm of W. A. Johnson & Son, wagon manufacturers of Beebe, Ark., was born in Indiana, October 12, 1832, being the son of Daniel S. and Nancy (Parker) Johnson, natives of New York and Pennsylvania, respectively. Daniel Johnson's younger days were spent in the State of his birth, but when grown to manhood he went to Indiana and there married in 1822. He was a tailor by trade, and a few years before his death served as county clerk of the county in which he resided, in Tennessee. His demise occurred in 1833, at the age of thirty years, Wiley A. Johnson at that time being only one year old. After his father's death the latter oved to Weakley County, Tenn., with his mother, who remained in her widowed state for sixteen years, at the end of which time she was united in marriage with Mr. George Winston, but only lived one year after that event. The parents were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and were held in high esteem by all who knew them. Wiley A. Johnson was educated in the schools of Dresden, Tenn., proving a bright and intelligent scholar, and when seventeen years old became an apprentice to a blacksmith. After completing his apprenticeship, at the age of twenty, he at once went to work for himself, and for several years was employed in different shops all over Western Tennessee. In 1856, settling at Union City, Obion County, he was there married to Nanny Curlin, a native of that county, on October 14, 1856, and to them one child has been born, William W. Following his marriage, Mr. Johnson settled in Union City, and carried on his business of blacksmithing and wagon-making for nine years, moving thence to Trenton, Gibson County, where he remained for three years. After living in Verona, Miss., and Sulphur Rock, Ark., he came to Beebe in 1885 and formed the present firm, now having a large and substantial trade. Mr. Johnson and son are among the leading business men of this section, and enjoy the respect of all, both as business and social factors. They are public-spirited and lend their support to those enterprises that are intended for the good or growth of the country. In his religious belief, Mr. Johnson clings to the Methodist faith, of which church his wife is also a devout member. The paternal grandfather of the subject of this sketch, Collert Johnson, was probably a native of Pennsylvania, and a wealthy planter of Indiana. He had several sons who figured prominently in the early wars, and when last heard from were residing in Southern Indiana. Included in Mr. Johnson's maternal relations, of whom he knows but little, were two uncles, Lorenza and Gideon Parker, both holding high offices in the Florida War.

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Thomas P. Jones, a distinguished citizen of White County, and a native of South Carolina (his birth occurring in Abbeville District, October 13, 1830), is the son of Clayton and Nancy (Miford) Jones, natives of the same State and district. Olayton Jones was of Welsh descent, and first saw the light of day July 11, 1802. He honored the Democratic party with his vote, and in his religions [p.183] belief was a member of the Baptist Church. He was a farmer, and quite successful in the accumulation of wealth, and a very prominent citizen, contributing liberally to all church and charitable works. In short, he was a good man in all that the term implies. He died February 2, 1885, at the age of eighty-three years, sincerely mourned by his many friends and acquaintances. Mrs. Jones received her education in South Carolina, and from an early age was a consistent member of the Missionary Baptist Church. She was a faithful wife and an indulgent mother, loved by all who knew her, and at the time of her death (in her fifty-fourth year) was residing in South Carolina. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Jones five children were born: Elizabeth (wife of Jackson Clements, deceased, and now residing in Anderson District, S. C.), T. P. Jones (living in White County, and the subject of this sketch), Samuel C. (who died in South Carolina), James S. (deceased in Mississippi) and Clayton W. (died in Virginia). Thomas P. Jones received the limited advantages for an education that the schools of the period afforded, and began for himself at the age of twenty-four, being employed as a farmer in his native state. In June, 1854, he was united in marriage to Margaret A. Tribble, of South Carolina, and a daughter of John and Essa Tribble, of Welsh and Irish descent, respectively. The result of their marriage was eleven children, ten of whom are now living: James M. (a farmer of Cross County, Ark.), Thomas C. (also of Cross County), Martha J. (wife of Thomas J. Futrell, a prosperous farmer of Cross County), Christopher E., William N., Emma J., Laura T., Dixie A., Leona A., Samvann and George A. (killed by machinery in 1877). Mr. Jones moved from South Carolina to Georgia in 1854, whence, after a residence of two years, he returned to Pickens District. At the end of two years he came to Jefferson County, Ala., and there resided until the opening of the Civil War. His family returned to South Carolina at the commencement of hostilities, and remained there until joined by Mr. Jones at the final surrender. Bemoving from South Carolina to Cross County, Ark., in 1868, and thence to White County, in 1882, where he is at present residing, he now owns a farm well improved and very productive, besides 240 acres of woodland, in two farms. Mr. Jones' second marriage was to Mrs. Tabitha Berry, the widow of Fenwick Berry (deceased), of Cross County, Ark. Mr. Jones enlisted in the Confederate army in December of 1861, in Blount's Battalion, Alabama Volunteers. He participated in the battles of Shiloh, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, the battles around Corinth, and other engagements of minor importance; was captured at Missionary Ridge and taken to Rock Island, where, for nineteen months, he endured all the horrors and privations of prison life. He was exchanged at the mouth of Big Red River, in May of 1865, the last exchange of prisoners during the war. He was a gallant soldier, nobly espousing the cause, and truly merited the many marks of commendation and praise that he received from his superior officers. At the close of hostilities he returned home and came to Arkansas, as above stated. Mr. Jones is a stanch Democrat, though not an enthusiast in political matters. He is a Master Mason and a Knight of Honor, and a prominent and influential member of the Missionary Baptist Church. A leader, and not a follower, in worthy enterprises, he contributes liberally to all charitable objects, and enjoys the confidence and respect of his fellow-men.

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H. C. Jones, M. D., was a son of H. C. and Nancy (Akin) Jones, natives of North Carolina and Alabama, respectfully. The father went to Alabama from his native State, where he married, and in 1846 moved to Mississippi. Himself and wife were the parents of the following children: Silas S. (deceased), Rufus C., Happach (now Mrs. Braddock, of Texas), Josephine (now Mrs. Maddox), H. C. (our subject), Perry Q., Nancy and Adel J. (now Mrs. Leppard). Mr. Jones died in February, 1868, but his widow still survives him and lives in Mississippi. H. C. Jones, Jr., was born in Itawamba County, Miss., at old Correllville, now Baldwyn, where he resided until 1871, when he removed to Arkansas and settled in White County. Having previously obtained a good medical training, he commenced practicing here in 1873, and has met [p.184] with that success which close attention to business and careful, painstaking effort always merit. Dr. Jones, was married in 1869 to Sarah Q. Alford, a daughter of Thomas and Sarah Alford, of St. Clair County, Ala. They have a family of three children: Angie, Mark P. and Irena, all of whom are at home. Mr. Jones is an active Democrat; his wife and family are members of the Baptist Church. Dr. Jones is a very successful physician, and enjoys an extensive practice. He is also an excellent school worker, taking the lead in his township in all school enterprises, and is a local politician of some note.

Arthur Clifford Jordan, M. D. Among the younger members of the medical profession in White County, Ark., is he whose name heads this sketch, already well established as a physician of merit and true worth, and regarded with favor by those older in years and experience. He was born March 10, 1860, and is a son of John B. and Ella (Emmons) Jordan, of Scotch and English descent, born in Alabama and New York, respectively. They were married at Blackhawk, Miss., in 1858, and became the parents of three children: Arthur C., John Preston (born February 19, 1865, is a bookkeeper in the city of Memphis), Lena Lee (born in 1870, lives with her mother who is now widowed, her husband having died in October 1885). Dr. Arthur Clifford Jordan was reared in his native county (Holmes County, Miss.), and acquired a fair education in the Yazoo District high school. At the age of sixteen years he matriculated in the Literary Department of the University of Nashville, Tenn., and after attending school there for two years he began the study of medicine, being guided in his studies by his father, who was an able practitioner at Blackhawk. After holding the position of principal of the Masonic Male Academy, of Carrollton, Miss., for two terms, and teaching in the public schools of Holmes and Carroll Counties, he (in 1884) entered the Medical Department of the Vanderbilt University, and was graduated as an M. D. in 1886. In March of that year he returned to his home in Mississippi, and completed his preparations for his removal to Arkansas. He settled in Beebe in May of that year, commenced practicing, and has continued it with such success that an unusually brilliant future is predicted for him. He has performed many of the intricate operations which pertain to major and minor surgery. The Doctor is a Democrat and has served as alderman of Beebe, and is a member of the board of school directors. January 12, 1888, he was married to Miss Florence Merrill, who was born in Michigan October 25, 1871, and by her has one child, Mable Clare (born July 27, 1889). The Doctor and his wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and are among the honored residents of Beebe. His maternal grandfather was a major in the Revolutionary war.

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J. S. Kelley, retired, Judsonia, Ark. Not very far from the allotted age of three-score years and ten, Mr. Kelley has so lived that no word or reproach against his character as a man has ever been heard; for his whole ambition hasbeen to do his duty in every capacity, as a father, husband, citizen or friend. Progressive in all matters, he has kept outside of the political arena, though a Republican in politics. Like many of the older inhabitants of this community Mr. Kelley is a native of Vermont, his birth occurring in 1822, and is the son of Daniel and Mary (Ballard) Kelly. The father was born in Rhode Island, but when a boy immigrated to Vermont with his parents, and was reared in that grand old mother of States. Later he moved with parents to Vermont, and there met and married Miss Ballard, the daughter of David Ballard, a native of the last-mentioned State. After his marriage Mr. Kelley settled near Rutland, followed farming and there reared to maturity the following children: David, Erastus, Alonzo, Smith, Daniel, Julis, J. S., Moses and Elisha. The father died in Vermont in 1859, and his widow followed him to the grave in 1865. J. S. Kelley was taught the principles of farm life when young and sccured a fair education in the district schools of Vermont. He was married in that State in 1846 to Miss Mary Hall, a daughter of David and Esther (Wheaton) Hall, natives of Pittsford, Vt., and two children were the fruits of this union: Emma A. and Ella A. (twins). The former is now deceased, but the latter is the wife [p.185] of Rev. James Tompkins, of Galesburg, Ill., and now resides in Chicago. She is the mother of four children. J. S. Kelley left Vermont in 1854 and settled near Wheaton, Du Page County, Ill., where he followed agricultural pursuits until 1872. He then moved to Judsonia, White County, Ark., and in 1875 his wife died at Hot Springs. In 1876 he was married to Miss Willie Key, daughter of James and Elizabeth (Brown) Key, who settled in White County, Ark., in 1859. Mrs. Kelley was second in a family of nine children, who were named as follows: Cassie M., Willie P., Alpha B., George F., Etoils S., Benjamin F., Harriet C., Lena G. and Maud M. The parents of these children are still living and reside in Judsonia. By his marriage Mr. Kelley became the father of four interesting children: Fannie J., James C., Elmer L. and Ira W. Elmer died at the age of eighteen months. Mr. Kelley was a member of the Masonic lodge and also of the I. O. O. F. lodge in Illinois. When first coming to White County he engaged in the milling business, but later engaged in the livery business, which he continued for a number of years. He is now living a retired life. Mrs. Kelley is an honored and much-esteemed member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

James M. Key, retired farmer, Judsonia, Ark. This much-esteemed citizen owes his nativity to the Old Dominion, where his birth occurred in 1814, and is the youngest in a family of fourteen children born to the marriage of John and Elizabeth (Watson) Key, natives also of Virginia, the father's birth occurring in 1760. James M. Key was early taught the principles of farm life, and when twelve years of age went to Philadelphia, where for six years he attended school, there and at Burlington, N. J. In about 1833 he went to Alabama, and after remaining there a short time, removed to Tennessee, where he was married, in 1836, to Miss Mary Scruggs, a native of Virginia, and daughter of Robert and Mary Scruggs, who were also natives of that State. To the marriage of Mr. Key were born the following children: Hettie, John, Sidney, Mary A., Myra A., James R., Fannie W. and Floyd B. Mr. Key lost his wife in 1848, and was married again, in 1854, to Miss Elizabeth M: Brown, daughter of Colonel William R. and Sarah P. Brown. The result of this union were the following children: Sarah M., Willie P., Alfred B., Sallie E., Benjamin F., Harriet C., Lena (deceased), Maud and May. Mr. Key settled in White County, Ark., in 1858, followed agricultural pursuits on a farm consisting of from 300 to 400 acres, and there remained twelve years. He then moved and purchased a farm of 160 acres, seven miles from Judsonia, where he remained until 1888. He then retired from active pursuits and moved to Judsonia, where he expects to spend his declining years. He has seen many changes in the country since residing here, and is one of the county's most respected and honored citizens. He votes the Democratic ticket; is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; has been magistrate and takes great interest in all that pertains to the good of the county, schools, churches, etc., having helped to found the first churches in this part of the country. In early days Mr. Key took great interest in hunting and was quite a marksman. He had two sons in the late war. His wife is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

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Blount Stanley King, farmer and stock raiser, Little Red, Ark. The entire life of Mr. King has been one without any material change from the ordinary pursuits of farm toil, and yet not devoid of substantial results as an agriculturist. He is a native-born citizen of White County, his birth occuring in October, 1845, and is one of seven children born to the union of James and Susan (James) King, the father a native of East Tennessee, and probably of German descent. The ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War, and the grandfather participated in that world-renowned struggle. Mrs. Susan (James) King was a native of North Carolina. The parents came to Arkansas on January 6, 1829, and settled in Caldwell Township, White County, Ark., where Blount S. King received a limited education in the common schools. He was reared to agricultural pursuits, and has followed that calling all his life, meeting with substantial results. On June 4, 1871, he was [p.186] united in marriage to Miss Sarah Pinegar, and the fruits of this union were three children. Jerome L. was born April 1, 1874, but the other children died in infancy. Mrs. King died on September 5, 1875. On December 24, 1876, Mr. King took for his second wife, Miss Caroline Virginia Clark, a native of Kentucky, born May 10, 1855, and whose parents came to Arkansas from Kentucky, in 1856. This second union resulted in the birth of the following children: Noah Lot (born October 13, 1877, and died August 31, 1886), Austin Ward (born August 22, 1881), Willia M. (born October 7, 1883), Daniel D. (born July 31, 1885, and died April 23, 1888), and Florence Orenia (born on August 14, 1888). Mr. King came into possession of his farm by will from his father, eighty acres, with about eighteen under cultivation, and well adapted to agriculture or horticulture. He takes an interest in all matters relating to the good of the county, and his children are having as good educational advantages as his means will admit. He is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and he and his wife are members of the United Baptist Church.

 

John Thomas King, planter and stock raiser, Little Red, Ark. A lifetime devoted with perseverance and energy to the pursuit of agriculture, have contributed very materially to the success which has attended the efforts of Mr. King, a man of substantial and established worth. He was born in 1849, and is the son of James and Lonisa (James) King whose marriage took place in 1846. This union resulted in the birth of six children: Newton (born in 1847), John Thomas (born in 1849), Pinkney McDonald (born in 1851), Joseph (born in 1853), Jesse (born in 1855) and William (born in 1857). Previous to this James King married a sister of his second wife, Miss Susan James, in 1829, and by her became the father of seven children: Sophia (born in 1830), Richard (born in 1832), Jasper (born in 1834), Robert (born in 1837), Marion (born in 1839), Allen (born in 1842) and Blount S. (born in 1845). John Thomas King owes his nativity to White County, Ark., and his education was obtained in the subscription schools of that county. He was reared to agricultural pursuits, and when grown was united in marriage to Miss Mary Jane Pinegar, a native of Tennessee, born in 1848, and the daughter of William and Clarissa (Redmond) Pinegar. The wedding of our subject took place July 17, 1864, and ten children were born to them: Jesse (born in 1866), James (born in 1868), Eliza (born in 1870), LaFayette (born in 1872), Frances (born in 1874), Laura (born in 1876), Rosa (born in 1878), Viola (twin, born in 1880), Minnie (born in 1882) and David (born in 1884). Viola's twin sister died at birth. John T. King received by deed from his father eighty acres of land in Jackson Township, which he began to improve. In 1879 he purchased the old homestead which adjoined his eighty acres, and made the purchase just prior to the death of his father, receiving a deed from the latter and a dowery from his step-mother, she being his father's fourth wife. The father died on November 4, 1879, at the age of seventy-seven years. Our subject lived on the old home place, consisting of eighty-five acres, until 1886, when he moved to his present home in Denmark Township, where he now owns 275 acres of land with 100 acres under cultivation. His eldest son, Jesse King, was married to Miss Louisa Turley, a native of Arkansas, and the daughter of Samson and Mary Jane (Howell) Turley, and the result of this union has been two children: Commodore (born in 1886) and Fred (born in 1888). His son James was married November 21, to Miss Laura E. Middleton, daughter of Dr. P. A. and Amanda (Moseley) Middleton. Mr. and Mrs. John T. King are members in good standing in the United Baptist Church and are much respected by all acquainted with them. Mr. King is a member of the Agricultural Wheel No. 76. He is giving his children good educations and takes a deep interest in all school matters. His son Jesse is a professor of penmanship and LaFayette is well advanced in the English branches and is taking a commercial course at the Commercial College at Batesville, Ark., the present winter.

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E. C. Kinney, editor and proprietor of the Judsonian Advance, is a newspaper man of experience, and his connection with this paper dates from 1880, he being its organizer. He managed the paper until 1885, then sold out to B. W. Briggs, and then engaged in the general mercantile [p.187] business, selling out in the fall of 1889. September 18 of that year he again resumed control of the Judsonian Advance, and its advance under his management has been more noteworthy and rapid than formerly. At the present time it is recognized as a journal of decided merit, its editorials being written with a clearness and force which indicate a writer of ability. He was born in Livingston County, N. Y., in 1843, and is the eleventh of twelve children, born to Ezra and Louise (Clough) Kinney, the former a native of Connecticut, and a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1817, during the early history of Livingston County, N. ., he became one of its settlers, and experienced many of the hardships and inconveniences which are incident to early pioneer life. He died in 1855, and his wife in Walworth County, Wis., in 1868. E. C. Kinney was reared in Mount Morris, N. Y., and in youth learned the harness-maker's trade, and followed it some ten years. Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted at Rochester, N. Y., in the Fifty-eighth New York Infantry, Company E, as a private, and was promoted to corporal-sergeant, and in 1862 to second lieutenant. After participating in the battle of Manassas, he was on detached duty for some time, but was taken sick, and after remaining in the hospital at Annapolis, Md., about six months, he, in 1863 returned to Mount Morris, N. Y., and began following his trade. In 1865 he removed to Painsville, Ohio, and was married there in 1866, to Miss Anna R. Abbott, a native of Salem, Mass. Becoming dissatisfied with his location in Ohio, he determined to pushwestward, and in 1868 settled in Independence, Buchanan County, Iowa. Two years later he became connected with a circus, and was thus enabled to travel over the greater part of the United States. In 1870 he became connected with Sprague, Warner & Griswold, and later with Kinney & Co., and when with the latter company, traveled with a team from Chicago to New York City, making every town on the route selling goods. In 1878 he left Iowa and went overland to Davidson County, Dak., and homesteaded land, remaining there a sufficient length of time to see the full growth of Mitchell and Alexandria. In 1880 he came overland to White County, Ark., arriving here on May 17, and engaged in the hotel business. He has followed horticulture ever since his arrival in the county, and owns two fruit farms adjoining Judsonia, also one near Little Rock. He is an active Republican, and was president of the first Republican convention ever held in White County. He is the present mayor of the town, and has held other offices of public trust, Socially he is a member of Anchor Lodge No. 384, of the A. F. & A. M., and has been secretary of his order. His children are: George (a printer), Myrtie, Earl and Carlie.

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Hon. H. C. Knowlton. If industry united with a strong and determined perseverance can accomplish the desired ends, Mr. Knowlton should be, and is one of the well-to-do planters of the county. He came to the county in 1870, from the State of Tennessee, but was born in Vermont in 1825, being the youngest in a family of three children born to James and Lydia (Cheney) Knowlton, who were natives of the Bay State. They were married in that State in 1813, afterward settling in Vermont, where he worked at the blacksmith's trade until about 1829, at which time he moved to Lenawee County, Mich., and settled on a farm between Adrian and Tecumseh. He was one of the pioneers of this county, and became one of its wealthiest farmers. In 1842 he went to Anderson, Ind., and made that his home, and here his death occurred in 1847, his wife's death following his in 1860, her demise occurring in Tennessee. H. C. Knowlton learned the trade of a general mechanic in his youth, and after moving to Hardeman County, Tenn., in 1845, followed his trade until the opening of the war. He was married in Hardeman County, four years after his arrival in the State, to Miss Mary Agnes Stone, a native of Fayette County, Tenn., and a daughter of William H. and B. P. (Johnson) Stone, the former a Virginian, and the latter a native of North Carolina. At the age of eighteen the father went to Missouri, and assisted in surveying that State, then went to North Carolina, and was married there in 1818, after which he moved to Tennessee and engaged in farming, [p.188] making this his calling until his death in 1866. His wife died in 1877. In 1870 Mr. Knowlton came to White County, Ark., and purchased an improved farm of 200 acres, and at the present time has sixty acres under the plow. Although not an active politician, he supported the Democratic party until he affiliated with the Labor party in 1884, and in 1887 was elected on that ticket to the State legislature, serving one term. He is a strict temperance man, a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and socially is a member of Mount Pisgah Lodge No. 242, of the A. F. & A. M, and is treasurer of his order. The following are the children born to himself and wife: Mary C. (Mrs. Dr. Wells, of Marion Township), Horace C. (a farmer of the township), R. S. (a resident of Oregon), C. M. (who died in 1886), E. E. (who is married and lives in the township), J. D. (married and living in Big Creek Township), W. H. (married and living in the township), Lelia F. (Mrs. Cate) and W. B. (who died in 1875). Mr. and Mrs. Knowlton are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Enoch Langley, who is an able representative of the ginning interests of the county as well as the agricultural class, is of Georgian nativity, being born March 31, 1847, and was the third of seven children born to Enoch and Elizabeth (Stone) Langley, who were also of Georgia, and whose births occurred in the years 1824 and 1828. They were united in the holy bonds of marriage in 1843, and as a result of this union seven children came to gladden their hearts: Nancy, Oswell, Enoch (our subject), William B., Mary, Jepha and Kattie. Enoch Langley, heeding the call of his country, enlisted in 1864, in the Thirty-fifth Georgia Infantry and participated in the battles of Cross Junction and the battle of the Wilderness. After the close of the Rebellion he returned to Georgia and, in 1868, was married to Josephine Hopper, who was born July 5, 1852, and a daughter of Thomas C. and Martha (Hendrix) Hopper. Soon after this event Mr. Langley settled in Floyd County, Ga., and farmed for awhile, but in 1874 immigrated to Arkansas and settled in Des Arc Township, White County, and in 1880 bought 235 acres of land in Cadron Township, which he commenced to improve, and he now has 120 acres in a high state of cultivation. Nine children call Mr. and Mrs. Langley father and mother: John M. (born January 9, 1869), James T. (born November 26, 1870), Martha E. (May 30, 1874), Larah B. (January 10, 1878), Luther C. (April 27, 1878), Alice L (July 18, 1882), Enoch P. (November 28, 1884), Isam I. (December 9, 1887), Oscar B. (April 13, 1889). Mr. Langley is giving the ginning business, in which he has been very successful, his most watchful and careful attention. He is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and politically a strong and stanch Democrat, and anything relating to his adopted county or to any public enterprise receives his most hearty support.

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Rev. Isom P. Langley, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Beebe, owes his nativity to Arkansas, and was born in Clark County, September 2, 1851. His parents, Samuel S. and Mary J. (Browning) Langley, were natives of Arkansas and Alabama, respectively. Samuel S. Langley was born October 29, 1831, in Clark County, and is the son of Miles L. and Sally (Butler) Langley, natives of North Carolina, who came to Arkansas in 1818, and were married in this State in 1819. The maternal grandfather, Francis J. Browning, was a native of Georgia, and was born in 1800. His wife was a native of Alabama, and they were of English descent. The maternal ancestors were all finely educated, and figured as prominent men during their life. Francis J. Browning was a teacher and farmer, also a great and earnest worker in the Baptist Church, having served as a delegate to the first Baptist association that ever met south of the Arkansas River. This meeting was held at Spring Creek Church, near Benton, Saline County, August 12, 1835, and he was also one of the originators of Mount Bethel Church, six miles west of Arkadelphia, in 1835. At the time of his death, and for a number of years before it, he had been occupied as a teacher. He died in 1884, his wife having been called to her final home in 1879. Miles L. Langley died in 1831, and his wife in 1848. They were among the first settlers of Clark County, and endured all of the privations and [p.189] hardships incident to that time. To them a family of seven children were born: John (was in the Mexican War, also in California during the gold excitement, and is now a prosperous farmer of Clark County, Ark), Joseph (deceased, was a leading farmer of Clark County, where his family now live; his death occurred in 1882.), William (deceased, was a farmer, and lost his life by a tree falling on him, 1864, and at the time a soldier in the Confederate army), Miles L. (deceased, a very prominent Baptist minister. He was a member of the State Constitutional Conventions of 1864 and 1868, and was a chaplain in the State Senate. He died December 27, 1888.), Isom P. (is a prosperous farmer of Clark County, Ark.), Jensey (deceased) and Samuel S. (the father of the subject of this memoir, who is still living, and is a prosperous farmer of Pike County, Ark. He served four years in the Confederate army as second lieutenant, and was prisoner of war for nineteen months at Johnson's Island. He was also captain, and was acting commander at Helena. He and his estimable wife are earnest workers of the Baptist Church, and he is a Master Mason of considerable note). Rev. Isom P. is the eldest in a family of thirteen, ten of whom are now living: Thomas (deceased), Porter (deceased), Mary C., Andrew V., Permelia G., Abi (deceased), Samuel S., Jr., Annie, infant not named, Sallie, Robert, Penn and Frank. Our subject was reared to farm life, and spent his school-days in the schools of his county, and later took up the study of physiology and phrenology, under the tutorship of Miles L. Langley, his paternal uncle, and a man of very fine attainments; at the same time, and under the same teacher, he studied the English language. At the age of twenty-two he began the study of law under Gen. H. W. McMillan, of Arkadelphia, and Judges M. P. Dobey and H. H. Coleman. He completed his law course, and was admitted to the bar in 1875, and practiced his profession at Arkadelphia and Hot Springs until 1885, when he was obliged to discontinue it on account of throat disease. He joined the Baptist Church at the age of sixteen years, was licensed to preach in 1868, and ordained in 1869, since which time he has been engaged in the work of the ministry. He has filled the pulpits of Arkadelphia, Hot Springs, and that of the First Baptist Church of Little Bock, but a large share of his time has been devoted to churches where there was no regular pastorate. In 1880 he formed a partnership with Capt. J. W. and J. N. Miller, the firm name being Miller, Langley & Miller, editors of the Arkadelphia Signal, conducting the same with marked success until 1881. Mr. Langley then withdrew from the firm, and started the Arkansas Clipper, in 1882, a Greenback Labor paper, of which he was sole owner. This he published until 1883, then sold it and went to Hot Springs, and in company with a Mr. Allard founded and edited the Daily and Weekly Hot Springs News. In 1886 he became the editor of the Industrial Liberator, the official organ of the Knights of Labor, and made that paper a decided success, in the meantime having sold the Hot Springs News. He resigned his position in June, 1886, and engaged in the insurance business. He also purchased a controlling interest in the National Wheel Enterprise, acting as its editor until December 17, 1888, when he retired from the newspaper business, and in doing so deprived the literary and newspaper world of one of its brightest lights. In 1885 Mr. Langley became a member of the Local Assembly 2419, K. of L., at Hot Springs, the first assembly ever organized in the State, acting at present as one of the national organizers of that order. He is a member of Union Lodge 31, A. W., and was a delegate to the State convention that met at Litchfield in 1886. While at that convention he was elected as one of the delegates to the National Wheel, which met at the same time and place, and was its acting secretary. It was at this assembly that he wrote the constitution for the National Wheel, and at this same meeting was elected National Lecturer, and in that capacity wrote the demands of the National Wheel that were adopted at McKinzie, Tenn., November, 1887, and in all the conventions he has taken a very prominent part, and in behalf of the National Wheel made the response to Senator Walker's address of welcome at Meridian, Miss., December 5, 1888. That speech which elicited such favorable comment from the press, [p.190] was the crowning effort of his life, and placed him at the head of the list of deep thinkers and eloquent speakers in the labor ranks. On October 20, 1887, he became President of the Famous Life Association, of Little Rock, and served one year, managing its affairs with extraordinary ability. In 1886 he was nominated by a labor convention as a candidate for Congress against Judge J. H. Rogers, of the Fourth Congressional District, and polled more than twice the labor votes of his district. As a stump speaker he has no superior in the State. He has always figured prominently in schools, and was the secretary of the board that reorganized the splendid school system of Arkadelphia. Mr. Langley has done all kinds of work, from the hoeing of cotton to the highest calling man can perform, and is one of the best posted men in the State. In August, of 1870, he was married to Miss Martha A. Freeman, a native of Arkansas, and a daughter of Thomas J. Freeman. He was born in Little Bock, 1821, and settled in Clark County in 1840, where Mrs. Langley was born in 1851. To these parents have been born a family of five children, all living: Florence R., Charles E., Ada J., Katie and Lessie. Father, mother, and the three oldest children are members of the Baptist Church. Socially Mr. Langley affiliates with the I. O. O. F., and has filled all the offices of that order. He is a typical Arkansan, and perhaps is without his peer in public value in the State, considering his age.

Fayette T. Laster, well known to the residents of Russell, Ark., is a native of West Tennessee, his birth occurring in Decatur County, May 27, 1866. His father, William W. Laster, also of Tennessee, was born in 1837, and there married in 1860 to Sinthey A. Wright, of Tennessee, her birth occurring in 1840. Soon after their marriage they came to Arkansas and settled in White County, where they remained until their respective deaths. Mr. Laster was claimed by the grim destroyer, Death, 1886, and his faithful wife only survived him a few months, less than a year. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Laster three sons were born, of whom only one, Fayette T. (the subject of this memoir) is now living. Albert and John both died in Tennessee. Mr. Laster was a farmer, a hard-working and law-abiding citizen, and by his unostentatious manner gained many friends. At the date of his demise he had succeeded in amassing quite a comfortable amount of property and money. Fayette T. moved with his parents, when quite a boy, to Arkansas, where he grew to manhood with nothing but the monotonous routine of the pioneer's life to occupy his attention. His educational advantages were from necessity limited, as the schools at that time were far from satisfactory. He started out for himself at the age of twenty-one and began farming and stock raising, in which he is still engaged, and is meeting with very fair success. He now owns 200 acres of excellent bottomland, well improved and in a high state of cultivation. On September 28, Mr. Laster was united in matrimony with Ida (Lee) Mote, adopted daughter of John and Hattie Mote, and own daughter of Arcy and Martha C. Lee. To Mr. and Mrs. Laster's union two children have been born: Elva Theola (born September 10, 1878, and died December 6, 1888) and Belle Alrietia (born November 4, 1889). Mr. Laster is independent in his political views, casting his vote for the best interests of himself and the country at large. He is a prosperous young farmer, of industrious and frugal habits, and has gained the good will of his fellow-citizens.

 

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Winfield Scott Lay is a native Arkansan, his birthplace being Van Buren County, where he received his education. He enlisted at the age of seventeen in the Confederate Cavalry (Twenty-seventh Arkansas), in which he served until the close of the war, being with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri. Subsequently he attended school, remaining two years, and in 1868 came to Searcy, where he engaged as a clerk in a store and followed this for three years, then commenced business for himself on a capital of $600, and is now one of the leading business men in Searcy. In 1884 he was burned out, losing several thousand dollars worth of goods, but immediately built up again; and the following year did the largest business he has done before or since, selling $52,000 worth of goods. He was born on November 24, 1846, and is a son of William H. and Polly (Bacon) Lay, natives of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. William H. Lay went to Knox County, Tenn., when a young man, where he was married and resided until 1839, when he came to Arkansas and located in what was then Van Buren County, but which is now Cleburne County, where he farmed until his death. In his political views he was a strong Democrat, and while in Tennessee served several years as deputy sheriff, and afterward as sheriff. The Lay family is of English descent, the paternal grandfather of our subject coming to this country from old England. Mr. and Mrs. Lay were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. They were the parents of eight children, seven of whom are still living: Allen S., Elizabeth Witt, Emma Simmons, Sarah Fulko, Mattie Manus, Winfield Scott (who heads this sketch), and W. L. (now a resident of South America). W. S. Lay was married in Searcy on September 13, 1870, to Miss Nannie Stevenson, a daughter of the Rev. Alexander Stevenson, pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at Searcy, and who was born in White County in 1853. Mr. Lay is one of eight stockholders in the Searcy and West Point Railroad, of which he is also a director and secretary. He is a strong Democrat, and a wide-awake business man, and has one of the largest trades in his line in Searoy. [p.192]

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[p.193] Hon. F. P. Laws, president of the local board of immigration at Beebe, Ark., also engaged in selling wagons, buggies and farming implements, has probably done more to develop the resources of White County than any other one person, and is a very popular man wherever he is known. He is a native of Missouri, and was born in what is now Benton County May 10, 1840. His father, Joel J., was a native of North Carolina, and was born February 17, 1812, in Wilkes County, and was considered one of the best farmers of his section. His wife, the mother of the subject of this sketch, was also of North Carolina nativity, her birth occurring about 1814. Her name was Martha Grissum, and was of English ancestry, as was also her husband. She was a bright and highly cultured lady. Mr. and Mrs. Laws were married in North Carolina in 1838, and the same week left for Missouri, settling in what is now Benton County, and there lived for about two years. They then moved to Farmington, St. Francis County, but at the time of Mr. Laws' death, in 1848, they were residing in Ste. Genevieve County. He was a life-long Democrat, though not an active politician. In his religious faith he was not identified with any particular church, but was a man of high moral character, honor, and strict integrity, and one who always left a pleasant impression and a desire to enlarge acquaintance with him. After her husband's death Mrs. Laws married again, her second marriage taking place in 1850 to Mr. Harvill Shepherd, a farmer of Ste. Genevieve County, and by him became the mother of four children. She was left a widow in 1858, and is at present living with her third husband, Mr. Humphfrey, a farmer of Miller County. Hon. F. P. Laws is the oldest in a family of four children as follows: Hon. F. P., Jane (Mrs. A. J. Humphfreys of Crawford County), Mary (married, living in Miller County, Mo.), Marion J. (married, and a well-to-do farmer). F. P. was reared to farm life, and received such advantages for an education as the schools of that period afforded. At the age of seventeen he left his step-father's home and started out to make his fortune, facing the world with nothing to back him but his courage and determination to succeed. He went first to Franklin County, Mo., and engaged in the lumber business for about four years, and was very successful. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate army, and served for one year. He then returned to Washington, Mo., and resumed his work in the lumber business, and while there fell in with his friend, Mr. Morris, of New Orleans, and from him secured the contract to furnish the heavy square timbers for the first grain elevator ever erected in the city of St. Louis. This contract was successfully carried out, and was the means of his securing lucrative employment in the way of large contracts. During the years 1872-73 he built sixty miles of fence for the ‘Frisco Railroad, but the panic of 1873, in which so many were financially embarrassed, left him without

regular work until 1875. He next traded for a tract of land fourteen [p.194] miles north of Beebe, Ark., and moved to Beebe at once, but the same year sold the saw-mill and land, continuing the timber business in Beebe, also building several houses there. Ever since his residence in White County he has been interested in all movements for the good of the county, and is a liberal contributor to all worthy enterprises. He engaged in the real-estate business in 1888, and when the Beebe Board of Immigration was organized he was elected president, and has since given his time and attention to that work. In September, 1883, Hon, F. P. Laws was elected on the Democratic ticket as a Prohibitionist to the office of county and probate judge, and in that capacity did more for the county in the way of internal improvements than had ever been done before by any one county judge. He built a good fire-proof jail on the latest improved plans, bettered the condition of the county farm by erecting three new and comfortable houses, and took special care of the county poor. He repaired all the existing bridges, and built five new ones in different parts of the county, where they were greatly needed, also bought a copy of the field notes of the county and placed them on file in the county clerk's office. At the expiration of his term of office he left the county without a saloon in it. Judge Laws organized the Beebe Artesian Well Company, in August, 1889, and is acting president of the same, and fills the same position in the Southern Building & Loan Association. October 17, 1864, witnessed Judge Laws' marriage with Miss Lorinda J. Johns, a native of Missouri and a daughter of one of the oldest families of Franklin County. To their union six children have been born, only one now living: Nellie, a charming young lady of fourteen. Mamie, Eddie, Charlie, Jennie and Bessie are deceased. Judge Laws was made a Mason in Pacific Lodge No. 159, A. F. & A. M., in 1864, at Pacific Mo., and with his wife and daughter is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He was a lay delegate to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, which met at Richmond, Va., in 1866, and was a delegate to the annual conference which met at Searcy December 11, 1889.

George W. Leggett, the well-known dry-goods merchant, of Floyd, has been engaged in the mercantile business since 1878, first in Mount Pisgah, and two years later in Floyd, where he is at present engaged. He was born in Hardeman County, Tenn., in 1849, and was a son of E. S. and Polly (Whitford) Leggett. E. S. Leggett owes his nativity to Tennessee, being born in that State in 1811, and is son of Daniel Leggett, who settled in Tennessee at an early day. He engaged in the mercantile business in Tennessee in 1849, and later came to White County, Ark., where he still continues in business. Mrs. Leggett was a daughter of David Whitford, of Tennessee, and died in White County in 1885. George W. was married in 1875 to Lue Bailey, who died in 1885, leaving one child, also deceased. Mr. Leggett was married the second time to Miss Vincie Greer (a daughter of O. and Coraline Greer, of this county). They are the parents of two children: Vincie Pearl and Henry L. Mr. Leggett was appointed postmaster under President Garfield, and has held the position ever since. He carries a large stock of general merchandise, and does the largest business in his line in the place, having a trade of about $1,500 to $25,000 per year. He also owns a farm of 140 acres, eighty of which are under cultivation. In politics Mr. Leggett is a strong Democrat.

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Dr. John L. Leggett, known to be one of the most progressive farmers in his township, and well qualified to discharge the trust reposed in him by the people, commenced the study of medicine shortly after the war, under Dr, M. F. Dumas, and upon obtaining his certificate in 1876, located at Little Red, White County, and commenced practicing. On coming out of the army he was without means, but taking up the study of medicine he became very proficient and very successful as a physician, but in 1883 he turned his attention to the mercantile business and to farming, and now owns a fine farm of 250 acres on the Red River, mostly bottom land, with 150 acres under cultivation, and is one of the most extensive farmers in Jackson Township. The Doctor was born in Madison County, Tenn., October 9, 1844, and is a son of E. S. and Polly (Whitford) Leggett, natives [p.195] of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively. E. S. Leggett came to Madison County, Tenn., when a boy with his parents, and after his marriage was engaged in farming in that State until 1860, when he removed to Arkansas, locating in White County. He has filled the office of justice of the peace for a number of years, is a Democrat and belongs to the Baptist Church, as did also his wife, who died in 1876, being the mother of ten children, five of whom are still living: F. M., J. B., George, Martha (now Mrs. Rushing) and John L. (our subject). The senior Leggett is still a resident of White County, and is eighty years of age. Dr. Leggett enlisted in the Confederate service, in 1861, in the Eighth Arkansas Infantry, in which he served one year. He then came home and joined the Tenth Missouri Cavalry, and took part in the memorable Missouri raid, and also in a number of hard-fought battles. In 1866 he was married to Miss Bettie Martin, a native of Alabama. They were the parents of ten children, eight of whom are still living: Mary (wife of D. C. Middleton, a farmer of this county), William L., Lewis T., Icy, Ida, Charles, Lida and Isaac. Mrs. Leggett is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. Dr. Leggett is one of the most enterprising men of his community, and a leading Democrat, and has served as postmaster at Little Red since 1876.

John H. Leib. Near the little town of Lancaster, Ohio, on November 13, 1836, John H. Leib first saw the light of day, being one of ten children born to the marriage of John and Elizabeth Leib. John Leib, Sr., was born in York, Penn., in the year 1800, and his wife was born the same year in Juniata County, Penn. They were united in marriage in Bremen, Fairfield County, Ohio, in 1823, and spent fifty-seven years in happy wedded life. Mr. Leib died in 1883, at the age of eighty-three years, and at the time of his death was in Russell, Ark. His wife had gone to her final rest in the year 1880, aged eighty years. They resided in the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and were quite successful in the accumulation of wealth, being quiet, industrious people. For many years Mr. Leib was an old line Whig, but at the dissolution of that party he united with the Republican, though was not active in party measures or campaigns. In their family of ten children only five are now living: James (a farmer of Lagrange County, Ind), Benjamin (farmer, resident of Crawford County, Ind.), John H. (the subject of this sketch), Anna E. (living in White County, Ark., and Mary J. (Mrs. William Poindexter, of Crawford County, Ind.). Lydia, John and Augustus were born and died at Bremen, Ohio. Hamilton deceased at Russell, and George S. died at Chauncey, Ill. John H. resided at Bremen, Ohio, until sixteen years of age, at that date removing with his parents to Lagrange County, Ind. His education was limited to the common schools of the period, and though they were far from satisfactory, he managed to acquire a thorough knowledge of business, and is now a well-informed man. In November of 1861 Mr. Leib entered the United States army as a volunteer in the Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry, in Col. Eddy's regiment. He enlisted as a private, but was soon promoted to the office of first lieutenant in Capt. Mann's Company G. His ability was recognized and commented on by his superior officers, and in 1865 he was given the title of captain, commanding a company until the close of the war. He participated in the siege of Corinth, Vicksburg, and in the battles of Iuka, Corinth, Raymond, Champion's Hill, Jackson and Black River Bridge in the State of Mississippi, Altoona and Bentonville in Georgia, also in Chattanooga, Tenn. He was with Gen. Sherman on his famous march to the sea. After the close of hostilities, Mr. or rather Capt. Leib returned home and engaged in farming and stock raising, which is still his occupation. He is a Royal Arch Mason, having reached the seventh degree, and is a liberal contributor to schools, churches and all public enterprises.

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Benjamin W. Lewis. David and Elvira (Hagler) Lewis, the parents of the subject of this sketch, were natives of North Carolina and settled in Tennessee at an early day, rearing a family of thirteen children: Benjamin W., Nancy F., J. L., Elizabeth, Lucy, Polly, Lucinda, John L., Elvira, Sarah, William, Richard (also a resident of Kane Township, [p.196] White County) and Martha. Mr. Lewis died in Tennessee in 1870, and his wife in 1852. B. W. was born in Western Tennessee, where he grew up on a farm and was educated in the common schools. He was married on January 2, 1851, to Mary E. Hastings, a daughter of John M. C. and Elizabeth (Sexton) Hastings, of North Carolina nativity, and who immigrated to Tennessee at an early day. After his marriage Mr. Lewis settled on a farm in Henry County, Tenn., where he lived until 1870, when he removed to Arkansas, and settled in Gray Towship, White County, and three years later bought a farm of 160 acres in Cane Township, where his home now is. He enlisted in the fall of 1862 in the Forty-sixth Tennessee Infantry, commanded by Col. J. M. Clark, and was in the service five months. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have a family of eight children, all of whom were born in Tennessee: Nancy J. (now Mrs. Osborn), John D. (lives in this township), William L., James W. (deceased), L. D., Henry W., Elvira (wife of Dr. V. W. Ware, of this township) and Benjamin F. In polities he is an active Democrat, and takes a strong interest in all work for public improvement, and has been school director for the past five years. Himself and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which Mr. Lewis is one of the trustees.

On to Part 2