Biographical and Historical Memoirs
of Eastern Arkansas

 

 

 

PHILLIPS COUNTY–

E. F. Wylie, farmer and stock raiser, Fairmount, Ark. Of that sturdy and independent class, the farmers and stock men of Arkansas, there are none who possess more genuine merit or stronger character than he whose name stands at the head of this sketch. Mr. Wylie owes his nativity to Indiana, where his birth occurred July 8, 1830. His father (A. M. Wylie) was a native of Kentucky, born in 1819, and in that State he received his education. Subsequently he emigrated to Indiana, and there married Miss Rebecca Farmer, a native of Indiana, and the daughter of Jesse and Rhoda Farmer. The fruits of this union were ten children: Augusta C., E. F. and Julia O. The remainder died while young. The father was a farmer by occupation, and this pursuit continued the principal part of his life. His wife died in 1849, and he chose for his second wife Miss Elizabeth Young, who bore him three children: Ellen, George and Lillie. Mr. Wylie held the office of sheriff of Tipton County, Ind., for three terms, and was a man who took quite an interest in church and educational matters. He died in 1881, but his wife is still living, and resides in Illinois. He was a member of the Baptist Church, to which his wife also now belongs. E. F. Wylie received his education in Illinois and emigrated to Missouri in 1853, where he married Miss Sarah J. Richardson, on May 24, of the same year. She was born in Indiana, and by her marriage became the mother of six children: Rebecca J. (deceased), Emma C. (wife of Fulton Harris), Martha O. (wife of John Vaughn), Augustus M., Norton W., Cora A. (who resides at home) and Charles E. The mother of these children died in 1886. Mr. Wylie emigrated from Missouri to Arkansas in 1874, and located in Prairie County, where he now resides. In 1887 he married Miss Emma E. Hollaway, and to this union has been born one child, Henry W. Mr. Wylie has followed farming and stock raising nearly all his life; is the owner of 400 acres of land, with sixty acres under cultivation, and is one of the progressive and enterprising farmers of the county. He was Master of the Grange for two years, and has held the office of justice of peace for four

years. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

Ye pioneers, it is to you

The debt of gratitude is due|

Ye builded wiser than ye knew

The broad foundation

On which our superstructure stands.—Pewrrs.

PHILLIPS COUNTY was organized in secordance with an act of the legislature of Arkansas Territory, approved May 1, 1820. It then included a large amount of territory lying north of its present limits, which has since been organized into several counties. The county was named in honor of Sylvanus Phillips, a pioneer settler, and one of the original proprietors of the site of the present city of Helena. Soon after the county was organized, the seat of justice thereof was located at this place, and about the year 1821, Nicholas Rightor, an early settler and Government surveyor, surveyed and laid out a town on lands belonging to Sylvanus Phillips and William Russell, and it was named Helena, in honor of Miss Helena Phillips, a daughter of Sylvanus Phillips. Russell was not a settler of the county. He lived at St. Louis, Mo., was a great land speculator, and owned a part of the lands on which the city of Little Rock was located, and was one of the company that laid out the capital city. He obtained his lands by locating soldier claims on the best lands he could find, and then buying them of such claimants as did not desire to occupy them at very low prices. In this way he accumulated a vast amount of the best lands in Arkansas.

page 740

The first county building, which was a two-story log building, with a court room above and the jail below, stood on the ridge a short distance south of the present court house. The next county buildings, consisting of a small two-story frame court house and a one-story log jail, stood on the east of Main or Ohio Street, south of Porter Street. Early in the Civil War period this court house took fire and burned down (supposed to have taken fire accidentally). The county then rented a [p.740] building for court purposes and county offices until the present court house was ready for occupancy.

The present jail, a large two-story brick structure, was erected in 1860. It stands on a lot east of and adjoining the court house square. The court house is a large and plain two-story brick building, with halls, stairs and office rooms on the first floor and the court room on the second. It was completed in 1871, in "reconstruction" times, and is said to have cost the county much more than it should have cost. It stands in the northwestern part of the city, on a bill so elevated that a commanding view of the city can be obtained therefrom. A beautiful grass lawn surrounding the house is kept in good order.

The following is a list of names of county officers of Phillips County, from its organization to the present, with dates of terms of service annexed:

Judges: J. H. McKenzie, 1829-32; J. J. McKeal, 1832-33; I. C. P. Tolleson, 1835-36; W. E. Butts, 1836-38; T. B. Hanley, 1838-40; W. E. Butts, 1840-42; A. G. Underwood, 1842-44; J. S. Hornor, 1844-46; A. G. Underwood, 1846-56; A. P. Ewarts, 1856-58; A. G. Underwood, 1858-60; J. B. Shell, 1860-62; A. P. Ewarts, 1864-65; E. G. Cook, 1865-66; George West, 1866-68; Q. K. Underwood, 1868-72; board of supervisors, 1872-74; S. J. Clark, 1874-78; M. T. Sanders, 1878-82; R. W. Nicholls, present incumbent, first elected in 1882, re-elected, and has served continuously since.

Clerks: W. B. R. Hornor, 1820-21; S. Phillips, 1821-23; S. M. Rutherford, 1823-25; H. L. Bisco, 1825-27; G. W. Fereby, 1827-29; Austin Hendricks, 1829-30; S. C. Mooney, 1830-32; J. R. Sanford, 1832-38; J. S. Hornor, 1838-42; William Kelley, 1842-44; L. D. Maddox, 1844-48; R. H. Yates, 1848-52; E. H. Cowley, 1852-62; J. H. Maxey, 1864-66; E. H. Cowley, 1866-68; S. J. Clark, 1868-74; D. W. Elison, 1874-78; —– Thompson, 1878-82; Whit Jarmin, 1882-88; James C. Rembert, present incumbent, elected in 1880.

Sheriffs: Daniel Mooney, 1820-23; George Seaborn, 1823-25; Daniel Mooney, 1825-27; H. L. Brisco, 1827-30; F. Hanks, 1830-32; H. L. Brisco, 1832-35; M. Irvin, 1835-44; W. M. Bostick, 1844-48; D. Thompson, 1848-52; A Thompson, 1852-58; B. W. Green, 1858-62; B. W. Green, 1864-65; J. Graves, 1865-66; B. Y. Turner 1866-68; D. C. Gordon, 1868-72; A. Barrow, 1872-74; H. B. Robinson, 1874-78; B. Y. Turner, 1878-84; E. D. Pillow, present incumbent, first elected in 1884.

Treasurers: J. B. Ford, 1836-52; E. P. Scantland, 1852-54; J. Locke, 1854-56; W. D. Hornor, 1856-58; William Lonford, 1858-60; E. K. Harris, 1860-62; R. A. Yerby, 1864-66; W. H. Crawford, 1866-68; S. H. Brooks, 1868-72; N. Straub, 1872-78; S. H. King, 1878-80; E. M. Ford, 1880-86; N. Straub, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Coroners: Peter Edwards, 1823-25; W. H. Calvert, 1829-32; Enor Askew, 1832-33; S. S. Smith, 1833-35; P. Pinkston, 1835-36; W. Battis, 1886-38; J. Skinner, 1838-40; A. Sanders, 1840-42; W. H. Calvert, 1842-50; M. Platt, 1850-54; J. M. Odle, 1854-56; R. Goodwin, 1856-58; W. A. Dickson, 1858-60; W. A. Thorn, 1860-62; T. Wallace, 1864-65; A. Neal, 1865-66; J. J. Mulky, 1866-68; C. Williams, 1872-74; Samuel Hill, 1874-78; T. H. Quarles, 1878-80; John Grenshaw, 1880-82; T. N. Upshaw, 1882-84; R. W. McKenny, 1884-86; C. H. Hicks, 1886-88; Abe Crawford, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Surveyors: N. Rightor, 1823-25; N. Rightor, 1829-30; B. Burress, 1830-32; C. P. Smith, 1832-35; Charles Pearcy, 1835-36; C. P. Smith, 1836-38; H. Turner, 1838-40; J. H. Bonner, 1840-42; S. Weaver, 1842-44; S. Goodman, 1844-46; J. Thomas, 1846-48; S. K. Goodman, 1848-50; E. H. Gilbert, 1850-60; M. D. Norton, 1860-63; E. H. Gilbert, 1864-68; F. Trunkey, 1868-72; M. M. Robinson, 1872-76; W. W. Bailey, 1876-78; B. F. Thompson, 1878-82; R. A. Blount, 1882-86; Thomas M. Jacks, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Assessors: J. C. Watson, 1864-65; H. Campbell, 1865-66; J. A. Bush, 1866-68; H. B. Robinson, 1868-72; T. Grissom, 1872-74; A. Barrow, 1874-76; M. G. Turner, 1876-78; B. W. Green, [p.741] 1878-88; M. G. Turner, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Circuit court clerks: J. P. Clopper, 1878-80; J. F. Humphries, 1880.

Delegates in constitutional conventions: 1836, Henry L. Brisco and George W. Ferebey; 1861, T. B. Hanley and C. W. Adams; 1864, J. A. Butler, T. M. Jacks and Thomas Pearce; 1868, Joseph Brooks, Thomas Smith, William H. Gray and James T. White; 1874, J. J. Hornor, J. T. White and R. Polk.

Representatives in Territorial legislature: Daniel Mooney in council and W. B. R. Hornor in house, 1823; J. W. Calvert in council and H. L. Brisco in house, 1825; E. T. Clark in council and John Johnson in house, 1827; F. Hanks in council and E. T. Clark in house, 1829; Charles Caldwell in council and T. Hanks in house, 1831; W. T. Moore in council and M. Hanks in house, 1833.

Representatives in State legislature: J. C. P. Tolleson and J. J. Shell, 1836-38; J. J. Shell and F. Hanks, 1840-42; Elisha Burke and T. B. Hanley, 1842-44; E. Burke and F. B. Culver, 1844-46; E. Burke and Bailey Kendall, 1846-48; John Martin and W. E. Preston, 1848-50; W. E. Preston and J. C. Tappan, 1850-52; G. Geffries and A. Wilkins, 1852-54; R. B. Macon and W. D. Rice, 1854-56; Francis H. Moody, 1856-58; Thomas C. Anderson, 1858-60; J. C. O. Smith and Thomas J. Key, 1860-62; H. P. Slaughter and W. N. Mixon, 1866-67; J. A. Butler, M. Reed, J. C. Tobiast, W. H. Gray, J. J. T. White and J. K. Whitson, Phillips and Monroe, 1868-69; same counties, G. W. Hollibough, A. Mays, J. M. Peck, Austin Barrow, C. C. Waters and J. M. Alexander, Jr., 1871; same counties, J. W. Williams, Tony Grissom, John W. Fox, W. H. Furbush, G. H. W. Stewart and H. H. Robinson, 1873; same counties, T. M. Jacks, P. McGowan and W. Foreman, 1874; Phillips only, Tony Grissom, A. H. Miller and Perry Coleman, 1875; Perry Coleman, J. M. Donohoe and T. M. Jacks, 1877; Greenfield Quarles, T. B. Hanley and W. R. Burke, 1879; G. Quarles, A. G. Jarman and J. P. Roberts, 1881; S. H. Brooks, R. B. Macon and John J. Moore, 1883; J. P. Roberts, W. R. Burke and S. H. King, 1885; R. B. Macon, James P. Clarke and J. M. Donohoe, 1887.

In 1888 the number of votes cast in Phillips County for State and National candidates for office was as follows: For Governor, at the September election, James P. Eagle (Dem.), 1,123; C. M. Norwood (Com. Opp.), 3,278. For President, at the November election, Cleveland (Dem.), 789; Harrison (Rep.), 2,123. This shows the Republicans to have a very large majority in the county, but before the September election, 1888, a compromise county ticket, composed of candidates from both parties, was put into the field, and at the election it was successful, hence the county officers are representatives of both parties, and it is said that this gives general satisfaction.

The population of the county since its inception has been, at the end of each decade, as follows: 1820, 1,197; 1830, 1,152; 1840, 3,547; 1850, 6,935; 1860, 5,931 white and 8,945 colored, make a total of 14,876; 1870, 4,871 white and 10,501 colored, total, 15,372; 1880, white 5,444, colored 15,809, total 21,253.

The county court, proper, was organized in 1829, and prior to this time the county business was transacted in the circuit court. Since 1829 there has always been a county court, but from 1872 to 1874 it consisted of a board of supervisors. The several courts of Phillips County convene in regular session at Helena at the following dates: County, on the first Monday of January, April, July and October of each year; common pleas, on the third Monday of the same months; probate, on the third Monday of February, March, August and November; circuit, on the third Monday of May and November.

As far back as 1836, the year that Arkansas became a State, the Helena bar consisted of the following resident attorneys: William K. Sehastian and John C. P. Tolleson from Tennessee; William E. Butts from New York; Thomas B. Hanley and William M. McPherson from Kentucky, and John Preston from Virginia. These were mostly young men then, and some of them lived to become distinguished throughout the State. The bar [p.742] of this county has always been noted for its ability, having among its members some of the ablest lawyers and most distinguished generals the State, has produced. The resident attorneys of Phillips County, now composing its legal bar, are Gen. J. C. Tappan, Judges John J. Hornor & Son, E. C. Hornor, Jacob Trieber and M. L. Stephenson, John C. Palmer and R. W. Nicholls, Greenfield Quarles and John I Moore, James P. Clarke, P. O. Thweatt, Jacob Fink, Samuel I. Clarke, James P. Roberts and M. G. B. Scaife. Gens. Pat. R. Cleburne and Thomas C. Hindman were once members of this bar.

Phillips County, locsted in East Central Arkansas, is bounded north by the base line of the public land surveys which separates it from Lee County, east by the Mississippi River which separates it from the State of Mississippi, south by Desha County, and west by Arkansas and Monroe Counties. The northwest corner of the county is at the initial point where the fifth principal meridian crosses the base line, and this meridian forms a portion of the western boundary of the county. The area is about 659 square miles, two-fifths of which is alluvial level land, and only about one-sixth of the county is improved.

 

Crowley's Ridge which runs through Greene, Craighead, Poinsett, Cross, St. Francis and Lee Counties, forming the divide between St. Francis and Cache Rivers, terminates in Phillips County just below the city of Helena. In the upper counties this ridge has an elevation of only a few feet above the river bottoms, but in Phillips it is very billy and broken, the hills extending from 100 to 200 feet in height. The top of this ridge, throughout its entire length in Arkansas, is composed, for the most part of silicions clay and marl of quarternary date, usually resting on a bed of water-worn gravel. Numerous springs of good cool water flow from beneath this gravel bed along the eastern foot of the ridge near Helena. The most noted of these is the "Big Spring," two and a half miles above Helena, which forms a considerable stream where it flows from under the gravel bed at the base of the ridge.

The following section, showing the position of the material composing Crowley's Ridge, was taken in 1859 or 1860 close to Mr. Rightor's dwelling in the edge of the city of Helena, by the then State geologist, Prof. David Dale Owen: Quartenary: Yellow, silicious clay, six feet; marl, with fossil shells. At this place, the marl was traversed by two vertical cracks one inch in width, and filled with sand from the stratum beneeth. Tertiary: Yellow and orange sand and gravel, twenty feet; gravel, six inches; space concealed, reddish clay, nine feet; plastic only (potter's) local, six inches; yellowish and white sand, with some

gravel, five feet; sand and gravel, fifteen feet; space concealed, twelve feet; bed of slough.

The geologist further said in his report: "In Phillips County there are many remains of old fortifications or aboriginal towns to be seen, monuments of a bygone race, of whose history no tradition known to the white man has been preserved by the occupants of the country. One of these ancient works of art, four miles west of Helena, at the terminus of Crowley's Ridge, was visited. The embankments now nearly destroyed by the washing of the rains, and the cultivation of a part of the land, were built of sun-dried clay, mixed with stems and leaves of the cane. The vegetable structure of the cane is still well preserved in the clay matrix, and I could in no instance, find any evidence of the cane's having been charred by fire, hence the conclusion that it received no greater heat than that given it by the sun. Nor is there any appearance of fashioned brick, of which it is said this wall was built. The clay and stems of cane appear to have been mixed together and molded into a wall, somewhat after the manner of a pise. The northern boundary of this enclosure is formed by the hills, and within the interior there are a number of small mounds."

Agriculturally speaking, Phillips County ranks equal to any in the State. The broad Mississippi in the southern part, interspersed with small, old lakes and bayous, is remarkably fertile. In the western part, watered by Big Creek, there is a large body of level land formed by the gradual flattening out of the Crowley's Ridge; hence, it has received the name of table lands.

A considerable district of land a few miles below Helena, is known as "Sugar-tree Ridge," so called, because of the large amount of trees of that name grown thereon. This ridge is elevated a few feet above the overflow of the Mississippi. Aside from the sugar trees, the timber growth consisted of black walnut, red oak, persimmon, white and red elm, sweet gum, mulberry and large sassafras. Here traces of old fortifications and mounds have been found, and in plowing over the latter, human bones, implements of pottery, arrow-heads and stone axes have been found. The low bottom lands of the lakes and sloughs are from ten to fifteen feet lower than the ridge land, and have a bluish-black, stiff, plastic soil when wet, but when dry it becomes mellow, and easily pulverizes under cultivation. The alluvial land adjoining the Mississippi is a sandy loam, easily cultivated, and is very productive. The hill land soil is derived from the silicious, marly, quartenary clay above the gravel. It is also very fertile. The timber growth on Crowley's Ridge originally was large poplar, beech, red and white oak, spanish oak, hickory, sweet gum, black walnut, butternut, sugar tree, honey locast and cans. The only poplar trees in Arkansas grow on Crowley's Ridge. The table lands have for the most part, a deep yellow, or mulatto soil, which is also very fertile. The principal growth is sweet gum, but on the most elevated portions are the same timbers as are found on Crowley's Ridge.

The St. Francis River empties into the Mississippi a short distance south of the northeast corner of Phillips County. Big Creek enters the county from the north about nine miles east of its northwest corner, and flows southeasterly, southerly and southwesterly, and leaves the county a little north of the center of its western boundary. Beaver Bayou heads a little east of the center of the county and flowing thence south westerly it empties into White River. Another stream rises near the canter of the county and flowing in the same direction as the latter also empties into White River. These streams, with the Mississippi on the east, and their tributaries, furnish the drainage of the county. Water is abundant for all purposes, but for domestic use spring water and cistern water are mostly used.

Improved lands can be bought at from $10 to $20, and unimproved at from $1 to $5 per acre. The yield of crops per acre is said to be as follows: Cotton, on hill lands, 600 pounds; on bottom lands, 1,000 pounds; Indian corn, on uplands, average crop, seventeen bushels; oats, twenty bushels; Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes, 100 bushels each; turnips, 200 bushels; field pess, fifty bushels per acre. Of the tame grasses, timothy, red top and orchard grass are said to yield two tons each, and clover and millet, three tons each. The yields of grain and vegetables are given according to the present system of farming, and are far below what they could be under a scientific process of farming. But very little tame grass of any kind has been cultivated in the county. The attention of the farmers is mostly devoted to the raising of cotton, and the live stock get their living by grazing the native wild grasses on the commons or ranges. In 1880, according to the United States censue, there were in Phillips County, 1,311 farms and 85,379 acres of improved lands. The aggregate yield of products for 1879 were given as follows: Cotton, 29,070 bales; Indian corn, 332,585 bushels; oats, 13,410 bushels; wheat, 367 bushels; orchard products, $3,512; hay, 1,401 tons; Irish potatoes, 6,261 bushels; sweet potatoes, 21,956 bushels; tobacco, 11,172 pounds. The entire value of all the farm products raised in the county in 1879 were calculated at $1,548,538. Assuming that there has not been much change since 1880, except the increase of quantities, the above flgures show conclusively what kinds of products are mostly cultivated. Cotton stands pre-eminently at the head, ndian corn next, all the other products, except sweet potatoes, being very limited.

The number of domestic animals in the county, according to the census of 1880, were as follows: Horses, 1,783; mules and asses, 2,850; neat cattle, 8,998; sheep, 2,230; hogs, 14,217. The number of these animals as shown by the assessor's returns for 1889, are as follows: Horses, 2,402; mules and asses, 3,403; neat cattle, 8,060; sheep, 1,953; hogs, 7,362. These figures show an increase in the [p.744] number of horses and mules, but a decrease in the number of all the others.

Fruits of all kinds, common to this latitude, can be grown as well here as in any of the other valley counties of the State. Small fruits, especially for the Northern market, could be grown here with profit. But this industry has not been developed to any considerable extent. Cotton-growing seems to be the all-absorbing industry.

The Helena branch of the Iron Mountain Railroad connects Helena with the main line at Knobel, in Clay County. This gives Phillips County a direct outlet to the North and at the several roads crossing it, to all points east or west. It enters the county from the north and traverses it about fifteen miles to its southern terminus at Helena. The Arkansas Midland Railway connects Helena with the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Railway at Clarendon. It traverses across the entire county, a distance of about twenty-seven miles. A transfer across the Mississippi River, connects Helena with the Lonisville, New Orleans & Texas Railroad on the east side of the river, and thus gives an outlet directly by rail to the Crescent City, and to all points east of the river. These railroads and the Mississippi River, which traverses the entire eastern border of the county, constitute its shipping facilities.

The United States census of 1880 shows that the real estate of the county was then assessed at $776,080, and the personal property at $440,640, making a total of the taxable wealth of $1,216,720. The assessor's returns for 1889, indicetes the real estate to have been assessed at $2,408,495, and the personal property at $977,990, a total of $3,386,485. This shows a wonderful increase in the value of the property of the county since 1880. To get a fair estimate of the real value, the whole amount returned by the assessor should be thribbled. Property is generally assessed for taxstion at only about one-third of its real value.

The county has recently issued $100,000 thirty-year funding bonds, with interest at six per cent, payable July 1, each year. A few years ago the county owed $200,000 in railroad bonds, and $60,000 in refunded script. This has been reduced so that according to the last financial report, dated July 7, 1889, the total indebtedness was $104,400.

The French and Spaniards may have made temporary settlements in the territory now composing Phillips County, long before the beginning of the nineteenth century, but if any such were made no detailed account thereof has been preserved. But that there were permanent settlers here when the century began is evident from the fact that in the year 1800, one John Patterson was born at a place about five miles above, or rather north of the site of the present city of Helena. In 1836 Judge John S. Hornor, who is now living in Helena, and who was eighty-three years of age in August, 1889, came to Helena from Virginia in 1836. His uncle, William B. R. Hornor, had settled here many years prior to that date. Other early settlers of Helena and vicinity, all of whom were here in 1836, were James H. McKenzie, from North Carolina, John J. Bowie, from Louisiana, Fleetwood Hanks, from Kentucky, who lived where his son, Judge Hanks, now resides, B. A. Porter, from Massachusetts, Dr. B. F. Odle, from New York, Henry L. Briscoe, from Virginia, who was registar of the United States land office here in 1836, Boyd Bailey, from Kentucky, F. H. Cosset, George W. Fereby, from Virginia, Nicholas Rightor, Sylvanus Phillips, after whom the county was named, Judge Thomas J. Lacy, from Kentucky, and others. Lacy was then one of associate justices of the first supreme court of Arkansas. The other lawyers in Helena, in 1836, are mentioned under the head of legal bar. In 1835 John T. Jones, now known as Judge Jones, a farmer living in the county, came from Virginia, and settled first in Helena. In the summer of 1889 he and his loving wife returned on a visit to "Old Virginia," and there on August 13, at the house of their son-in-law, Maj. Morton, in Charlotte County, they celebrated their golden wedding, having lived together as husband and wife half a century.

The first settler in the Martin settlement, at the present northern boundary of the county, was James Martin, from Kentucky. There was a large family of the Martins, and some of them were early settlers of the territory farther north. The first [p.745] settlers of the "Lick Creek Settlement," were William F. Moore, from Alabama, and Jesse J. Shell, from Louisiana. The latter died while a member of the legislature. James Nelson settled on the military road leading to Little Rock, on the place where his son John W. now resides. Near the Martin settlement were the pioneers, Josiah S. McKiel and Col. Elishs Burke, both from North Carolina. Burke's widow and younger children are living on the same place at this writing. Burke at one time represented this county in the lower house, and at another time this and Monroe County in the upper house of the State legislature. Bailey Kendall, from Kentucky, was the first settler west of Big Creek at the village of Trenton, and John C. Swan, from Kentucky, near the present village of Marvell. Thomas Locks and the father of James M. and Ellis Ward, and Benjamin F. Bonner, all from Tennessee, were the pioneer settlers of the northwest part of the county. The extreme southern part of the county, the lowlands, were not settled until much later than the uplands. The Indians all moved away from this part of Arkansas prior to 1836. A part of those moved to the Indian Territory from Georgia and other States, and crossed the Miesissippi at Helena in 1837.

Upon the approach of the Civil War of 1861-65, many of the best and most conservative men of Phillips County deplored a disruption of the Union of the States, but after the war had actually begun, all the citizens became unanimously in favor of dis-union and the establishment of a Southern Confederacy. The first companies raised in the county for the Confederate service were the Yell Rifles, commanded by Pat R. Cleburne; the Phillips Guards, commanded by Capt. W. S. Otey; the Tappan Guards, by Capt. J. C. Tappan; the Pat. Cleburne Guards, by Capt. Thomas Quinlin; the La Grange Guards, by Capt. D. C. Govan, and the Trenton Guards by Capt. J. W. Scaife. These were all raised early in 1861. Afterward other companies were organized in the county, sufficient in number, together with those named, to compose three regiments—the Second, Thirteenth and Fifteenth, Confederate States army. It must be remembered that at that time Phillips County contained the greater part of what is now Lee County, and it turned out for the Confederate service the three regiments above mentioned, two major-generals—Pat R. Cleburne and Thomas C. Hindman—and six brigadier-generals: D. C. Govan, J. C. Tappan, C. W. Adams, L. E. Polk, Dandridge McRes and Arch Dobbins.

The county remained within the Confederate lines until July, 1862, when the Federal army under Maj.-Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, first occupied Helena, and from that time forward to the end of the war the town was strongly garrisoned by Federal troops. On December 15, 1862, Brig.-Gen. W. A. Gorman, then in command at Helena, reported that an outpost of his, consisting of twenty-three men and a commissioned officer belonging to the Sixth Missouri Cavalry, were captured at a point four miles out on the St. Francis road, near the residence of ——– Turner. On January 3, following, he again reported that on the first day of the month twenty-five or thirty Texas rangers had captured another of his outposts, consisting of twenty-six men and a commissioned officer of the Twenty-eighth Iowa Regiment. In this report he censured the men captured, and recommended the officer to be disgracefully dismissed. On January 12, 1863, Lieut. James B. Bradford, with twenty-five men of the Second Wisconsin Cavalry, was sent out to a point on Lick Creek, about twelve miles west of Helena, where be was confronted by superior numbers, and being overpowered he and four of his men escaped and returned to Helena, and afterward some more of his men also, having made their escape, returned to Helena. On May 25, 1863, a shirmish between small forces at Polk's plantation, a few miles from Helena, took place. A few other small engagements were had in the county between the contending forces, aside from the battle of Helena. Helena was strongly fortified by the garrison occupying it, and was a very advantageous military post for the Union army, especially for keeping the communication of the Mississippi open to pointe below. In the western part of the town, on the ridge south of the present court house, was Fort Curtis, armed with siege guns, and there were redoubts armed with fieldpieces, [p.746] and protected by rifle-pits on the suburban hills north and west of the town, so as to effectually guard every avenue of approach. One of the redoubts was on the summit of Graveyard Hill. The Confederate General, T. H. Holmes, commanding the District of Arkansas, seeing the importance of Helena to the Union army, and the advantages it might be to the Confederate army, conceived the idea of capturing it. To this end he concentrated his army, consisting of the commands of Gens. Price, Marmaduke and others, at Clarendon, on White River, from which place he advanced upon Helena, and reached Allen Polk's plantation, five miles therefrom, on the morning of July 3, 1863. The plan of attack was for Gen Price, with his two brigades, McRea's and Parson's, to assault and take Graveyard Hill at daylight, Marmaduke, assisted by Walker's cavalry brigade, to take Rightor's Hill by daylight, and Gen. Fagan to take the battery on Hindman's Hill by daylight. Gen. B. M. Prentiss was in command of the garrison, and was well informed of the approach of the Confederates, and consequently in readiness to receive them. Arrangements had been made to hold an old-fashioned calebration in Helena on Saturday, July 4, but Gen. Prentiss issued an order to dispense with it, and for every man to be at his post of duty.

Accordingly, at 3 o'clock, A. M., of July 4, the Confederate army advanced upon the town, attacked and drove in the outposts, and by daylight the battle raged furiously. The battery on Hindman's Hill and the redoubt and battery on Graveyard Hill were captured by storm, after which a large force of Confederates passed through the ravine between these hills into the suburbs of the town, where, being exhausted and confused, they were surrounded and captured by the Federalists. The battle continued to rage until 10:30 A. M., when the Confederate commander, finding his army losing ground, retired from the field and left all in possession of the garrison. It is said that the hardest fighting took place on Graveyard Hill. In the summarized reports of the battle by the respective commanders of the armies, Gen. Holmes said that his whole force consisted of 7,646 effective men and officers, that his loss was 173 killed, 687 wounded and 776 missing, making a total of 1,636. Gen. Prentiss said that his whole garrisoned force consisted of 4,129 effective men and officers, assisted by the gunboat Tyler, commanded by Lient. Com. Pritchett, which rendered him valuable assistance, and that his loss consisted of fifty-seven killed, 146 wounded and thirty-six captured, making a total of 239. He reported the Confederate loss at 400 killed, 354 wounded and 774 captured in addition to the wounded, making a total of 1,528. It will be scen that, in the aggregate, Prentiss reported the Confederate loss at 108 less than Holmes did, but that they differed widely as to the number of killed and wounded. Of course, Prentiss had the best opportunity to know how many were killed, as they were all buried by his men, but it appears to be an extraordinary number in comparison with the number he reported as wounded. No other attack was ever made upon Helena.

Helena, the county seat of Phillips County, is situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River, at the foot of a range of hills, which bounds the city on the north and west, the distance from the river bank to the bills on the west being about half a mile. The site of the greater part of the city, especially the business part, is comparatively low and level. Many of the streets and business houses, and some dwelling houses, have been elevated on made land several feet above the original level. The origin of the town has been given in connection with the organization of the county. Among the early merchants of the place, who were doing business here in 1836, were John J. Bowie, F. H. Cosset and George W. Fereby. There were about half a dozen business houses in the town at that time. William B. R. Hornor, mentioned among the early pioneer settlers, was a lawyer and kept a hotel in Helena at a very early day. B. A. Porter, another of the pioneers, engaged in the lumber business about the year 1836 and erected a saw-mill in Helena. Later he moved into the country, but still continued his lumber business in the town. Waldo P. Craig erected another saw-mill about the year 1837. [p.747] The growth of Helena from its inception to the year 1838 was very slow and gradual; then, in consequence of the financial panic of 1837, the place began to decline, and for a few years more people, it is said, moved away from the town and the country round about than came into it. The population of Helena in 1840 was 250 souls. In 1844 the town and country began again to progress, but the growth was so slow that in 1860 the population of Helena had only reached about 800. It did not suffer much during the war period of 1861-65, for the reason that it was constantly held by Federal troops from its first occupancy by them in July, 1862, to the close of the war. Had it been occupied alternately by the contending armies it would have suffered much more than it did.

Since the close of the war, its growth has been gradual, but much more rapid than before. In 1880 its population, according to the United States census, was 3,652 and it is now estimated at 5,000. It contains at this writing, Baptist, Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist churches, four schools, cotton-seed oil mills, lumber mills, cotton gins and compress, planing mills, a foundry and machine shop, an opera house capable of seating 800, three banks, gas-works, an efficient and well-equipped fire department, street railways, a telephone exchange, gas-works, two express offices, two railroad depots, ferry-boats for crossing the river, many stores of all kinds, several wholesale houses, four weekly and one daily newspaper, and all the other attributes of a city of its size.

The Helena Weekly World, a nine-column folio, was established in 1870, and is now ably published by William S. Burnett, its editor and proprietor. The Helena Daily World, a seven-column folio was established in 1871, and is published from the same office and by the same party as the Weekly World. It is claimed by its proprietor to be the oldest daily paper in the State excepting the Arkansas Daily Gazette. These papers are Democratic in polities and both are well edited. The Helena State was established October 19, 1889, by B. M. Barrington. It is a seven-column quarto, is published every Friday, and is also Democratic in principle, neat in appearance, and edited with ability. The Southern Review, an eight-column folio, now in its fifth volume, is published weekly at Helena by the "Benevolent Church Aid and Relief Society," an associatien of the colored people. Rev. J. T. White is editor and manager, and J. E. Harris, business manager. The People's Friend, a six-column folio, is published weekly at Helena, by M. Kline, a colored man. It is now in its second volume. These "colored" papers bear but little upon the subject of polities.

Helena was incorporated as a city of the second class, but efforts are now being made to secure its incorporation as a city of the first class.

Directly west of Helena is the old graveyard on one of the hills partially surrounding the city. The land was owned by individuals, but by consent the people buried their dead there from the settlement of Helena until the close of the Civil War. The summit of the hill is not less than 100 feet above the level of the city. After Gen. Curtis occupied the place in 1862, he built a redoubt on this hill, as well as upon other commanding positions, and cut the timber off of them to strengthen the defenses of the city. It is said that the hardest part of the battle of Helena was fought in this graveyard, it being a very large tract of hill land. Monuments and headstones were knocked to pieces by the cannonading. After the close of the war, the timber having been removed, the ground began to wash into gullies, and soon began to disturb the sleeping dead. Then the remains of some persons who had friends and relatives living sufficiently near, were disinterred and buried elsewhere, but the remains of all others were left to their fate. Some of the gullies now reach a depth of from thirty to forty feet, graves have been completely washed away and human skulls and bones can be seen in great numbers bleaching in the gullies. Now and then a grave can be found undisturbed. It is only a question of time, however, when all will be washed away, unless otherwise removed. An improvement company, which has been organized in the city, has purchased the lands which contain the old graveyard, and contemplate leveling down the hills and using the earth to fill up the hollows and depressions of the site of the [p.748] city, and laying out the lands thus made level into an addition to the city. This can be done largely with the aid of the washing of the rains. These hills contain no solid rock formation, consequently the earth can easily be loosened up and removed. This will be a great improvement to the city, both in filling up the low places and in removing the unsightly gullies.

Evergreen Cemetery, owned by a company of that name, lies at a proper distance north of the city, but it is only partially fenced and is not kept in a neat and proper condition, the stock at large being allowed to overrun it. Next to this is the Catholic Cemetery, and still farther is the Hebrew Cemetery. A small tract of land on Confederate Hill contains the remains of about 300 Confederate soldiers. This hill is one of the highest points on Crowley's Ridge, just north of the city. This cemetery is kept in order by the Phillips County Memorial Association, managed mostly by the ladies. Among the most noted men buried here are Gen. Pat. R. Cleburne, Gen. T. C. Hindman, Col. Paul F. Anderson and Maj. R. H. Cawley (a Presbyterian minister when he entered the military service).

Poplar Grove, the second town in size in the county, is situated on the Arkansas Midland Railway, seventeen miles west of Helena. It was laid out in 1872 on lands belonging to N. S. and B. Y. Turner. The first business, a general store, was established in 1873, also the postoffice, with James R. Turner, postmaster. The same year several business and dwelling houses were erected. It now contains six general stores, a drug store, a millinery store, four churches (two for the whites and two for the blacks), one cotton-gin and grist-mill combined, one saw-mill, two blacksmith shops, one livery stable, two hotels, one undertaker's shop, a white school taught ten montha in the year (four months free and six months on subscription), a colored school taught four months each year (free), and a lodge each of Knights of Honor and Knights and Ladies of Honor. The school at Poplar Grove is very popular, and the people are proud of it. There are two teachers, a music teacher and ninety pupils in attendance. A number of the pupils are from the country, and board in the village. Large quantities of cotton and cotton-seed are shipped from this point. The population of the village is about 400.

Marvell is situated on the Arkansas Midland Railway, twenty-one miles west of Helena. The first store was opened there in 1870, by Messrs. Dade & Emby. It now has five general stores, four groceries, a furniture store, an undertaking establishment, a foundry and machine shop, two blacksmith shops, a church used by the Presbyterians, Baptists and Christians, a colored Baptist and a colored Quaker church, a school-house, livery stable, hotel, and a cotton-gin, huller and grist-mill combined. The postoffice was established in 1872, with G. H. Cowan, postmaster. About 3,000 bales of cotton are shipped annually from this place. It has a lodge each of Masons and Knights of Honor. The population is about 300, one-third of which is colored.

Trenton is a small village three miles south of Poplar Grove, and contains a steam saw and grist mill and cotton gins. Cotton and cotton-seed are shipped from here; it also has a hotel, two or three general stores and a population of about 150.

Barton is a station on the Arkansas Midland Railway, thirteen miles west of Helena, having a population of about fifty. It has a saw-mill and two or three small stores.

For the year ending June 30, 1889, the scholastic population of Phillips County was as follows: White, males, 904, females, 842, total, 1,746; colored, males, 3,360, females, 3,137, total, 6,497. Pupils taught in the public schools: White, males, 545, females, 413, total, 958; colored, males, 2,262, females, 2,151, total, 4,413. This shows only a small percentage of the scholastic population taught in the public schools, but it is partially accounted for by the fact that several private schools, especially in Helena, are maintained and patronized. There are 36 school districts in the county, and the number of teachers employed during 1888 were: White, males, 15, females, 13, total, 28; colored, males, 33, females, 18, total, 51; aggregate, 79. The average monthly salary of teachers for the last year was: White, [p.749] males, of the first grade, $60, females, of the same grade, $44.25; second grade, white, males, $41.80, females, $36.75. The average term in the several schools for the last year was four months, and the amount of money spent for the support of the public schools was $14,881. The value of the school property in the county is at least $40,000. The public school-house in Helena is probably the largest one of its kind in the State. It is a two-story brick, handsome and substantial, contains ample rooms, and on the top thereof is a grand tower, in which is a fine town clock, which strikes every hour of the day. It was constructed in 1886, at a cost of $24,000. There is also in Helena a very large and commodious public school-house for the colored people. In addition to the public schools in this place is the private school taught by Prof. W. S. White, which is a mired graded school, in which pupils are prepared for college. This school has been established for twelve years, and has now about fifty pupils. There is also the Catholic Convent school, the "Academy of the Sacred Heart," and a Kindergarten school, taught by Miss Wendland. In addition to the above, the colored people have two or three private schools, all well sustained. The scholastic population of Helena school district is 2,000. Five teachers are employed in the white public school, and the same number in the colored public school. There is also the Southland Institute, about nine miles northwest of Helena, a school for the colored people, conducted by Prof. Beard.

The Presbyterian Church in Helena was organized long before the Civil War, and the present frame church edifice was also erected before that period. During the war it was used by the Federal troops as a hospital. For some time the church has been without a regular pastor, but during 1888 Rev. A. E. Grover, of Mason, Tenn., has preached for it every alternate Sabbath. He has recently been called to and has accepted the pastorate of the church. The membership at this writing is about fifty, and the Sunday-school of forty pupils is progressing finely under the superintendence of J. R. Graham. This is the only church of this denomination in Phillips County.

The Methodists and Baptists were probably, as they have been everywhere, the pioneer Christian workers in the county, both of the societies organized in a very early day. Of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, there is Helena Station, with a membership of from 150 to 175, with Rev. E. M. Pipkin, pastor. This station has a large brick edifice, erected in 1884, which ranks among the finest in the State. The Sunday-school connected with it has about seventy-five scholars, and is doing good work as the nursery of the church. The La Grange Circuit, containing several appointments, with an aggregate membership of about 150, with Rev. W. E. Bishop, pastor, is also in Phillips County. These constitute all the churches of this denomination within the county. The names of the Baptist Churches in the county are: Helena, Marvell, Barton, Salem, New Hope, Cypress and Level Valley. These have an aggregate membership of about 300, and those reported having Sunday-schools are Helena, Salem and New Hope. Rev. W. H. Barnes is pastor of the church at Helena.

The Catholics have a small church organisation in Helena, with Rev. Father J. M. Boetzkes, priest. They have just completed a nice and comfortable brick church edifice, worth about $10,000.

The colored people have three Baptist and one Methodist Church in Helena, and several other organizations throughout the county. There may be a few other church societies in this county which have not been mentioned.

Capt. J. C. Barlow, dealer in hardware, stoves, etc., of Helena, Ark., was born in Scott County, Ky., January 3, 1836, and is a son of Thomas J. and Mildred (Cantrell) Barlow, natives of Scott and Bourbon Counties, Ky., respectively. The paternal grandfather was born in Old Virginia and the grandmother in North Carolina, but at an early period they moved to the wilds of Kentucky, making their way thither on horseback, the grandmother carrying a large cane which she pretended was a gun, and used in frightening away the Indians. [p.750] She was reared on the farm once owned by Daniel Boone in the "Old North State." The grandparents on both sides died in Kentucky, and were farmers by occupation. Thomas J. Barlow was also a farmer, and after living a useful and well-spent life, quietly breathed his last in Ballard County, Ky., in 1873, his wife's death occurring in Scott County, Ky., she having borne him six children, three of whom are now living: Frances A. (wife of John W. Allison, of Bourbon County, Ky.), Joseph C. and James M. Edward was in the Confederate army and died at Montgomery, Ala. Thomas died in Kentucky and William also died there when quite young. Mr. Barlow was married twice and by his last wife had a family of three children, Clifton J. being the only one alive. J. C. Barlow was reared and favored with the advantages of the common schools in Scott County, Ky., but in 1859 came to Helena, Ark., and became a salesman in a dry-goods establishment, this work receiving his attention until the opening of the war, when he enlisted in the Phillips County Guards, and subsequently got a transfer to the Yell Rifles, with which he served until the fall of 1861, when he joined the Second Arkansas Battery, remaining with them until the close of the war. After serving for some time as first lientenant of artillery he was appointed to the rank of captain by the secretary of war, and was a participant in all the engagements of his regiment. After the war he clerked in Memphis, Tenn., for about one year, then returned to Helena and has since been conducting a hardware establishment, this enterprise meeting with good success under his able management. He has the largest stock of goods in the town, and receives a most liberal share of public favor. He filled an unexpired term as mayor of Helena, is president of the Phillips County Fair Association, and since August 22, 1882, has held the position of colonel of the Arkansas State Guards, receiving his appointment from Gov. F. J. Churchill during the political troubles of that year. He was married in 1869 to Miss Mary J. Porter, a native of Helena, and in 1876 took for his

second wife Mrs. Mary Grant, by whom he has three children: Fannie A., Harrell E. and Joseph C., Jr. Capt and Mrs. Barlow are members of the Episcopal Church.

Rev. J. M. Boetzkes, rector of St. Mary's Church, at Helena, Ark., was born in Prussia, Germany, and received his edncation at Muenster University, Westphalia, from which institution he was graduated in 1855, and was ordained subdeacon September 8 of the same year. The following year he embarked to America, taking passage at Havre, France, and landed at New York City after a two weeks' ocean voyage, and came directly to St. Louis, where he was ordained descon a few months after his arrival. On September 8, 1856, he was ordained a priest of the Catholic Church, and during the late Civil War was in the service for some time in Scott County, Mo., acting as chaplain. Here he built a stone church, which was demolished during the latter part of the war. He was in the hospital service in St. Louis for about a year, and in 1865 returned to Europe, but a few months later came back to the United States and settled in the city of Philadelphia, where he occupied a position in the diocese until 1875, at which time he came to Helena, Ark. Here he was the means of erecting a fine brick church at a cost of $12,000, and on July 21, 1889, it was dedicated, the corner-stone being laid July 22, 1888. The convent at Heleua has been built several years, but since Father Boetzkes' arrival he has improved it wonderfully. It is a day and boarding school and is controlled and managed by nine Sisters of Charity who have made it one of the best institutions of the kind in the West. The training includes a comprehensive collegiate course and thoroughly fits a young lady for any position or vocation in life, the branches taught being music, the languages, all branches of mathematics, chemistry, botany, calisthanics, etc. The building is beautifully situated and commands a view of the Mississippi River, as well as the surrounding country and the grounds are tastefully laid out with magnolia and other shade trees.

R. S. Bonner, carpenter, Poplar Grove, Ark. Were it necessary for us to include in the sketch of Mr. Bonner's life any items pertaining to his ability and skill as a builder, perhaps the greatest [p.751] compliment that could be paid him would be to point out those monnments of his handiwork, which now grace so many of the homesteads in this portion of the State. He was born in Alabama, in 1844, and is the fifth of ten children, the result of the union of Thomas T. and Elizabeth (Schackel. ford) Bonner, the father a native of North Carolina, and the mother of Alabama. Thomas T. Bonner was a carpenter and ginwright by trade, and came to Alabama when a young man. He was there married to Miss Schackelford in 1834, and of the ten children born to this union, five are now living: R. S., J. C., W. H., E. C. and R. K. Mr. Bonner was a member of the I. O. O. F., and was a much-respected citizen. He died on December 31, 1849, and the mother died in 1871. The maternal grandfather, John L. Schackelford, was a native of the Old Dominion, and moved to Alabama at an early day. His death occurred in Phillips County (now Lee County) in 1863, at the age of seventy-nine years. He was a soldier in the War of 1812. His wife died in 1874, at the age of eighty-five years. R. S. Bonner came to Arkansas in 1856, received his education in this State and Alahama, and at the age of sixteen years, or in 1861, enlisted in Company A, Thirteenth Arkansas Infantry, under Capt. Tappan (afterward Gen. Tappan), in what was known as Tappan's guards. He served in Gen. Bragg's command and was engaged in quite a number of battles, prominent among which were: Belmont, Corinth, Shiloh, Richmond, Perryville, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Murfreesboro and Bell Buckle Station. He was captured close to Atlanta, in 1864, was confined at Rock Island, III., for four months, after which he was exchanged and returned to Arkansas. Later he served in Capt. Westherly's company. He surrendered in 1865, and afterward engaged in farming on rented land in Phillips County, until 1876. He then bought his present place, at that time consisting of forty acres, principally wood land, and to this he has added eighty acres, with 100 acres under cultivation. However he devotes the greater part of his time to carpenter work and is the only contractor at this place, doing a large amount of building. His marriage occurred in October, 1869, to Miss Jennie Allison, who bore him seven children, two only now living: Hettie R. and Mamie L. Five died while small. Mrs. Bonner died in 1881. She was a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In October, 1883, Mr. Bonner married Miss Mamie Allison, a sister of his first wife, and they have two children: Olivett and Eveline H.

Charles L. Bonner, son of Charles S. Bonner, one of the pioneer settlers of this county, was born on his present place of residence in Phillips County, in 1862. His father was a native of Tennessee, as was also his mother, whose maiden name was Miss Margaret J. Gamble, and the former came to Phillips County, Ark., in 1835, when there were very few settlers. His father bought land on Big Creek, but in 1844 Charles S. purchased the place on which his son Charles L. is now residing, and which at that time consisted of 160 acres of land. He and wife were the parents of eight children, five of whom are now living: Nettie (widow of T. N. Conley), B. F., Chellie J. (wife of John W. Terry), C. L. and Loutie L. (a teacher in the Galloway Female College of Searcy, Ark.). The eldest child, Sallie E. (deceased, was the wife of W. S. Ferrill). She left one child, Charles. The father of these children died in 1876, but the mother is still living, and makes her home with her son Charles L. The latter received a good common-school education in Phillips County, and at the age of nineteen years began work for himself as a farmer, having followed this occupation the principal part of the time since. He was also engaged in the saw-mill business for some time. In 1888 he was married to Miss Sallie Allison, of Phillips County, and of the city of Helena. The maternal grandfather of Charles L. Bonner was among the early settlers of Eastern Tennessee, and was in the wars with the Indians in that section of the country. He came to Phillips County in 1840, where he resided until his death in 1874. Mr. and Mrs. Bonner and Mr. Bonner's mother are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

 

James T. Brame. About four generations ago, three sons named Brame, who lived in England, their native country, separated, one remaining at [p.752] home, another going to Canada, and the third coming to America, choosing for his residence the State of Virginia. From this son, James T. Brame, the subject of this sketch, is a direct descendant. James T. Brame was born in Virginia November 26, 1848 and is the son of James H. Brame, a celebrated profeasor, for many years connected with the prominent colleges of Virginia, but is now retired. He is the son of Thomas Brame, and was born in Mecklenburgh County, Va., in 1816. James H. Brame was married in 1847 to Miss Martha Baptist, born in Virginia in 1826, and a daughter of Richard H. Baptist. Mr. Baptist was a prominent politician, having served as State senator for sixteen years, and was filling that position at the date of his death. He was an uncle of Gen. A. P. Hill. Mrs. Baptist's maiden name was Sally Goode, she being a daughter of Dr. Thomas Goode, of Virginia. James T., our subject, was one of eight children, five sons and three daughters, born to his parents. He was reared in Virginia, and at the age of fifteen years enlisted in the Confederate army, Company A, First Virginia Regiment, and served until the surrender of Gen. Lee. At the battle of Stanton River Bridge he received a slight wound, that being the only time he was injured, notwithstanding that he was always in the thick of some of the most important engagements. At the age of twenty-one he left his native home and came to Arkansas, locating in Phillips (now Lee) County, at Council Bend. He chose the independent occupation of farming, which has been his work ever since, and has resided on his present farm since 1881, under his careful management it being second to none in the county. It consists of 400 acres, nearly all cultivated. Mr. Brame also oversees and cultivates 1,000 acres. In January, 1875, he was married in Memphis, Tenn., to Miss Anna J. Peters, who was born in Camden, Ark., in 1855, and the daughter of John B. Peters. He was of Tennessee birth, but came to Arkansas at an early date, and died during the war. Mrs. Peters was Miss Paralee Jackson, of Florence County, Ala. To Mr. and Mrs. Brame three children have been born: Ellen G., Mary P. and Anna. Mr. Brame is a member of the K. of P. and A. L. of H., and in his political views is a Democrat, though not an enthusiast, his first presidential vote having been cast for Samuel J. Tilden. Mr. Brame and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church.

Nicholas Brickell, undertaker, Poplar Grove, Ark. There are few branches of business, if any, that require more consideration and sympathetic feeling than that of the undertaker. Their services are only called under the most trying circumstances that can befall a family or friends, and the utmost tact, coupled with decision and perfect, unostentatious knowledge of the business, is required. In these points Mr. Nicholas Brickell is well-grounded by nature and experience. He was born in Surry County, N. C., in 1824, and is the eldest of five children born to the union of J. B. and Frances (Harrison) Brickell, the father a native of South Carolina, and the mother of North Carolina. J. B. Brickell was a cabinet workman, and always followed that trade after his marriage. Previous to that, however, he had followed merchandising. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, having joined while quite young. He was married in 1822, and of the five children born to his union, five are now living: Nicholas, D. C. (is a manufacturer of carriages in Atlanta, Ga.), Mathias (died in White County, Ark., and his family reside in that county), Andrew J. (resides in Tennessee), and Emma (wife of E. A. Peal, of North Carolina). Mr. Brickell died in 1850. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity. Mrs. Brickell died in 1870, and was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Nicholas Brickell passed his yonthful days and received his education in

his native county, where, in later years, he learned the cabinet-maker's trade. He began working at his trade at the age of twenty-one years, and continued the same in North Carolina until 1846, when, in December of that year, he moved to Georgia, settling where Palmetto now stands, and followed the furniture business. This he continued until 1856, when he moved to Franklin, Heard County, Ga., and there followed the same business. In 1870 he moved to Trenton, Big Creek Township, Phillips County, Ark., remained there until 1871, when [p.753] he moved into the country, and farmed on rented land for three years. In 1875 he moved to his present place of residence, and here built his shop and house, besides two stors houses, and has forty acres of land well improved. He was married December 2, 1847, to Miss Martha A. Sanders, daughter of Joel and Fannie (Harris) Sanders, natives, respectively, of North Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Sanders became the parents of eight children, five now living: G. H., John, Martha A. (wife of Mr. Brickell), Margaret (widow of John Edwards, who was killed at the second battle of Manasses), and Mary. All, with one exception, residing in Georgia, whither the father had moved when his children were quite small. Mr. Sanders died in 1849, and his widow in 1856, Mrs. Brickell was born February 4, 1830, and by her marriage to Mr. Brickell became the mother of ten children, seven now living: T. J. (resides at Brinkley, Monroe County, Ark.), John C. (deceased), Georgia R. (wife of J. H. Miller, of Holly Grove, Ark.), C. W. (resides in Clarendon, Monroe County), W. P. (resides in Phillips County), J. B. (resides at Helena), Martha A. (wife of J. J. Raleigh, of Poplar Grove), Robert L., C. W. (of Clarendon, who was State senator from that senatorial district, and T. J. (who is a local minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church at Brinkley). In 1861 Mr. Brickell joined the State service in Company G, Col. Wilcoxson's regiment of State cavairy, and was in the State service for six months. He only served a short time in the regular service, being detailed to stay at home and work at his trade, making spinning wheels and looms for making cloth. Mr. Brickell is a demitted member of the Masonic fraternity, Chattahoochee Lodge No. 61, and he and wife are both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of this place. He favors all improvements for the good of the county, and extends a hearty welcome to all white immigration. He and his wife are the grandparents of thirteen children.

Hon. Samuel H. Brooks. Since locating in this county in 1866 Mr. Brooks has enjoyed the reputation of being not only a substantial and progressive farmer, but an intelligent and thoroughly posted man in all public affairs as well. He was born in Philadelphia, Penn., October 17, 1839, and is a son of John and Amelia (Fletcher) Brooks, the former a native of Bristol, Penn., and the latter of London, England. John Brooks was a merchant by occupation, and died in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1840, at the untimely age of thirty-one years. His widow afterward married Jacob B. Furrow, of Piqua, Ohio, who followed merchandising until his death in 1884. His widow survives him, and is an earnest and devout member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. She was a child of six years when brought by her parents to the United States, and their location was made at Philadelphia, Penn., where their death occurred many years later. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks became the parents of two children; Samuel H., and Thomas P., who died in Cincinnati in 1885, being county recorder of Hamilton County at the time of his decease. Samuel H. Brooks was educated in the schools of Saint Paris, Ohio, and at the age of fourteen years left home to become a salesman in a hardware store at Piqua, Ohio, but two years later he turned his attention to the railroad business, and was ticket agent at that point for one year. He next went to Indianspolis, Ind., and became conductor on the old Belfontaine line, which is now known as the Bee line, and after serving in this capacity for about ten years he worked on the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad for a short time. He then (in 1863) joined the Second Tennessee Federal troops, organized at Memphis, Tenn., under Col. Curry, but at the and of one year he went to Mississippi and located in Coahoma County, and a year later came to Phillips County, Ark., where he has since been engaged in planting; and his well established characteristics of energy, perseverance and unbounded industry have brought him safe returns. His neat farm embraces 420 scres, and to this he is enabled to give intelligent management, but he is at present giving the most of his attention to the management of Dr. A. A. Hornor's plantstion of 1,350 acres. He has always been a Democrat in politics, and in 1868 was elected county treasurer, in which capacity he served four years. In 1882 he was chosen to represent Phillips County in the State legislature. In [p.754] 1862 he was united in marriage to Miss Caroline S. Shock, a daughter of Abel Shock, who made the first steam fire-engine in the United States, and discovered the fine copper fields in the region of Lake Superior. He was a native of Pennsylvania, and died in Missouri in 1874. Mrs. Brooks was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 28, 1840, and she and Mr. Brooks have one daughter, Amelia A., who made a roll of butter that took the preminm at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. Mrs. Brooks is a member of hePresbyterian Church, and Mr. Brooks is a Mason, and belongs to the I. O. O. F.

John L. Brown is a nativ of this county, and has always resided here. He was educated at the common schools, acquiring a good practical learning and resided with his parents until their death, in 1869, being married to Miss Mary E. Yates, who was born in Mississippi in 1845, and died in 1884. He married his second wife in 1885, formerly Miss Lenora Phillips, of South Carolina origin. Mr. Brown was born on April 24, 1847, a son of Richard Brown, who first saw the light in White County, S. C., in 1800. In 1839 he immigrated from South Carolina to this county, where he purchased a tract of wild land, and at the time of his death, which occurred in 1864, he owned a well-improved farm. His wife was Polly Ann Stumb, who was born in Illinois in 1817, and died in 1851, leaving nine children, five of whom are still living. John L. Brown and wife are the parents of one child, Idalgo S. He owns a farm of 200 acres of land, of which 130 acres are under oultivation. His principal crop is cotton and he raises about forty bales per annum. He is a Democrat in politics, and is a highly respected citizen.

Moses Burke has been long and worthily identified with the interests of Phillips County, and no worthy history of this immediate vicinity would be complete which failed to make proper mention of his life. He was born in the house in which he now resides March 1, 1848, and is a son of Elisha and Elisa (Cail) Burke, both natives of North Carolina, the former's birth occurring July 13, 1798, and his death in Phillips County, Ark., June 21, 1860. His marriage took place March 24, 1825, and until 1835 or 1836 they resided in their native State, moving then to Arkansas, and soon after located on the farm on which our subject is now living. The father was a farmer all his life, and was very successful, and in connection with this work was engaged in milling, ginning, blacksmithing and wagon making, being successful in all these undertakings. While in North Carolina he represented his county several times in the State legislature, and after coming to Arkansas he represented his district in the senate three or four terms, and later was a member of the legislature from Phillips County. He was also colonel of militia in North Carolina and Arkansas for many years, and while the Whig party was in existence affiliated with

that party. He was born of Irish parents, and his wife was of Scotch descent, her birth occurring on July 9, 1807. She bore her husband the following children: Eliza (wife of Dr. James H. Gibson, of La Grange, Ark.) and Moses being the only ones living. Those deceased are: Richard C. (who died in 1870 when about forty years of age), Sallie F. (wife of Joseph Neville, died in 1857 at the age of twenty years), Elisha was accidentally killed at Helena in 1856 at the age of fourteen years), and the rest of the children, numbering three, died in infancy. Moses Burke received his early education at his home, and when only nineteen years of age he assumed the management of his mother's property, and has continued to successfully conduct it up to the present time. They now jointly own 740 acres of land, of which 400 acres are under cultivation, nearly all of it having been obtained since the war, as during that time the most of their property was demolished. Mr. Burke was married in 1878 to Miss Jenny E. Goodwin, a daughter of Sanford E. Goodwin, her birth occurring in Phillips County, in 1852, and by her he has a family of five children: Aubrey, Elisha B., Ethel, Moses Osear and Jennie E. Mrs. Burke is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in his political views Mr. Burke is a Democrat. He is a live and enterprising agriculturist, and his long residence in this county, his industrious habits and perseverance, [p.755] as well as his strict integrity and honesty of purpose, have contributed to place around him a host of friende and acquaintances.

William S. Burnett is the able editor and proprietor of the Helena Daily and Weekly World, which paper is flrmly established as a representative journal of this portion of the State. Mr. Burnett's birth occurred in this county, and he has become well known for his perseverance, enterprise and progress, as well as for many other admirable traits of character, and to a very great extent he enjoys the esteem and confidence of his fellow-man. After acquiring a common-school education, heentered the office of the Democratic Star of Helena as an apprentice at the printer's trade, but completed his knowledge of the business in the Southern Shield office. He then began an independent career as publisher of the Helena Clonen, in 1864, but after conducting this paper for a short time, he sold out, and established the Des Arc Crescent, of which paper he had the management from 1866 to 1869. At the latter date, he sold this paper also and returned to Helena, where, in conjunction with Mulkey & Burke, he established the Weekly World in 1871, and afterward also began the publication of the Daily World. At a later period he sold his interest in these journals, and in 1874 he began editing the Daily Mail, but in 1876, again disposed of his paper. From that time until 1885 he gave his attention to other branches of business, then purchased the Daily World, which he is now successfully conducting, it being the second oldest daily in the State. Under his judicious management it has become recognized as an influential paper, and has done good work in

advancing the interests of Eastern Arkansas. Its editorial policy has been directed by a man of good judgment, and its columns always contain something instructive and interesting. He has always supported the men and mcasuros of the Democrat party, and has himself held responsible positions as a township and county officer.

James A. Bush, planter, Latour, Ark. Of that sturdy and independent class, the farmers of Arkansas, none are possessed of more genuine merit and a stronger character than he whose name stands at the head of this sketch; he has risen to more than an ordinary degree of success in his calling of an agriculturist and stock man, and wherever known, he is conceded to be an energetic and progressive tiller of the soil, imbued with all those qualities of go-a-head-ativeness which have characterized his ancestors. His birth occurred in Knorville, Tenn., January 2, 1832, and he is of German descent. He remained with his parents until eighteen years of age, when he commenced to learn the blacksmith trade, working at his trade until 1860, and accumulating considerable money. He then commenced to speculate, and has continued this ever since. During the late war he served some time in Dobbin's regiment, and was in a number of sharp skirmishes. He was on picket duty when the first gunboat passed Helena, and was a brave and gallant soldier. He was discharged three times for sickness before leaving the army. His property was burned and otherwise destroyed during the late war, and he was a heavy loser. He was the owner of twenty-seven picked slaves, worth on an average of $1,500 apiece. After the war he commenced to farm, which occupation he has since continued. He is now the owner of 1,800 acres, with 1,200 under cultivation, and uses convict labor of Phillips, Monroe, Lee and St. Francis Counties. He has used this kind of labor for six years, and during that time has used 2,000 negroes, only losing one by death, and he meeting his death by burning, while trying to escape. In 1860 Mr. Bush married Miss Jennie McKineick, a native of Marshall County, Miss., born in 1834, and the daughter of Robert McKinsick. The fruits of this union have been five living children: Lucy C. (wife of John D. Binley, of Covington, Ky., merchant, formerly traveling for a firm in St. Louis), James R. (with the East Arkansas Hedge Company, in the capacity of book-keeper), Jesse and Walter (twins, both at home) and Mande (at school, in Memphis). Mr. Bush was formerly a Whig in politics, and is one of the enterprising citizens of the county. Although he commenced without means, by his energy and good business ability he has become one of the most suecessful and substantial men of the county. He is a [p.756] liberal contributor to all laudable enterprises, and has recently donated a house to be used as a Union Church. He is the son of Andrew and Nancy (Agnew) Bush, and the grandson of George Bush, who was one of the most substantial men of Tennessee, and died in Knox County of that State. Andrew Bush and wife were natives of Knox County, Tenn., and North Carolina, reepectively, and were married in Knoxville, Tenn., where they remained until their son, James A., was eleven years of age. Then they moved to Northern Alabama, Madison County, and later came to Arkansas, where they passed the remainder of their lives, the father dying in 1860, when sixty years of age, and the mother dying in 1878, at the age of seventyeight years. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he was a Whig in politics. He had followed agricultural pursuits all his life, was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was in the battle of the Horse Shoe. To his marriage were born seven children, all now deceased but the subject of this sketch.

S. B. Carpenter, druggist, Helena, Ark. There is no branch of business more important in the whole list of occupations than that of the druggist. A prominent and representative establishment devoted to this branch of industry is that of Mr. S. B. Carpenter, who for a number of years has been before the public in this line. He carries a large stock of drugs, etc., and does a good business. He is a native of this county, his birth occurring in 1854, and is the son of S. B. and Margaret (Owen) Carpenter, both natives of Alabama, where their families were very prominent. The parents moved to Arkansas at a very early day, entered land, and were pioneers of the county. The father was a very successful planter, and was the owner of a great many negroes. His death occurred in 1874. Of the ten children born to this marriage our subject was the eldest, and five are now living. S. B. Carpenter, Jr., was reared in Phillips County, received his preparatory education there and then studied pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1878. Since that time he has been engaged in business for himself, and although he started on a small capital he is now in very comfortable circumstances. He is a bright young business man, and prescriptions are compounded with care and dispatch. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity.

Calvin Clark, Helena, Ark. Indiana has given to Phillips County, Ark., many estimable citizens, but she has contributed none more highly respected, or, for conscientious discharge of duty in every relation of life, more worthy of respect and esteem than the subject of this sketch. He was born in Wayne County on July 21, 1820, and is the son of John and Anna (Price) Clark, natives of North Carolina. The father moved to Indiana from North Carolina when eighteen years of age (or in 1836) and located in Wayne County, being among the very first settlers. He first followed farming, but in later years engaged in the milling and carding business, which he carried on until his death. His wife died in 1882, and both were members of the Friends Church. Their family consisted of five children, three of whom are now living: Calvin (the eldest child), Alfred (a farmer in Indiana was formerly a merchant) and Mary Ann Hadley (wife of Jesse Hadley, of Morgan County, Ind.). Those deceased were named: Sarah (wife of William Thornburg, of Rush County, died when about thirty years of age) and Lydia (who died when twenty years old). Calvin Clark received his education in the schools of Wayne and Morgan Counties, Ind., and was but fifteen years of age when his father died. His father had married again after the death of the mother, and Calvin made his home with his step-mother until after the father's death, when he went to live with an uncle. Soon after he went to Monrovia, attended school for a time, and when eighteen years of age began teaching school in Henry County. This he continued for a number of years in the wiuter season, and followed farming in the summer. Later he engaged in farming near Richmond, Ind., which he continued until 1864, when he came to Arkansas and took charge of what was then known as the Orphans' Asylum, taking charge of the same until 1886. This was a school for th colored orphans, and is now known as the Southland College, under the auspices of the Friends of the United [p.757] States. Mr. Clark was married in 1844 to Miss Elida Clawson, of Indiana, who was born in 1822, and is the daughter of William and Keziah (Ward) Clawson, of North Carolina. To this union was born one living child, Eliza C. (wife of Theodore F. Wright, banker and miller of Granville, Ohio, and a partner with our subject in a plantation in this county. The children deceased were named as follows: Myra (born in 1845, and died in 1864, when a young lady) and Annie (who died in Indiann when in her sixth year). The above mentioned school was first organized by a Mrs. Clark, and her husband co-operated with her. This has been their life's work, and they can justly be proud of the same. Their school was located at Helena for two years, and in 1867

they changed it to its present location, nine miles northwest of Helena. Mrs. Clark received her education in the best schools of Indiana (at that time) and is a recorded minister in the Friends' Church. Mr. Clark is also a member of that church, being an elder in the same, and is a Republican in politics. Clark & Wright are the owners of about 1,700 acres of land, with 1,000 scres cleared.

Hon. James P. Clarke is an able lawyer of Helena, Ark., and ever since starting in this profession his career has been one of distinction and success. He is active, intelligent and energetic by nature, public-spirited, liberal-minded and generous in disposition; it is not to be wondered at that his career has been successful and honorable. He was born in Yazoo County, Miss., August 18, 1854, and is a son of Walter and Ellen (White) Clarke, who were early residents of the State of Mississippi, and there the father's death occurred in 1861, his wife also passing away in that State. Mr. Clarke was a civil engineer and contractor, and he and his wife became the parents of three children, only two of whom are living, of whom Hon. James P. is one. He received the principal part of his education and rearing in Mississippi, but also attended school in Alabama and Virginia, thus becoming quite familiar with the "world of books." He graduated from the Law Department of the University of Virginia, and since coming to Helena in 1879 has given his profession his undivided attention, and owing to his sound views, his intelligence, and his ability as a lawyer, business has come to him unsolicited. The people of the county have not been slow to recognize his worth, and in 1886 he was elected to the State legislature, and to the State senate in 1888.

MAJOR-GEN. P. R. CLEBURNE, Of the Confederate Army, born in County Cork, Ireland. Killed at the battle of Franklin, NOVEMBER 30, 1864.

Gen. Patrick Ronayne Cleburne. The career of this gentleman and his ability as a commander, which is so noted in the annals of Confederate history, has been justly admired by friend and foe, and although erroneous impressions regarding his early life have existed, the following sketch of his career is founded on fact. He was born in Ireland, ten miles west from the the city of Cork, on St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1828, and was a son of a popular and successful physician, who made a good living by his profession, but who spent his money too freely for the acquisition of wealth, in his favorite pursuit of amateur farming. He was married to Mary Anne Ronayne, and the subject of this sketch was named after her father, Patrick Ronayne, Esq., of Cork. Dr. Cleburne was descended from an old Tipperary family of English and Quaker stock, which settled in Ireland during Cromwell's reign. He was finely educated and was a graduate of some of the best colleges of medicine and surgery. After the death of his wife, which occurred when Patrick was about a year old, he married a Miss Stuart, a daughter of a Scotch clergyman of that name, their union being a very happy one, and his children never lacked the kind ministrations and gentle love of a mother, Patrick being an especial favorite of hers, and she was always remembered by him with veneration. The Doctor's first union resulted in the birth of three children, and the second in the birth of four. Of these, Joseph (the issue of the first marriage) died of yellow fever contracted on the west coast of Africa during a voyage, and Christopher (issue of the second marriage) was a gallant captain in the Second Kentucky Cavalry of Morgan's command, and fell at the battle of Cloyd's Farm, May 10, 1864, aged twenty-one years. The rest, with perception of Patrick, still survive and live in this country. William, the oldest brother, is engineer of the Oregon Short Line at Omaha, Neb., and [p.758] Anne is now Mrs. Sherlock, formerly of Cincinnati, Ohio. Patrick Cleburne received his early instructions from a private tutor, and at the age of twelve years was sent to a private school kept by a Rev. Mr. Spedden, but as he was a man of very harsh measures, Patrick's efforts at acquiring a classical education were a failure. At the age of sixteen, his father died, and he then determined to turn his attention to pharmacy and apprenticed himself to a Mr. Justin, of Mallow, but upon his failure to pass the examination at Apothecary's Hall, Trinity College, Dublin, after what he considered a thorough preparation, he was so disheartened and mortifled that he enlisted in the Forty-first Regiment of Infantry, then stationed at Dublin, hoping that it would soon be ordered to foreign service. His anticipations were not realized, however, and owing to the monotony and dull routine of barrack life, he turned his thoughts to America, where adventurous and ambitious spirits could find a wider scope for their talents, and although his withdrawal was decidedly opposed by Capt. (afterward Gen.) Pratt, who distinguished himself in India and the Crimea, he was immovable and purchased his discharge through the intervention of his family. In company with his brothers William and Christopher, and his sister Anne, he embarked on the vessel Bridgetown, and on the following Christmas day entered the mouth of the Mississippi River. Leaving his friends in New Orleans, he went at once to Cincinnati and engaged in business on Broadway with a druggist named Salter, but soon after left this place and located in Helena, Ark., commencing his career here as a prescription clerk in the store of Grant & Nash, purchasing, two years afterward, Mr. Grant's interest. During this time he devoted himself to the study of his profession, and also general literature, and being particularly fond of oratory became a conspicuous member of literary and debating societies. As orator of the day at a Masonic celebration, he achieved considerable local distinction, and upon the advice of friends, and also being personally inclined, he abandoned his old business and turned his attention to the study of law in the office of Hon. T. B. Hanley, and was soon after admitted to the bar, forming in 1856 a law partnership with Mark W. Alexander, the firm being known as Alexander & Cleburne. About this time, while the violent contest between the Democratic and Know-Nothing parties was in its full vigor, Mr. Cleburne accidentally witnessed a shooting affray between T. C. Hindman, a noted speaker and leader of the Democrats, and Dorsey Rice, a bitter partisan on the Know-Nothing side, and was shot by Jamison Rice, who supposed Mr. Cleburne was a participant in the struggle. The ball passed entirely through his body, but, although almost mortally wounded, he turned and seeing James Marriott standing with pistol in his hand and supposing him to be his assailant, he coolly raised his pistol and shot him dead. He then fell himself, and was carried by friends to his home, where he struggled between life and death for many days, but finally recovered. This affair was always a source of much regret and sorrow to Mr. Cleburne, but which he was powerless to avert. In 1859 he became associated in the practice of law with L. H. Mangum and —— Scaife, the firm being Cleburne, Scaife & Mangum, they constituting one of the best and strongest legal firms of the State. Mr. Oleburne was a very auccessful lawyer, and very popular with the masses, this being the natural result of his own deep sympathy with humanity, making every sufferer his brother. In 1855, when Helena was visited by that terrible scourge, yellow fever, Mr. Cleburne was one of the few to remain to nurse the sick, bury the dead and help the poor, this being only one instance of his remarkable nerve and courage. He knew not what fear was. Incapable of bravado he was grand in the energy of his anger when aroused, quick as lightning in execution, and indifferent to all consequences. Personally he was the sonl of honor, but was prond and sensitive in disposition, and although at heart the friend of all the world, he had few intimate friends; among these may be mentioned his brigadier-generals, Polk, Lowrey, Govan, Granberry, Hardee and Cheatham, also Gen. John C. Brown. When the Civil War became imminent Mr. Cleburne at once stepped to the front, and he was chosen captain of the Yell Rifles, and was afterward made colonel of the First Arkansas [p.759] Regiment of State troops. A record of his triumphs up to the battle of Franklin is well known to every reader of current history, and will not be given here. Suffice it to say, he never suffered defeat, but achieved splendid success. In more battles than one his figure stands out prominently as the hero of the day, and his distinction was won by universal acclamation. Although he was rigid in the enforcement of discipline, the soldiers whom he commanded loved him to a man, and trusted him implicity, and were ready to follow where he led, with alacrity and confidence. The morning of November 29, 1864, saw the armies of the Tennessee ready for battle. Schofleld was at Columbia, and it was Hood's purpose to outflank and outmarch him, so as to cut him off from Nashville and capture his army. With this object in view he crossed the Duck River three miles above Columbia and marched to Spring Hill, a small town on the Nashville pike midway between Columbia and Franklin. Cleburne's division was leading, with Bate immediately following him, and Brown in the rear, the first-named division being composed of four brigades. Late in the afternoon Cleburne reached the vicinity of Spring Hill, near which was a Federal fortification. A mile from this fortification ran McCuthen's Creek, and the road on which Cleburne was coming crossed this creek, and approached the turnpike at a right angle. Under the direction of Gen. Cheatham, the corps commander, and following the plan of Gen. Hood, Bate moved out to form on Cleburne's left, and Brown's brigade was moved to the right on the double quick, and made their formation. Gen. Hood then, in person, ordered Gen. Cleburne to form at the left of the road, in the cornfield at the foot of a hill, move forward and take the enemy's works, adding that Brown had formed on his right and Bate was advancing to form on his left. This order was erecuted rapidly, and the enemy had only time to fire one volley before Granberry and Govan were at their works, and in less than fifteen minutes, with a loss of four killed and forty-five wounded, the earthworks with some prisoners were taken. Cleburne's command was now in full view of Spring Hill, and less than 300 yards from it. A Federal battery on the turnpike then commenced to shell the command, which had become somewhat scattered in pursuing the enemy, and Gen. Cleburne dispatched L. H. Mangum, the original writer of this sketch, toGranberry on the left, with directions to form his brigade so as to be prepared to move on the pike. As he gave the order he said, "I will see Govan." At that moment a shell burst over his heed and wounded his horse, causing the animal to rear furiously, and Mr. Mangum paused to make the inquiry, "Are you hurt, General?" but the answer fired at him was, "No, go on, Mangum, and tell Granberry what I told you, and we will take the pike." Shortly after the brigades had formed and the battery had retreated. It was then discovered that Bate had not formed on the left, owing to the creek, through which Cleburne had waded, proving an obetruction, and as night was approaching, they were ordered to bivouac. During the night the Federal army passed along this very pike, within 200 yards of Cleburne's command, and escaped to Franklin. In the morning Hood's army began pursuing the enemy, and in the afternoon reached Winston's Ridge, where they could get a good view of Schofield's fortifications at Franklin, and their admirable nature caused Hood to look serious and consult with his officers what was best to be done. Some of his ablest generals opposed the attack, among whom was Gen. Cleburne, but, notwithstanding this, Hood ordered an immediate ettack, and while on the eve of the onset, he addressed Cleburne thus: "General, I wish you to move on the enemy. Form your division on the right of the pike, with your left resting on the same. Gen. Brown will form on your left, with his right resting on the same. Give orders to your men not to fire a gun till you drive the Federal skirmishers from the first line of works in your front. Then press them and shoot them in the backs while running to the main line. Then charge the main works." To which Cleburne answered with a smile, "General, I will take the works or fall in the attempt." The first line of works was easily taken, and when his men made the final charge, Cleburne was at the front. [p.760] A message had been sent from him to L. H. Mangum to join him at once, the latter having been sent to locate a battery, and upon his return the General said, "It is too late, go on with Granberry." He hen turned his horse and galloped up to Govan's brigade, this being the last time Mr. Mangum ever saw the General alive. Shortly after Cleburne's horse was shot from under him, and while in the act of mounting another which had been offered him, this, too, was shot and instantly killed. Cleburne then rushed forward on foot, and when within less than a hundred yards from the works, he fell, pierced by a minie-ball, which passed through his body and probably caused instant death. Hidden by smoke and enveloped by thunders, he sank on the couch of his glory, unattended and alone. As soon as his absence became known, the deepest anxiety was shown, and it was at first reported that he was captured, but these hopes were dissipated by the finding of Cleburne's body by a correspondent of the press, and he was taken to the home of Mr. McGavock, near by, and shortly afterward to Columbia for interment, the funeral rites being performed by Rt.-Rev. Bishop Quintard. Later his body was removed to the family burying-ground of the Polk family, at Ashwood, six miles from Columbia. Here, shadowed by the solemn forest trees, and near the river, on whose placid bosom he loved to row, he sleeps the sleep of a hero, and on the simple slab above his grave is the following inscription:

William C. Cooke, who has been a resident of this county since 1873, removed here from Mississippi, settling in Cypress Township, where he purchased 160 acres of land. To this he has added other tracts, and now owns a farm of 220 acres, with 140 acres under cultivation. Mr. Cooke was a son of Thomas Cooke, who was born in March, 1800, and died in 1846, when our subject was a boy. He was married in Tennessee to Miss Alice Cathey, whose birth occurred in Tennessee, in about 1800, he dying in May, 1874, and leaving eleven children, only two of whom are living: Elizabeth O. (residing in Monroe County) and William C. (the principal of this sketch). The latter was born in Maury County, Tenn., March 17, 1830. He has been married five times; first, in 1852, to Miss Mary Graham, a native of North Carolina, who died in 1855, leaving one daughter, Alice (now Mrs. Jackson, a widow). His second marriage was in 1856 to Nancy Lock, of Mississippi; she departed this life in 1862, leaving three children, two of whom survive: Thomas and Samuel L. His third marriage, in 1865, was to the widow McCloud, who died in 1871, having borne three children, two living: Jenette and Virgil. In 1873 Cynthia Wright, of this county, became his wife, and at her death, in 1876, she was the mother of two children: Margaret A. and Jennie. Mr. Cooke's present wife was formerly Mrs. Robinson, to whom he was married in 1881. They are the parents of three children, two girls and one son: Cecil, Roy and Lucy. During the war Mr. Cooke enlisted in the Confederate army, in the Mississippi Cavalry, in 1862, in which he served until the close of hostilities. He is a stanch Democrat, and served one term as justice of the peace. He and wife are members of the Christian Church.

J. W. Clopton, wholesale grocer and cotton factor, Helena, Ark. This most enterprising and successful business man is the son of John H. and Matilda (Drake) Clopton, both of whom were born near Nashville, Tenn. They were married in that State, and in 1841 moved to Marshall County, Miss., where they resided until 1851, and then moved to Phillips County, Ark., where the father died in 1856. The mother died in 1865. Of the ten children born to their union, four are now living; Hoggatt, Jesse P., James W. (in Phillips County) and William C. (in New York City). James W. Clopton, was born in Marshall County, Miss., on March 16, 1841, and was ten years of age when he came to this county with his parents. He was educated principally in Helena, was reared partly on the farm, and at an early age began clerking, which enterprise he continued until the late Civil War. He [p.763] then enlisted in the Yell Rifles, of which the late Maj.-Gen. Cleburne was captain, and served until the close of the war, He received a gunshot in the right hand and left wrist at the battle of Shiloh, came home on a furlough, and while here he was captured and taken to Alton, Ill. After being retained for about four months, he was exchanged, and fortunately fell in with the first lot of prisoners that got through. He joined his regiment at Murfreeshoro, and was secoud sergeaut. He was in all the principal engagements, and served his canse faithfully and well. Returning home he farmed for two years, and then embarked in mercantile pursuits which he has since carried on. He has an exterisive wholesale business, and is a successful business man. He was married, in 1869, to Miss Bettie Rainey, a native of Macon, Miss., by whom he has five children: Mary, Edna, Alice, James W. and Bess. Mr. Clopton is a member of the K. of P. and American Legion of Honor, is a stockholder in the People's Saving Bank and Helena Compress Company, also the Fair Association, and is president of the Chamber of Commerce.

Col. Hoggatt Clopton, Helena, Ark. A glance at the lives of many representative men, whose names appear in this volume, will reveal sketches of some honored, influential citizens, but none more worthy or deserving of mention than Col. Hoggatt Clopton. This gentleman resides three miles west of Helena, and is the owner of Clopton Hall plantations, among the largest in the county, consisting of 4,500 acres of land, with 1,700 acres under cultivation. He is also a capitalist. Col. Clopton was born near Nashville, Tenn., February 6, 1831, and is the son of John Hoggatt and Matilda C. (Drake) Clopton, the grandson of Anthony Clopton, and the great-grandson of Hugh Clopton, of Virginia. The latter, with two brothers, Will and Anthony, left England and came to America, locating in Virginia about 1700. Afterward Will returned to the land of his birth, and being the oldest of the three brothers, fell heir to Clopton Hall Manor, at Stratford-on-Avon. Anthony Clopton, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a native Virginian, and died in De Soto County, Miss., in 1848, when eighty-seven years of age. He was a very successful farmer, and was among the first settlere of Davidson County, Tenn., locating at Nashville when that city was but a small trading point. He moved to Tipton County, Tenn., in 1836, and resided there until 1846, when he broke up housekeeping on account of the death of his wife, whose maiden name was Rhoda Hoggatt, and moved to Marshall County, Miss. Later he moved to De Soto County of the same State, where he passed the closing scenes of his life. He was a Whig, but took very little interest in politics. He was at one time a partner in a race course at Clover Bottom, near Nashville, Tenn., with Gen. Andrew Jackson. John Hoggatt Clopton, the father of the subject of this sketch, was born in Davidson County, Tenn., on Aug. 31, 1805, and died on July 26, 1855, in Phillips County, Ark. He was married in March, 1830, to Miss Matilda C. Drake, a native of Wilson County, Tenn., born September 15, 1813, and died June 6, 1865. They lived near Nashville, Tenn., until 1839, when they moved near Holly Springs, Marshall County, Miss., where they resided until December, 1851. After this the family moved to Phillips County, Ark. While living at Nashville Mr. Clopton was engaged in raising fine stock, especially racing stock, but also raised blooded stock of all kinds. He was the owner of a great many slaves, but sold his property at Nashville, moved to Mississippi with his slaves, and from that time until his death was occupied as a cotton planter. He was unusually successful, and although starting life with rather limited means, by his superior business ability and great energy was the possessor of a great deal of property at his death. He and wife were worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and on coming to Phillips County were instrumental in the building up of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Helena. He was a Whig in politics. Matilda C. (Drake) Clopton was the daughter of Brittain Drake, a native of North Carolina, whose aucestors were also English, and an old settler of Wilson County, Tenn. He was a farmer, and in his political views was a Whig. There were born to the union of John Hoggatt Clopton and wife, eight sons and two daughters, four of whom are now living: Col. [p.764] Hoggatt, Jesse P. (a prominent planter and merchant of Phillips County, Ark.), James W. (a successful merchant and planter of Phillips County, now residing in Helena), and William C. (an eminent attorney of New York City, a graduate of the University of Virginia, and also a graduate of the University of Berlin, Germany). The children

deceased were named as follows: John Anthony (was born January 23, 1833, and died on July 19, 1854; he was a merchant at Helena, Ark.), Brittain D. Clopton (was born March 9, 1835, and died February 4, 1831, at Columbia. Tenn.), Charles C. (was born March 16, 1837, and died near Memphis, Tenn., December 24, 1854, while on a visit), Jack Hoggatt (was born in October, 1843, and died on May 28, 1855), Matilda L., Helena (died in April, 1858), and Fannie (who was the first of the children to die, her death occurring when but two years of age). Col. Hoggatt Clopton graduated at the University of Mississippi, in 1851, and was elected speaker to represent the Hermean Society at commencement, in which he bore the highest honor as speaker, and soon after turned his attention to planting and merchandising. He started the latter business in 1853, continued one year, and being the oldest son it became his duty to assist his father and family in planting operations. His three brothers, Jesse P., James W. and William C. were in the Confederate army, Jesse P. holding the rank of major, and James W. being in the commissary department on account of a wound received at the battle of Shiloh. William C. was but fourteen years of age when he enlisted. Col. Hoggatt Clopton entered the service in 1862, in Albert W. Johnson's regiment as lieutenant. After the war he again turned his attention to planting, and although he has experienced many heavy losses, he is now in a prosperous condition, and is one of the representative and substantial citizens of the county. His marriage to Miss Ellen S. Booker took place December 19, 1867. She was born in Columbia, Tenn., and was the daughter of James G. Booker, a Virginian by descent. She was a member of the Episcopal Church, and died in full communion with the same on May 20, 1869. Mr. Clopton has remained single since. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and in politics he affiliates with the Democratic party. He is of purely English origin, and may well be proud of his ancestors, as many of them have been distinguished men. One of them, Sir Hugh Clopton by name, was Lord Mayor of London in the reign of King Henry the Eighth, and lies entombed by the side of Shakespeare, in Stratford Church on Avon. And another ancestor, Capt. John Hoggatt, his great-grandfather, commanded a company in the War for Independence, and now lies buried near Nashville, Tenn., with a record of his career written on his monument. He was of English descent, and a native of Virginia, and was a farmer by occupation. Mr. Clopton took an extensive trip all over England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland, and Continental Europe the past spring, summer and fall, and was at the tomb of Shakespeare and Sir Hugh Clopton. They were contemporaries, and are buried side by side in Stratford Church on (the river) Avon, in Warwick County, England, about 100 miles west of London.

Jesse P. Clopton, planter, Marvell, Ark. The principal part of his life Mr. Clopton has followed, with substantial success, the occupation to which he was reared and in which he is now engaged, farming. He is one of the largest land owners in Phillips County, is also one of its recognized leading agriculturists and merchants, and as a man, no less than a citizen, is highly esteemed. His birth occurred near the old Jackson Hermitage, Davidson County, Tenn., March 4, 1839, and is the son of John Haggatt and Matilda C. (Drake) Clopton, both natives of Tennessee. The parents were married in their native State but immigrated to North Mississippi in 1844 and there the father died July 26, 1855. The mother was a descendant of Sir Francis Drake, and died in this county June 6, 1865. Their marriage resulted in the birth of ten children: Haggatt (born February 6, 1831), John A. (deceased, born January 23, 1833), Brittain D. (deceased, born March 9, 1835), Charles C. (deceased, born March 28, 1837), Jesse P., James M. (born March 16, 1841), Jack M. (born October 8, 1843), Matilda L. (deceased, born November 29, 1845), William C. (born March 16, 1848) and Fannie [p.765] (deceased, born January 29, 1851). Jesse P. was but twelve years of age when he moved with his parents from Mississippi to this county and here he finished his growth. He received such educational advantages as were attainable in the common schools, but afterward completed his schooling by attending Lebanon College, Tenn. After this he began the study of medicine, but the war broke out and he enlisted in the Confederate service in 1861, under Gen. Cleburne's demand, Fifteenth Arkansas Regiment. He served until he was disabled, was then discharged and was out of service for four months. He then again joined the army, was soon after captured and almost directly exchanged, being on parole for about two months. He was at the battle of Helena and was the first man shot at while performing the duties of adjutant-general. At the close of the war he returned home and engaged in tilling the soil. He was married January 7, 1864, to Miss Virginia C. Swan, a native of Phillips County, Ark. (born February 5, 1846, and the daughter of Major John C. Swan, who was born in Frankfort, Ky., on April 1, 1800. Major Swan came to this county in 1836, located eighteen miles west of Helena on what is known as the military road, and here he was extensively engaged in cultivating the soil, owning at one time over 1,000 acres in this county and as much in the State of Mississippi. He helped survey the military road at an early day and was one of the prominent and useful citizens. He was marrled in Helena, Ark., to Miss Permelia B. Raleigh, a native of Virginia (born November 7, 1817), and the daughter of Charles V. Raleigh. Mr. Raleigh was a native of North Carolina, and the capital of that State was named in his honor. He was a descendant of Sir Walter Raleigh. Maj. Swan died in this county December 25, 1849, and his wife died September 9, 1867. They were the parents of three daughters and one son: John R. (was a captain in the Confederate army and died at his home, a number of years after the war). Mary J. (deceased), Fannie A. (deceased) and Virginia C. (who is the youngest child). To Mr. and Mrs. Clopton were born five children, two now living: Jesse P. (deceased), Virginia (deceased), John H. (deceased), Agnes C. and Eugenia (both at home). Mr. Clopton is the owner of 1,776 acres of land, 1,100 acres under cultivation, and raises annually from 250 to 400 bales of cotton. In March, 1872, he opened a store of general merchandise in Marvell and carries a stock of goods valued at $5,000. He buys and ships cotton and is the leading business man of Marvell. In politics, he is Democratic, casting his first presidential vote for H. Seymour, and he held the office of circuit clerk for two years. He is a member of the K. of H. and the K. & L. of H. He and his family are members of the Episcopal Church. Mr. Clopton has a large cotton-gin and saw-mill on his plantation.

Roland J. Cook, planter, Barton, Ark. Phillips County is acknowledged by all to be one of the best agricultural portions of the State, and as such its citizens are men of advanced ideas and considerable prominence. A worthy man of this class is found in the person of Roland J. Cook. He was originally from Yalobusha County, Miss., where his birth occurred October 27, 1839, and is the son of James and Frances (Brooks) Cook, natives of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively. The father was born in 1810 and the mother in 1814. They were married in Mississippi, moved from there to Phillips County, Ark., in 1856, and located on the farm where Roland J. now resides. The principal part of this land was then covered with wood, but it was cleared by Mr. Cook and his son. James Cook was a carpenter by trade, and built the house in which our subject is now living. After coming to Arkansas he turned his attention exclusively to farming, and this continued up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1873. The mother died in 1866. The father was a Whig in politics, sympathized with the South, but never approved of secession. There were born to their marriage eight children, six now living, Roland J. being the eldest. The latter spent his school days in Mississippi and Arkansas, and in June, 1861, enlisted in the Second Arkansas (Confederate) Infantry, serving in the same until after the battle of Chickamauga, when he was severely wounded by a gunshot in the right hand and the left breast. He was orderly sergeant, and was in [p.766] many prominent engagements: Shiloh, Murfreesboro and Perryville, Ky. After being wounded he was taken prisoner, but only retained for a short time. Returning home after the war, he turned his attention to farming, following the same for one year in Mississippi, and subsequently resumed agricultural pursuits on the old homestead, where he now lives. He is the owner of 300 acres of good land, and has 150 acres under cultivation. In 1866 he married Miss Lucy Winbourn, daughter of Rev. A. K. Winbourn, of De Soto County, Miss. The result of this union has been five children. Mr. and Mrs. Cook are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. Cook is steward in the same. He is a member of the masonic fraternity, the K. of H., and in politics is a Democrat, but is conservative in his views.

H. P. Coolidge (deceased) was born in the State of Maine, February 7, 1812, and while still in his early youth was taken by his parents to the Buckeye State, settling near Cincinneti, where he was left an orphan at an early age. When about seventeen years of age he went to Louisiana and during a residence of several years in New Orleans was a boss mechanic, being considered the complete master of his trade. While in that city he was married to Elizabeth J. Legier, a French lady, and in 1842 came with her and his infant son, C. R. Coolidge, to Helena, Ark., making the trip on a flat-boat, intending to journey on to New Orleans for permanent residence there. The sheriff of the county determined to make him pay annual license for selling his goods, but he thought it a wanton injustice, and, although intending to remain at Helena for one month, he paid his license and determined to settle here. He rented a store building, put in a stock of goods and soon built up a very extensive trade, so large in fact that he determined to stay here, although his original intention had been to go back to New Orleans. Helena continued to be his home until his death, which occurred April 23, 1872, his wife dying November 17, 1880. Of nine children born to them, two only lived to be grown. A daughter, who married Dr. F. N. Barke, now a resident of Helena, died January, 1887, leaving an infant daughter, Mary E. Burke, who lives mainly with her uncle, C. R.

Coolidge, in Helena. Only one, C. R. Coolidge, is now living. Mr. Coolidge became known all over this section of the country, not only in his business capacity, but in local political matters as well, and for some time served as county and probate judge, although he was no office seeker. He was a man who sttended strictly to his own affairs and for his many sterling business and social qualities was beloved by all who knew him. At one time he was offered 400 acres of land, which is now in the heart of Memphis, Tenn., for a small sum of money, and if he had closed the bargain he would have been worth millions of dollars. He was very liberal with his wealth and always gave liberally to the poor and distressed, also to schools and churches, and all worthy publio enterprises. He was very progressive in his ideas and always endeavored to keep out of the beaten path, and was ever ready to adopt new ideas. He was a stanch Union man during the war and expressed his thoughts and opinions freely and without fear. He was a prominent Mason and Odd Fellow and a member of the Mothodist Episcopal Church. Such a man, liberal and progressive in his views, enterprising, industrious and public-spirited, is a blessing to any community and deserves the highest praise which can be given him. His son, Charles R., has erected a monument to his memory which was made in Italy at a cost of $6,000. It is twenty-nine feet six inches in height and is surmounted by a life-size statue of Mr. Coolidge, which is very finely executed. Charles R. Coolidge was born in New Orleans in November, 1836, and came to Helena with his parents. He was brought up in the mercantile business, which he has always followed. He has been very successful in all his business undertakings and has one of the handsomest residences in the city of Helena. Like his father he is enterprising and public-spirited and is one of the foremost citizens of Phillips County. He was married in 1866 to Miss Elizabeth T. Ellis, a native of Middle Tennessee, by whom he has ten children, nine living: Henry, Charles R., Jr., Willie, Eva, Lizzie, Andrew, Ellis, Walter and Mary. Eva, his second child, is deceased, and a younger [p.767] daughter was named for her. Mr. Coolidge was an Odd Fellow for many years and served some time in the late war and was at one time taken prisoner.

D. H. Crebs. The Planters' Compress & Storage Company of Helena, Ark., is one of the largest establishments of the kind in Southern Arkansas, and the amount of ground used by them for the successful conduct of their establishment comprises four and three-quarters acres, it being purchased by our subject in August, 1886. He immediately erected one of the finest cotton-gins in the South, and in 1887 built a compress, which was the first erected in Helena, and the first year pressed 18,000 bales of cotton. This is a large brick structure, and was owned and operated individually by Mr. Crebs until the spring of 1889, when a stock company was organized, and took the name of the Planters' Compress Company, in which Mr. Crebs has a controlling interest, and is president of the company; J. H. Lawrens is secretary, and L. Lucy, tressurer. The cotton-gin has a capacity of twenty-five to thirty bales of cotton per day. Mr. Crebs was born in Winchester, Frederick County, Va., October 30, 1836, and is a son of Henry Crebs, who was also a Virginian, and a soldier in the War of 1812, he being then only about seventeen years of age. His father was a Revolutionary soldier, and was of Scotch birth, an early settler of Virginia. Henry was a farmer by occupation, and eventually died in the town in which he was born and reared. Of his six children, four are now living. His son, D. H., was eleven years old when his father died, then began learning the machinist's trade, and in 1862 he enlisted in Company A, Second Virginia Regiment, and was wounded at Seven Pines by a gunshot, which necessitated his remaining in a hospital for some time. He was in Mat. Marra's command, but afterward joined Col. Tanner's battalion and was in all the general engagements in which his regiment participated. After the war he was left, like all soldiers, destitute, but he worked at what he could find to do, and in 1867 came to Helena and began doing business for a Mr. Barbarbroux, of Louisville. At the end of two years the company diseolved, and Mr. Crebs then began an independent career, and is still dealing in machinery. He built the first oil mills in Helena, also the first opera house, but the latter burned down in 1885. Mr. Crebs has been one of the live business men of the place, and his interest and support in all public affairs, his honesty and industry, as well as his progressive views on all matters of importance, have won him the respect of all who know him. He is a stockholder in the First National Bank and the Peoples' Bank, and by his shrewdness and tact is one of the wealthy men of the county. He has one of the handsomest residences in the city, it being situated on a natural building site, in full view of the Mississippi River, as well as the city and surrounding country. In 1876 he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Carruth, and in 1880 took for his second wife, Miss Jennie Cook, by whom he has two children: Maggie and Harry.

Job Dean, farmer and saloon man, Trenton, Ark. Mr. Dean owes his nativity to Shelby County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1847, and is the first and only child born to the union of Henry and Fannie (Abington) Dean, natives, respectively, of South Carolina and North Carolina. The elder Dean was a farmer and speculator in real estate. He moved to Tennessee when a young man, and was there married in 1845 to Miss Abington. He owned a great deal of land in this county at the time of his death, which occurred in 1860. The mother died in 1850, and two years later the father married Miss Laura Hudson, of Madison County, Tenn., who bore him four children, only three of whom lived to be grown: Richard (deceased, died at the age of twenty-four years of consumption), Mary H. (deceased, wife of Tobe Hamner. She was the mother of one child, Albert, who resides in Tennessee with his father, who is a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church), Emma (wife of T. J. Leak, of Collierville, Tenn., and the mother of four children, Dean, Tigue, Emma G. and Fletcher). Our subject was educated in the common schools of his native county, and spent two years at Black Hawk, Carroll County, Miss., where he finished his education. At the age of twenty years he left school, and when twenty-nine years of age was married to Miss Maggie Davis, of Marshall [p.768] County, Miss., who bore him five children, only two now living: Henry and Mamie. After marriage Mr. Dean commenced farming in Shelby County and there remained until 1874, when he moved to Marshall County, Miss., where he was engaged in tilling the soil for two years. In 1876 he came to Phillips County, Ark., cultivated the soil, but was not very successful for the first few years. In 1880 he opened the saloon business at Trenton and still runs this in connection with a family grocery. He now owns 160 acres of land with forty acres cleared, which he rents for $200 per year. Mr. Dean is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Lebanon Lodge No. 97, K. of H., and is Vice-Dictator of that organization. Politically he is a Democrat. He favors improvements for the benefit of his county and all laudable designs for the interest of the people.

Amos W. Dongherty, the fifth son in a family of fourteen children born to Isaac and Rachel (Slimp) Dougherty, made his appearance upon the stage of life in Lauderdale County, Ala., on November, 1, 1830. At the age of five he removed with his parents to Mississippi, where he was reared, educated, and learned the carpenter's trade under an older brother. In about 1860 he came to Arkansas and located in this county, and was engaged at his trade until 1887. In 1851 he was married to Miss Lucy B. Wilkes, a native of Alabama, who died in 1865, leaving five children; one of these, Indiana V., is the wife of W. J. Day, of this county. Mr. Dougherty was married the second time, in 1866, to Miss Caroline N. Dean, of this State, she surviving until in November, 1872. His third wife, Nancy J. Slayton, to whom he was married in February, 1874, came originally from Georgia, and died in July, 1876. Mr. Dougherty was married to his last wife, Mrs. Virginia D. Andrews, in November, 1877. In 1847 he enlisted in the Mexican War and served about six months, taking part in a number of skirmishes. In 1861 his patriotism still asserted itself, and he enlisted in the Confederate army, in the Seventh Arkansas Infantry, serving until his capture in April, 1865, when he was taken to Memphis and kept until the following June. He owns a small farm of forty-nine acres, and also owns a steam cotton-gin, meeting with good success in his efforts. Mr. Dougherty is a member of the Masonic order and of the K. of H. In politics is a Democrat, and a highly respected citizen.

Isaac Ehrman, wholesale and retail liquor dealer, Helena, Ark. The trade carried on in staple articles of consumption always constitutes a most important factor in the commercial resources of a city or town, and it is therefore not surprising if it finds its natural recognition in Helena. Prominent among those engaged in it is the firm of Ehrman Brothers, who have followed this business a number of years. Isaac Ehrman is a native of Rhine, Bavaria, born on November 4, 1836, and is a son of M. and Sophia (Rubel) Ehrman, who were natives of Germany. The father came to America in 1878, and is now a resident of Memphis, Tenn., and is in the eighty-second year of his age. To his marriage were born eight children, six now living, and all in America: Isaac, Emelia (wife of Jacob Wertheimer, of Pine Bluff), Hannah (wife of J. Nathan, who is a member of the firm of Nathan & Oppenheimer, of Memphis), Mrs. Wertheimer (of Birmingham, Ala.), Mrs. Alice Wolf (of Columbus, Miss.) and Emanuel. Isaac Ehrman was reared and educated in Germany, where he remained until 1853, and when fifteen years of age, took passage at Havre, and landed at New Orleans after an ocean voyage of sixty days. He went to Fayette, Miss., and kept books for his uncle until 1860, when he returned to Europe. In 1861 he returned to Mississippi, but went from there to Memphis, Tenn., where he was engaged in the dry goods business until 1873; was also part of the time interested in the liquor business, and at the above-mentioned date he came to Helena. He was married in 1863 to Miss Cecil Wertheimer, who bore him four children: Fannie, Ophelia, Eddie and Blanche. Mr. Ehrman is a member of the Masonic fraternity, K. of H., K. of P., Royal Arcanum, etc. He was alderman for four years, and was a stockholder in the People's Saving Bank. He is also a stockholder in the Opera House and Fair Association, and is a prominent man of Helena.

L. A. Fitzpatrick, of the firm of Jacks, Fitzpatrick & Co., wholesale druggists at Helena, was born in Chickasaw County, Miss., in November, 1848, and is the son of B. F. and E. J. (Moore) Fitzpatrick, natives of Georgia and Alabama, respectively. The parents moved to Mississippi at quite an early date, but from there went to Mobile, Ala., where they are now living, the father being a cotton factor. L. A. Fitzpatrick's time in youth was divided between assisting on the farm and in attending the common schools. In 1864 he enlisted in the Confederate army, and served one year. In 1868 he came to Helena, Ark., and began clerking in a drug store, but in 1872 he purchased an interest in the business of Jacks & Moore. In 1879 the firm title was changed to Jacks & Co., and in 1884 the present company was formed. They carry a stock of goods valued at $25,000, and do an annual business of $200,000. They are the largest dealers in drugs in Helena, and are enjoying a liberal patronage, being careful and reliable men. Mr. Fitzpatrick was married in 1872 to Miss Alzena F. Jacks, a daughter of Dr. T. M. Jacks, and to this union were born seven children living: Katie, Lotta M., Ben. F., L. A., Jr., Hopkins R., Curtis H. and Lone. Mr. Fitzpatrick is a member of the I. O. O. F., and Knights of Pythias, American Legion of Honor, Royal Arcanum and Ladies and Knights of Honor. He held the office of city treasurer for several years, and was also alderman for some time. He is a large stockholder in the Jacks Real Estate Company, the Arkansas Building Association and the Electric Light Company.

Robert FitzHugh. In reviewing the contents of this volume, no adequste idea of the agricultural affairs of Phillips County or of its substantial citizens, could be formed which failed to make mention of Mr. FitzHugh and the excellent estate which he owns. His residence tract contains 1,570 acres, and is admirably adapted to raising all kinds of grain indigenous to this climate, and besides this he owns 700 acres in another tract, and in all has 600 acres under cultivation. Everything about his property pronounces him to be an agrioulturist of enterprise and progress, and such he is acknowledged by all to be. He was born in Livingston County, N. Y., December 18, 1826, and this alone speaks volumes for him as a progressive and enterprising citizen. He is a son of Richard P. and Mary A. FitzHugh, the former a native of Maryland and the latter of York State. Robert, our subject, first moved from his native State to Ohio in 1863, thence to Michigan in 1866, and still later settled in Phillips County, Ark. In 1865 he married Miss Sarah T. Hubbard, a daughter of Dr. Hubbard, of Phillips County, and six children are the result of their union: Mary A., Richard H., Annie S., Flora B., Mabel and Foster C. Mrs. FitzHugh is a member of the Episcopal Church, and her husband is a Democrat in his political views. His father removed to York State when seventeen years of age and followed farming there, until his death in 1863, at the age of sixty-three years. His wife died in 1882, also in New York, having reached the age of sixty-seven years. Of seven children born to them, three are now living.

N. J. Fritzon, mayor of Helena and dealer in queensware, has a life record of more than usual interest and seems by nature to be a man fitted to rule. He was born across the ocean, his birth occurring in Sweden near the Baltic Sea, in October, 1838. At an early day he displayed the energy and enterprise which has since characterized his career, and his youth was spent in learning the shoemaker's trade and in studying music, in which he became very proficient, being able to play almost any instrument which was put into his bands. Life in his native land was not suited to one of his energetic and enterprising disposition, and he accordingly determined to cross the ocean and see what life in a new land had in store for him, and in 1857 first set foot on American soil at Boston, the voyage from Gothenberg to this point occupying a period of five weeks. He immediately went to Moline, Ill., thence to Rock Island, working at his trade, and the year 1859 found him in St. Louis, from which point he went to New Orleans a short time after. This city continued to be his home until the bombardment of Fort Sumter, when he returned to St. Louis, thence back to [p.770] Rock Island, Ill., where he enlisted in Company A, Ninth Illinois Cavalry, and was made chief musician and bugler of his regiment. In 1862 he was mustered out of service, by order of the war department, and was then musician for eight months on Gen. Steele's staff. In February, 1863, he came to Helena and engaged in the grocery business and this was his exclusive means of a livelihood for twenty-one years, but was a very lucrative one. His stock of queensware is very large and of an exceptionally fine quality, and as he is an honest and upright man of business, his sales are large. He has been connected with the fire department of the city since the war and for several years has been its chief. In 1888 he was elected mayor of Helena and his record as an official, as well as a business man, will bear the investigation of one and all, for not a shadow can be advanced derogatory to his reputation. He is a Royal Arch Mason, and for a number of years he has been a member of the town council and the board of health. He was married in 1867 to Miss Mary B. Nixon, by whom he has five children: Sidney H., John E., Mary B., Nelson J. and Endora C.

Bogan N. Gist is the son of Thomas Gist, and was born in South Carolina in 1852. Thomas Gist, also a native of South Carolina, datas his existence from 1816, immigrating to what is now Lee County, S. C., in 1857, where he died in 1887. He was married in South Carolina to Miss Mary Bogan, who passed away in 1865, having borne eight children, two sons and two danghters now living. Bogan N., the eldest in order of birth, received an excellent education in the schools of his native State, afterward completing his studies at a prominent military school in Kentucky. He resided with his parents until reaching his majority, and on May 3, 1878, was married to Miss Mary Blanehe Heineman, born in Mississippi, and a daughter of Charles and Mildreth Heineman. Mrs. Heineman is now living in Phillips County, Ark., and her husband died in Murfreesboro, Ala. Mr. Gist and wife are the parents of one child, Bogan N., Jr. They have resided on their present place since 1872, on which Mr. Gist erected a handsome and commodious home at a cost of $200,000. He owns about 640 acres of land, and with 500 acres under cultivation, located sixteen miles west of Helena. The farm is admirably adapted to the growing of hay, grain and vegetables, and presents a fine appearance in its carefully cultivated state. Mr. Gist is quite extensively engaged in stock raising, from which he receives a comfortable income. Politically he is a Democrat, and is a citizen of whom Phillips County may well be proud; honest, enterprising and a leader in any movement that suggests the present or future growth of the community.

Thomas Clark Glasscock, a planter and stock raiser of Cypress Township, was reared and educated in Alabama, his native State, also being married there in 1856 to Miss Isabella Couch, whose birth occurred in Morgan County, Ala., November 22, 1836. She was a daughter of Uriah and Elizabeth (Turney) Couch, both of Tennessee origin. In 1861 Mr. Glasscock enlisted in the Twenty-ninth Alabama Infantry, and served over three years. In 1867 he immigrated from Alabama to Tennessee, and two years later moved to Phillips County, Ark., and located on the farm on which he now lives, as superintendent, remaining until 1874, when he returned to Alabama, and in 1881 came back to this county and again took charge of the same plantation, consisting of 1,400 acres, with over 400 acres under cultivation. Mr. Glasscock was born in Blount County, Ala., August 11, 1837, and was a son of John R. and Martha (Rutherford) Glasscock, natives of Tennessee and Alabama, respectively. John R. Glasscock was born about 1822, a son of Gregory Glasscock, who was also born in Tennessee, of English descent, and moved to Alabama when John R. was a boy of eight years. He took part in numerous early Indian wars, and is still living in Cullman County, Ala. His wife was born in 1824, and died in 1887, having been the mother of twelve children, eight of whom are still living. Thomas C. Glasscock is a member of the Masonic order, holding the office of Worshipful Master of his lodge, and is a strong Democrat in polities. Himself and wife have no children of their own, but reared one child. Minnie M. (Mrs. Couch), who still resides with them.

James P. H. Graham is a native of North Carolina, but was reared in Mississippi, and received his education in the common schools of that State. At the age of twenty-two he commenced farming for himself, and in December, 1860, was married to Miss Sarah Cathey, whose birth occurred in Mississippi, on October 10, 1842. She died in January, 1872, being the mother of four children, one of whom, Elizabeth A. D., is still living. In November, 1872, Mr. Graham married Sarah E. Jarrett, born in Alabama, in August, 1851, a daughter of Freeman and Mary (McMillen) Jarrett, and a sister of Joseph F. Jarrett, whose biography appears in this work. They are parents of seven children, five living: Mary M., Josie E., Joseph W., Mittie P. and Edner L. Our subject was born in Cleveland County, N. C., on January 27, 1838. Arthur H. Graham, his father, was born in North Carolina, on September 17, 1809, and removed to Mississippi in 1839, coming from that State to this county in 1869. He was married on January 23, 1834, to Miss Elizabeth D. S. Wray, also of North Carolina, born in 1815, and a daughter of James Wray, of English descent. She died in 1844, leaving five children, two of whom survive: James P. H. and William Walter. The senior Mr. Graham was engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, which occurred in November, 1887. He was the son of John Graham, of Irish descent, though a native of Cleveland County, N. C. James Graharn came to this county with his father in 1869, and has since resided here. He was a resident of Mississippi at the time of the breaking out of the war, and enlisted in March, 1862, in Company A of the Ninth Mississippi Infantry, serving until December, 1863, when he was taken prisoner at the battle of Missionary Ridge, and carried to Rock Island, where he was confined until May 3, 1865. He was then exchanged and received his discharge at Natchez, Miss. Although captured early in the war, he participated in four great battles of the war, Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge. Mr. Graham now owns a fine farm of 160 acres, with 112 acres under cultivation, upon which are improvements, buildings, orchards, &c. He is a stanch Democrat, and although not an office seeker, was elected justice of the peace in 1884, which position he held for a year. He then resigned on account of other business matters requiring his attention. He is a member of the K. of H. and of the Christian Church, his wife belonging to the Baptist Church.

H. M. Grant, M. D., and ex-State senator, was born in Christian County, Ky., in May, 1829, and is one of two surviving members of a family of twelve children born to Joshus D. and Henrietta (McNeal) Grant, the former a native of North Carolina, and the latter of Virginia. Both parents were taken to Kentucky when young, and there they were married and spent the greater portion of their lives, the mother's death occurring in that State, and the father's in Northwest Arkansas, he being a farmer and merchant by occupation. Both grandfathers served in the War of 1812. Dr. Grant received the earlier part of his education in Kentucky, and completed his studies at McKandrie College, Lebanon, Ill. At the age of seventeen years he began his medical studies, and favored with excellent preparatory training he was enabled to at once enter upon a successful career. In 1849, when in his twentieth year, he graduated from the Louisville Medical College, and his first practice was at La Fayette, Ky., but here he only remained a short time. In 1850 he came to Helena, Ark., which only had about 200 inhabitants at that time, rented an office, and hung out his "shingle," and is now the oldest medical practitioner in the town. His success has been very gratifying, and to say that he is a superior physician and surgeon is not detrimental to other physicians of the town and county. At the opening of the war he began drilling a corps of soldiers praparatory to entering the service, but a few days before ready to begin active duty his horse fell with him, injuring him so badly that he was insensible for several days. His right arm was severely injured, and rendered him unfit for active military duty, which has always been a source of much regret to him, as he had the requisites necessary for an excellent soldier. He rendered good service, however, in dressing the wounded at different battles, and in this capacity [p.772] his labors were invaluable. While on board a boat going down the river he fell asleep and came very near being drowned, as the boat was commencing to sink rapidly, and he was only saved from a watery grave by his companions pulling him out at the skylight by his injured arm. This so aggra vated the difficulty that the joint became stiff, and he has never since had good use of it. He has filled the position of mayor of Helena for several terms, also councilman, and in 1866 was elected to the State senate, serving by re-election four years, and was again chosen to the position in 1880, serving another four years by re-election. He was the first mayor of Helena after the war, the last man elected to the senate before the reconstruction period, and the first white man elected after. He has always been a man of strict integrity, sterling worth, and his progressive and sound views on all public matters has made him well and favorably known to the residents of Phillips County. He was first married in the State of Illinois to Miss Sarah E. Roach, and by her had one child, who is now deceased. His second marriage was consummated in the State of Kentucky, in 1848, to Miss Sarah Griffin, by whom he also had one child: Sarah C., wife of H. P. Grant. His present wife (who was Araminta J. Blaine) is a relative of James G. Blaine. They also have one child: Lillian H. The Doctor is a Royal Arch Mason, a member of the I. O. O. F., and he and wife belong to the Episcopal Church. His sister, Mrs. Emeline S. Daniel, resides in Mount Vernon, Ill., and a brother, Judge A. M. Grant, died at that place.

Nathaniel Lee Graves, a Tennesseean by birth, has been a resident of this county since four years of age. He was born in Giles County, Tenn., in 1836, being a son of Alexander and Ann (Graves) Graves, natives of Granville County, N. C., and Henry County, Va., respectively, representatives of two distinct families. Alexander Graves came to Arkansas in 1840, and located in Phillips County, where he was engaged in farming until his death in 1863, his wife following one year later. They were the parents of seven children, three of whom are still living. The principal of this sketch was first married in March, 1869, to Miss Mary E. Boone, a daughter of O. C. Boone, a lineal descendant of the noted Daniel boone. She died in 1876, leaving two sons: Alexander W. and Nathaniel J. Mr. Graves was married to his second wife, Florence Carson, a native of Natchez, Miss., April 1, 1878. Mr. Graves owns a fine farm of 2,560 acres of land, situated thirteen miles west of Helena, of which 1,300 acres are under cultivation. His principal crop is cotton, and he grows of this product from five to seven hundred bales per annum. He also raises considerable stock, having on hand at the present time about seventy head of horses, 125 head of cattle and 300 sheep. On his plantation there are fifty colored families and eight white families of laborers engaged in the operation of this immense plantation. Mr. Graves also owns and operates his own steam cotton-gin. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, Knights of Honor and of the United Workman. He and wife are members of the Old School Presbyterian Church. Mr. Graves is one of the most influential men in the county, and takes an active interest in all public enterprises.

F. M. Hawkins, farmer, Vineyard, Ark. In the year 1836, in Tennessee, there was born to the union of John and Sarah (Owens) Hawkins, a son, F. M. Hawkins, who was the youngest of three children, only one, our subject, now living. The parents were natives of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and the father came to Arkansas in 1847, locating ten miles east of Jacksonport in Jackson County. After remaining there for four or five years he moved to Missouri and settled near Prairie City, where his death occurred sometime during the war. Mrs. Hawkins died in 1837. After the death of Mrs. Hawkins, the father married Miss Armstrong who bore him three children: Henry, Winfield and Mary. Mrs. Hawkins died in 1849 and Mr. Hawkins' third marriage was to a sister of his second wife. F. M. Hawkins was principally reared in Jackson County and received the major part of his education at home. He commenced for himself at the age of eighteen years by tilling the soil and this has been the principal pursuit through life. In 1861 he joined the army as aprivate and was promoted first to fifth sergeant, then to lieutenant and later to captain of the Nineteenth Arkansas Regiment and served in the Trans Mississippi Department, Tappan's brigade and Churchill's division for nearly four years. He was in the battles of Mansfield (La.), Pleasant Hill (La.) and Jenkins' Ferry. He was captured at Arkansas Post and was sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago, where he remained until March, 1863. He then succeeded in making his escape. He returned to his company at Little Rock, and his command surrendered at Shreveport (La.) at the close of the war. Mr. Hawkins then went to Kentucky, remained there eight years and was engaged in cultivating the soil. In 1872 he came to this county and bought 117 acres of land the following year and on that he now resides. To the original tract he has added enough to make 353 acres, and now has 100 acres of deadwood, preparatory to clearing. He produces on his farm about forty bales of cotton, but devotes a great deal of his time to the raising of stock. He has some graded cattle and hogs and is also raising some horses. He was married in 1874 to Mrs. Bettie Brady (nee Payne) of Shelby County, Ky., and the daughter of John Payne and wife (nee Nugen) of the same State. Mr. Hawkins is a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church, and Mrs. Hawkins is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

William Harvey Henderson is a son of Hampton and Mary (Graham) Henderson, the former of whom died when William H. was about fifteen years of age. He lived with his mother until twenty-two years old, when he began farming for himself, and in 1854 was married to Miss Susan Steward, a native of Georgia, who died in the following year. Mr. Henderson married his present wife, Miss Margaret King, in January, 1860; she was born in Mississippi in 1839. They are the parents of nine children, four of whom are still living: Thomas J., James H., Sarah V. (the wife of William H. Allison, of this county) and Mary B. (wife of Allen Terry). In 1859 Mr. Henderson purchased his present farm, consisting of 160 acres, which was

at that time wild land; with no improvements, and now he has over seventy acres under cultivation. His principal crop is cotton, and he also raises considerable corn as well as cattle and hogs. He is a prominent Democrat, and himself and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. Mr. Henderson was born in Gibson County, Tenn., November 14, 1831. Hampton Henderson was of English descent, his father being born in England. He moved to Tennessee when a young man, and died in 1844. His wife was a native of North Carolina, and died in 1862. They were the parents of eight children, two of whom are still living: Thomas and William H. (the principal of this sketch).

Richard B. Higgins, a planter of Phillips County of considerable prominence, is a native of Phillips County, Ark., his birth occurring October 27, 1852. His father, Richard Higgins, was born in Lexington, Ky., in 1827, and in 1846 immigrated to Crittenden County, Ark. Two years later he moved to Phillips County, where he became an extensive planter, owning at the date of his death, in 1862, over 1,300 acres of valuable land. He was the son of Joel Higgins, a Kentuckien by birth, and of Scotch-Irish descent. Richard Higgins, Sr., was married in Kentucky to Miss Elizabeth B. Brand, born in Lexington, Ky., in 1829, and is now residing in that city. By her marriage with Mr. Higgins, she became the mother of five children, the subject of this sketch being the fourth in order of birth. Richard B. received his education in the schools of Kentucky, and in 1879 was married to Miss Mary C. Rankin, of Kentucky, who was born in 1859. To their union these children have been born: Richard B. and Robert P. Mr. Higgins is farming the land which he inherited from his father, consisting of 770 acres, with 500 under a careful and successful state of cultivation. He raises over 200 bales of cotton annually, and the many improvements incident to his ownership, demonstrate his spirit of energy and progression. Mr. and Mrs. Higgins are members in high standing of the Christian Church. The former is a Democrat, having cast his first political vote for Samuel J. Tilden. He served as deputy sheriff for his county for two years, discharging the duties of that office in a highly commendable manner. In [p.774] societies he is identified with the K. of P., Legion of Honor, and the United Workman.

William Hildreth, one of the most promising of Phillips County's young and prospering farmers, was born in Paris, Ky., April 23, 1855. His father, Joseph A. Hildreth, was also anative of Kentucky, where he is now residing, and recognized as among the leading planters. He is the son of John Hildreth, of Virginia nativity. Joseph A. was married to Miss Sallie Smith, of Bourbon, Ky., who died in 1878, having borne six children, three sons and three daughters, all living. William is the oldest in order of birth. In 1877 he left his home and came to Phillips County, several years later purchasing his farm on which he now reeides. This farm consists of 103 acres, with over ninety acres carefully cultivated. In 1880 Mr. Hildreth was united in marriage with Miss Josie Keller, who was born in Paris, Ky., in 1856, and a daughter of Patrick and Margaret Keller. Two children have been born to their union: Mary and Belle. Mr. Hildreth is a Democrat, and a gentleman who takes an active interest in all matters pertaining to the benefit or growth of the county.

S. H. Holtzclaw, farmer and stockman, Vineyard, Ark. Phillips County is rapidly coming into a position as one of the foremost stock counties in the State, and it is but uttering a plain fact to say, that to a few men in this community is due the credit for advancing stock interests here and establishing a reputation in this department which is bound to stand for years. Mr. Holtzclaw has had not a little to do toward developing this industry, and, if for no other account, he is accorded a worthy place in this volume. He was born in Mississippi in 1849, and his parents, E. and E. (Green) Holtzclaw, were natives of North Carolina and South Carolina, and of German and English origin, respectively. E. Holtzclaw came to Mississippi in 1849, and followed farming on rented land until about 1855, when he came to Phillips County, Ark. He bought 160 acres on Big Creek, and afterward added to this amount, until he was the owner of 320 acres, with 160 acres improved. Canebrake was standing all over the table-lands at that time and game abounded in this section, even up to 1860. From 1855 to 1865 fire was applied plentifully to the caue to drive out the panthers, bears and wildcats, for it was almost impossible to raise calves or pigs while these animals were so numerous. Mr. Holtzclaw owned about twenty-three negroes, old and young, and was one of the leading farmers of this section. He died in 1874, and his wife four years previous. Both were members of the Baptist Church. They were the parents of ten children, seven of whom lived to be grown, and four are now living: Mary J. (wife of William H. McGrew, of Phillips County), S. H. (our subject), Warren (resides in this county), Matheney (wife of William Wooten, recides in this county). S. H. Holtzclaw attained his growth and received a meager education in Phillips County, his school days being cut short by the breaking out of the war. This deflciency he has made up to a great extent since reaching manhood and by his own exertions. At the age of twenty-one years he commenced farming for himself on rented land, and this continued for three years. In 1874, or at the time of the death of his father, he assumed control of thé latter's property, wound up the business, and in 1875 purchased eighty acres of fine land. Since then he has added 120 acres of land, and has 170 acres under cultivation, on which he produces about sixty-five bales of cotton, or about three-fourths of a bale per acre. He also raises plenty of corn and hay to keep the stock on his farm, and very rarely fails to have corn to sell. He was married in 1878 to Miss Maggie Chappell, of Phillips County, and the daughter of Christopher and Ann (Green) Chappell, natives of North Carolina. Her parents came to Arkansas about 1834, and settled on what is now known as the Chappell place. The father was a noted hunter in this section, and he and Uncle Bill McGraw and Andy Adams were the hunters in this county in early days, killing as many as five or six bears in one hunt. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Holtzclaw were born five children, three now living: C. J. (deceased), H. G., Charner (deceased), Ervie Ophelia and Sylvestus. Mr. and Mrs. Holtzclaw are both members of the Christian Church.

E. C. Hornor, merchant, Helena, Ark. The trade in general dry goods has long constituted one of the leading eommercial pursuits of the country, and in this line in Helena is found a thoroughly representative house controlled by E. C. Hornor, who carrles the most complete and extensive stock of goods to be had in the city. He was born in Helena April 24, 1859, and is a son of William and Anna (Reynolde) Hornor, natives of Kentucky. The father was a merchant, and was one of the early settlers of Phillips County, Ark. During the late war he was an officer in the quartermaster's department, and died while on duty. The mother is now the wife of James W. Wickersham, of Fort Smith, Ark. E. C. Hornor, the youngest of three children, received his education in Helena. He began clerking in a store when sixteen years of age, with McKenzie, Hornor & Co., and by industrious habits and economy he saved sufficient means to enable him to start in business for himself. In 1884 he invested in a small stock of goods, valued at perhaps $500, and by strict attention to business he soon built up a good trade, and now has one of the neatest and best equipped stores in the city, with a stock of goods valued at $40,000. During the year 1889 he did a business of $85,000. He employs nine men, and although he is the youngest business man in the city, he is a bright factor in the mercantile affairs of the city. He was married in December, 1887, to Miss M. Blanche Morten, of Sumnerville, Tenn., and the fruits of the union have been two sons, Morten and William Edward.

Thomas H. Hubbard. Like many, and perhaps the most of the representative citizens of Phillips County, Ark., Mr. Hubbard is a Virginian, his birth occurring in Halifax County in June, 1843, being a son of Dr. H. C. and Ann M. (Osborne) Hubbard, who were also Virginians, the former's birth occurring in 1804, and the latter's in 1809. Their respective deaths were in Cumberland and Buckingham Counties, in 1873 and 1852. Dr. Hubbard was a graduate of the Ohio Medical College at Cinciunati, Ohio, and practiced his profession in Cumberland County, Va., until his death, being also engaged in furming. After the death of our subject's mother, he married Miss Sallie P. Swann. He and his first wife were members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and in his political views he was a Whig. Thomas H. Hubbard is the second of their five children, two now living, the other member being William O. His early schooling was received in Cumberland County, and upon the opening of the war he joined the Confederate service, and became a member of the Twenty-first Virginia Infantry, and two years later joined the Third Virginia Cavalry. He was in many battles, and was wounded at Cedar Mountain, by a gun-shot, in the breast and left arm, and surrendered at Appomattox Court Honse. After returning home he resumed his farming operations, but in 1870 moved to Coahoma County, Miss., and at the end of eight years removed to Phillips County, Ark. He was married, in 1880, to Miss Julia Nixon, a native of Brownsville, Miss., and by her is the father of two children: Henry C. and Louise. Mr. Hubbard is a thrifty farmer, careful, prudent and economical, and those who know him best recognize in him a good friend and neighbor. He and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and in his political views he is a Democrat.

Edward L. Hubbard, well and favorably known to a host of acquaintances in this community, was born in Phillips County, September 26, 1849, and during his long residence here has become well known for his many sterling qualities. He is progressive in his views, and the advanced state of the agricultural facilities of the county is due to him as well as to his neighbors. His plantation comprises 667 acres of land, and of this 300 acres are under cultivation. His opportunities for acquiring an education were above the average, for he supplemented his primary education, which he received in the State of Ohio, by sttending an excellent school in St. Louis. He and his sister Sarah are the only surviving members of a family of five children, born to Dr. John M. and Adaline P. (King) Hubbard, the former a native of the "Nutmeg State," and the latter of Louisiana. The Doctor was a man of exceptionally fine mind, and was exceedingly well educated, being a graduate of Yale College and also of a medical college. [p.776] Possessing the spirit of adventure, and thinking to better his fortunes he pushed westward, and after practicing his profession for some time in Natchez, Miss., he went to Louisiana, where he married and made his home until his removal in 1837 to Phillips County, Ark. His labors to alleviate the sufferings of the sick and afflicted prospered, and the excellent health which many of the residents of the county now enjoy, is due to his skill

and talent. He also gave considerable attention to planting, and became well-to-do. Owing to his fidelity to these callings his own health became wrecked, and while in St. Louis, in 1871, trying to revive his failing energiee his death occurred, he being sixty years of age at the time. His wife died in Phillips County when a comparatively young woman, her demise occurring in 1852. Our immediate subject has had charge of his present property since 1872, and in his political views is a Democrat.

Obadiah B. Hudson is the son of Henry Hudson, who was born in Scotland about 1774, and after his marriage emigrated to the United States, locating in Kentucky, where he died in 1850. His second wife, Nancy Williams, was born in Tennessee in 1796, and became the mother of fourteen children, of whom O. B. Hudson, the principal of this sketch, is the only survivor. Mr. Hudson was the father of four children by his first marriage. Obadiah B. was born in McCracken County, Ky., February 8, 1836, and remained in that State until thirteen years of age. He never attended school but one day in his life, and all of the education which he received was by studying at home and by practical experience with the world. At the age of thirteen he went to Louisiana and was employed on a boat on the Mississippi River for three years. In 1858, returning to Kentucky, he commenced farming in Ballard County, and in the fall of that year was married to Susan A. Williams, a native of that county, who was born in 1844. She was a daughter of James and Cinda R. Williams. They are the parents of eleven children, seven living: Rosella (wife of John T. Moore), Mittann (wife of William F. Carliss), Imogene, Joseph S., Fred G., William T. and Maggie B. Mr. Hudson remained in Kentucky only one year after his marriage, when be removed to Arkansas and located in Phillips County, buying a house and lot at La Grange, and was employed as a brick mason for about twelve years. At the beginning of the war he enlisted in the Confederate army and served about three months, when he was taken sick and received his discharge. In 1867 he purchased a farm of 820 acres in Phillips County, at which time he was elected collector of the county, a position the duties of which he has ably discharged for twenty-two years. In 1872 he sold his farm and removed to Helena, where he resided until 1882, then buying 160 acres of land, with 125 acres under cultivation. He has had a number of narrow escapes while performing his duties as collector, having been shot at a number of times and hit six times, once in the face, causing the loss of the right eye, twice in the body and once in the right leg, just below the knee. He is a member of the Knights of Honor and of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to which his wife also belongs.

W. D. Hutchinson is a worthy successor of W. D. Hutchinson, who is remembered by the old pioneers of Phillips County, as one of their respected number, now long since gone to his last resting place. Mr. Hutchinson was born in the State of Mississippi, in 1833, being a son of James A. and Catharine Hutchinson, also natives of that State. He came to Arkansas with his father in 1851, and settled in this county, where he was engaged in farming until his death, with the exception of the years which he devoted to the cause of the Confederacy. Enlisting in 1862 in Capt. Anderson's company of Dobbin's regiment, he was taken sick shortly after the battle of Helena, on July 4, 1863, and being unable to perform further active duty, received his discharge and returned home, and again engaged in farming, but died in 1867. Previous to his enlistment he was a captain of a company of militia. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M., and was in good circumstances at the time of his death, and left a farm of 320 acres to his wife and eight children, in a good state of cultivation. His wife, Mary E. (Hicks) Hutchinson, was a daughter of E. A. and Lucretia (Dickens) Hicks, originally from North Carolina. Mr. Hicks came to Phillips County in [p.777] 1844, and at the time of his death was one of the largest, if not the most extensive, land owner in the county; he was also a prominent member of the I. O. O. F. Previous to his demise in 1850, he divided his property among his eight children, three of whom are still living: Mary E. (is the oldest), E. A. (of Barton, Arkansas) and Emma (wife of John Hicks, of Little Rock). Mrs. Hicks was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and died in 1859. Of the family of eight children of Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson, four only survive; the three daughters (residents of Memphis, Tenn.): Frances (wife of John King, is the mother of one daughter, Ada May), Mary (is the wife of James K. Wooten, and has three children: James W., Linceain and Mary C.), Emma B. (wife of Pat Rhodes) and Albert E. (a farmer of Phillips County, and who married a Mrs. Tullea (nee Meserole), and is the father of one son: Albert E. Hutchinson). Mrs. Hutchinson still resides on the old homestead, and is a highly respected lady, and a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in which she takes an active part, giving her time, money and influence to all enterprises for the good of the community in which she lives.

Thomas M. Jacks, Jr., the efficient survey or of Phillips County and one of its truly respected citizens, is a native of this county, being a son of Dr. Thomas M. and Freelove (French) Jacks. The former was born in Rutherford County, N. C., and received the rudiments of his literary education at the public schools of Huntsville, Ala., after which he attended medical college at Louisville, Ky., and Jefferson Medical College, at Philadelphia, Penn. Dr. Jack's father, Rev. David Jacks, was also a native of Rutherford County, N. C. He (Thomas M., Sr.) came to Arkansas in 1849 and settled at Sterling, at the mouth of the St. Francis River, where he engaged in the practice of his profession, and also at Phillips' Bayou. Subsequently, or in 1852, he came to Helena and was associated with Dr. Silverberg in practice, and also in the drug business. In 1866 he entered into partnership with John P. Moore in the real estate and banking business and in carrying on a drug store. He was a very influential man in the county, and represented his district in Congrees in 1863. He was in the sixty-third year of his age at the time of his death in 1883, and was the owner of immense landed estates sitnated in the counties of Phillips, Lee and Arkansas, and Coahoma County, Miss. The Doctor was marrled twice. By his first marriage, which occurred at Sterling, Ark., in 1846, he was the father of five children, two sons and three daughters, all of whom are living. Mrs. Jacks dying in 1869, Dr. Jacks was again married in 1872 to Miss Elizabeth Wills, of Helena, by whom he had one daughter and three sons, all living. Thomas M. Jacks, the fourth son of the first marriage, was born in 1855. He received a thorough education at Helena in Prof. Russell's school, then preparing himself at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., to enter Yale College, which he did in 1875. From this institution he gradusted as a civil engineer in 1878. Returning to his home at Helena, Mr. Jacks accepted a position as civil engineer for the Iron Mountain Railroad Company, from Helena to Forrest City, and continued with them from 1879 to 1881. In 1886 he was employed by the Mobile & Birmingham Railroad Company as resident engineer, and is now consulting engineer on the levee board at Helena, also being civil engineer of Helena. He was elected surveyor of Phillips County in 1886 and re-elected in 1888. December 23, 1884, Mr. Jacks was married to Miss Lulu B. Moore, a daughter of William and Lucy Moore, of La Grange, Ark. They are the parents of one child, Claudine, three years of age. Mr. Jacks is a member of the Baptist Church, and politically is a Democrat. At this time he is connected with the Jacks-Fitzpatrick Drug & Real Estate Company of Helena.

Thomas L. Jackson, M. D., is a graduate of the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia. He received the foundation of his education in the common schools of Virginia, his native State, and later in the Randolph Macon College of that State, from which he graduated in the fourth year of that institution, subsequently entering the Jefferson Medical College. This he attended one year, and was graduated in 1859. Dr. Jackson was [p.778] born near Petersburg, Va, November 21, 1840, and is a son of Thomas and Mary H. (Morgan) Jackson, also originally of the Old Dominion. Thomas Jackson was born June 20, 1808, of English ancestry, and is a descendant of one of three brothers who came to the American colonies from England and received large grants of land. He was a son of John E. and Jane (Bailoy) Jackson, also natives of the same State as our subject. John E Jackson served seven years in the Revolutionary War, for which services his wife drew a pension from the Government after his death. The mother of Thomas L. was born in 1807, and died in 1864, fourteen years before her husband's demise. They were the parente of five sons and two daughters. Four sons are now deceased (two having died in the Confederate army), and one of the daughters. He whose name heads this sketch commenced practice near his old home in 1860, and the following spring enlisted in the Confederate army, in the First Virginia Cavalry, serving on the medical staff the greater part of the time, though he also participated in the battles of Manassas, the seven days' fight before Richmond, Fredericksburg, Spottsylvania Court House, battle of the Wilderness, Gettysburg, and was present at Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. After the war he returned home, and in 1874 moved to Mississippi, where he was married three years later to Miss Kate E. Pardee. She was born in the State of Michigan, March 17, 1859, and is a daughter of George and Elizabeth Pardee. Dr. and Mrs. Jackson have five children: Beesie, Lucy, Kate H., Thomas S. and William L. Dr. Jackson practiced in Mississippi for fifteen years, until February, 1889, when he removed to Marvell, Ark, where he has since been engaged in following his chosen profession, now enjoying a patronage which amounts to about $2,500 per year. He was appointed chief health officer of Benton County, Miss., by the Governer, which position he held for six years. The Doctor is a member of the Knights of Honor, and his wife belongs to the Episcopal Church.

Dr. G. D. Jaquess, physician and druggist, Helena, Ark. This prominent business man was born in Posey County, Ind., January 5, 1834, and is a son of Garrison and Mary (Smith) Jaquess, natives of Kentucky. The parents imigrated to Indiana about 1811, located in Posey County, and there passed their last days. The father was a farmer by occupation, and was forty-eight years of age at the time of his death. Their family consisted of seven children, six sons and one daughter, four now living: James F., T. C., W. B. and Dr. G. D. The latter assisted the father on the farm until twenty years of age, attending school during the winter seasons, and at the age of eighteen years he began the study of medicine, graduating from the Transylvania University at Lexington, Ky., in 1848. He then began practicing at Petersburg, Ind., where he remained until the war broke out, when he was made surgeon of the Eightieth Indiana Volunteers, and served in that capacity until the cessation of hoetilities. He was married in 1848 to Miss Aurelia Hammond, a native of Indiana, who bore her husband two living children: Mary J. (wife of L. J. Wilkes) and Aurelia. Two sons were drowned in the Mississippi River. In 1866 Dr. Jaquess and family moved to Tunica County, Miss., where the Doctor was engaged in cotton growing for two years. Not being fitted for this he gave it up, and in 1869 came to Helena, where he was appointed postmaster by President Arthur, serving in that capacity for four years. Since that time he has been engaged in the practice of his profession, and has also carried on the drug business in connection. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, and Knights and Ladies of Honor, and Golden Rule. He owns considerable real estate in both the country and city, and is a successful business man. He has been mayor of the city three times, and is one of the prominent Republicans of Phillips County.

Col. Amos Green Jarman. Phillips County has long had the reputation of being one of the best farming counties in the State, and not only do the farmers here give much attention to this industry, but they are generally men of enterprise and information, and take pride in the general upbuilding of the county. Prominent among those who have done their full share in advancing every interest of [p.779] this section is Mr. Jarman, who came here in 1859, his first purchase of land amonnting to 320 acres. Since then he has added to this tract, and now owns 1,000 acres, of which 600 are under cultivation. His homestead is beautifully located and finely improved, and as he started in life with but little means, he deserves much credit for the admirable way in which he has aurmounted the many difficulties which have strewn his pathway. He lost heavily during the war, but has since recovered his losses and added much more. He is a native of Alabama.

Joseph F. Jarrett, well known in this community, was reared in Alabama until thirteen years of age, when his parents moved to this county. He was married in 1871 to Miss Mary L. Thompson, who was born in Tennessee in 1855, being a daughter of William Thompson, whose sketch appears in this work. They are the parents of nine children, seven of whom are still living: Lulu (wife of S. V. Haggard), Albert, Joseph L., Ollie, Willie, Frank and Ora. Mr. Jarrett was born in Lawrence County, Ala., in June, 1847, the son of James F. Jarrett, whose birth occurred in Alabama in 1823. He came to this county in 1860, and died here in 1879. He was a son of Freeman N. Jarrett, of Irish descent. The mother of our subject, Mary (McMillen) Jarrett, was born in Alabama in 1824 and still resides on the old homestead in this county. She bore a family of eight children, four of whom survive: Joseph F., Sarah (wife of J. P. H. Graham), Virginia (wife of W. T. Cooke) and W. B. Mr. Jarrett has a fine farm of 200 aeres of land, with seventy-five acres under cultivation. He is one of Cypress Township's best farmers; is a Democrat, and he and his wife are members of the Baptist Church.

Nathan Johnson, whose interests in Phillips County are such as to give him wide acquaintance, is a native of Tennessee, and a son of Jesse C. and Elizabeth (White) Johnson, also originally from that State. Jeese C. Johnson was born in 1800, of Irish and English descent, and is still living in Wilson County, Tenn. He was a son of Samuel Johnson, of Virginia nativity. The mother of our subject died when he was only three weeks old, and his father married the second time, Miss Polly Pryer, who is still living, and who bore twelve children, eleven surviving. Nathan Johnson was born in Wilson County, on November 9, 1847, remaining in his native State until 1875, when he removed to Arkansaa, locating in Phillips County. Here he purchased a quarter section of wild land, all in the woods, and now has over half of it under cultivation. He was married in 1869 to Miss Martha Melissa Marshall, who was born in Lee County, Ga., in August, 1855, the daughter of T. J. and Mary E. (King) Marshall. They are the parents of eleven children, seven living: Mary E., Lilla P., Nora, Valley B., Jemimah, Leslie and Ollie. In addition to his farm, Mr. Johnson owns a saw-mill, grist-mill and cotton-gin all combined, which he erected about 1882, at a cost of over $4,000, and which is being liberally patronized. He also owne another farm of eighty acres, with about fourteen acres cleared, on which is situated a good dwelling-house. He is a member of the Masonic order, the Knights of Honor, and of the Legion of Honor. A leading Democrat in the township, he is one of its influential men, and with his wife belongs to the Missionary Baptist Church, in which he takes an active part.

Joseph D. Kendall, of Kentucky nativity, was born March 28, 1825, being the son of Bailey and Martha G. (Dickerson) Kendall. His father, Bailey Kendall, was born in Kentucky April 11, 1795, and his wife, originally of the same State, was born in 1806 and died in 1878. Bailey Kendall emigrated to Arkansas in 1836 and died in 1868. He was a man of no little prominence, having served as representative of Arkansas and justice of the peace for many years. He was an influential citizen, his demise robbing the county of one of its best and most popular men. Joseph D. received a liberal education in the schools of Phillips County, and in 1861 was united in marriage with Miss C. A. Yelton, of Kentucky, daughter of Jesse and Lucy (Kendall) Yelton. Mrs. Kendall was born in 1835 and died in 1867, leaving four children, one now living: Jesse L. (born February 4, 1863, residing in Helena). Mr. Kendall was again married, in 1875, to Mrs. Virginia O'Neill. She was born in 1833, and by [p.780] her marriage with Mr. Kendall has borne one child; Mary (born March 22, 1878). Her maiden name was Faidley. When Mr. Kendall's father came to Arkansas he purchased the farm where our subject lives at this time. It was entirely unimproved, but is now one of the best and most carefully cultivated plantations in the county. Mr. Kendall made many improvements, transferring the property in an excellent condition to his son at the time of his death. This

farm consists of 300 acres, and is admirably adspted to the growing of all grains, fruite, cotton and vegetables. He has a fine steam cotton-gin which was erected soon after the war by Mr. O'Neill, being at that time one of the first in that section of the county. Mr. Kendall's farm or rather his residence is in the corporation limits of Trenton, so he virtually lives in the city and country at the same time. He is a member of the K. of H., Trenton Lodge, and a Democrat politically. He is giving his children excellent advantages for obtaining an education, and is a liberal contributor to all enterprises. A good citizen, he is respected by the entire community.

James C. Kersey, a prominent farmer of Big Creek Township, was born in Union County, S. C., October 17, 1858, but has been a resident of Phillips County, Ark, since twelve years of age, attending the common schools of this county in youth, and later entering the Arkansas Industrial University, at Fayetteville. In April, 1886, he was married to Mary E. Copeland, who was born in Texas, in May, 1860, a daughter of Elijah and Margaret (Hennison) Copeland, both natives of Alabama. They are the parents of one son, William R. Mr. Kersey owns a fine farm of 452 acres of land, of which about half is under cultivation. His principal crop is cotton, he raising some sixty-five bales annually. In 1889 he erected a steam cotton-gin, at a cost of $1,200, for his own use and that of his neighbors. He has always voted the Democratic ticket, and cast his first presidential ticket for W. S. Hancock. Mr. Kersey's father, William Kersey, was born in Upton County, Ga., about 1832, and died in Phillips County in 1882. He was reared in Georgia, and when a young man went to South Carolina, marrying there, in 1857, Miss Sarah H. Turner. He was a son of Robert Kersey, a native of South Carolina. Sarah H. (Turner) Kersey was born in that State in 1848, and is a sister of Nathaniel B. Turnor, whose biography appears in this work. She is the mother of ten children, these still living: Anna J. (the wife of Richard Davis), Monroe, Mary A. (the

wife of Thomas Hennison), Carley (wife of Wiley Clatworthy), Lee, James C. (the principal of this sketch), Ellen and Zeller (twins). In 1867 Mr. William Kersey moved to Arkansas, and purchased the farm on which the subject of this sketch now lives. He was a member of the Masonic order, and of the Baptist Church.

Hon. S. H. King, farmer and stock raiser, Poplar Grove, Ark. The King family is a very old and prominent one, and is of Scotch origin. The first to come to this country were Richard King and wife, who made their appearance here as early as 1700. They located in Philadelphia, then a small village, and here the wife died. In 1735 Samuel married Miss Margaret Barclay, of Dutch parentage, and from this honored couple the King family of the present day are descendants. He and wife were the parents of twelve children. He died in May, 1782. at the age of eighty-two years. His son, James King (the great-grandfather of our subject), was born in 1737, in New Jersey, whither his father had moved. He married Miss Sarah Hall, in 1765, in North Carolina, and they became the parents of nine children, Andrew King being their youngest son, and the grandfather of our subject. He dicd in 1852, at the age of seventy-four years. His son, Thomas S. N. King (the father of our subject), was born in North Carolina, in 1804, and was married in 1832, to Miss J. F. Smith, a native of Georgia, who bore him seven children, all of whom lived to be grown: Porter B. (deceased, family resides in Benton County, Ark.), Ella S. (widow of W. H. Trader, and now resides in Washington, D. C.), W. B. (resides in Madison Parish, La., engaged in farming), S. H., Elizabeth N. (deceased), Fannie S. (deceased) and Laura J. (deceased, wife of Henry W. Scull, of Pine

Bluff, Ark.). Mrs. King died in 1886, at the age of seventy two years, [p.781] after a long and eventful life. Thomas S. N. King had previously been married to Miss Margaret Battle, who only lived a short time afterward. He was a minister in the Baptist Church, and was also a successful agriculturist. He moved to Mississippi in 1833, and was among the very first settlers of that State. In 1846 he moved to Arkansas, settled at Helena, this county, and was engaged in tilling the soil. He was the third Baptist minister in the county, and assisted in establishing the first three churches of that denomination there, these being New Hope, Beach Grove and Helena, which is now called the First Baptist Church of Helena. Mr. King moved to the country in 1849, and settled three miles south of Helena, where he engaged in farming, but still continued his ministerial duties. He was commissioner of schools in this county, and took a deep interest in educational matters. He died in 1869, at the age of sixty-four years. S. H. King first attended the subscription schools of Phillips County, and at the age of eighteen years entered the Union University of Murfreesboro, Tenn., where he remained three years, or until his twenty-first year. He then engaged as book-keeper for W. F. & J. T. Moore, of Helena, with whom he remained one year, and then, the war breaking out, he enlisted in the Confederate army, Gen. Cleburne's old company (called the Yell Rifles) as a private, and was promoted to the rank of sergeant while with this company. At the end of one year he was appointed commissary, with the rank of major of Preston Smith's brigade of Tennessee troops, being the first commissary that was appointed to that office with the rank of major. He had previously held the rank of captain while in the Tennessee army. Major King participated in many battles, prominent among them being Shiloh, Chickamauga, Richmond, Murfreesboro,Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, where he was wounded in both arms, and was slightly wounded in the lower part of the breast. After this he was in the battles of Franklin, Nashville, and was in the last battle fought by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. He surrendered April 27, 1865, at Greensboro, N. C. May 16, 1865, he married Miss Sue Scaife, and in the fall of 1865 he came back to Phillips County, where he tilled the soil on rented land in a small way. In 1872 he purchased 100 acres of land, which he improved, and traded for the place on which he is now residing, then consisting of 160 acres. This he has since improved and added to, until he now owns 312 acres, with 160 acres under cultivation, and on which is a good steam cotton-gin. He gins yearly an average of 400 bales, and produces on his farm thirty-five bales yearly, together with hay, corn, etc. He is also quite a stockman, raising cattle and horses principally. Mr. and Mrs. King became the parents of two children: Lannie (wife of J. E. Davidson, resides in Marion Township) and W. F. (who resides in Cypress Township, and is a teacher by profession). Mrs. King died in May, 1863, and In 1871 he chose for his second wife Miss Sallie Cook, daughter of James and Frances (Brooks) Cook. James Cook came to Phillips County in 1875. The paternal grandmother of Mrs. King was a Bragg, an aunt of Gen. Bragg, while the maternal grandfather Brooks was one of the family of Brooks, of South Carolina, and came from England. The mother was a Paine, and a relative of Bishop Paine. James Cook and wife were the parents of eight children, six now living: Roland (on the old homestead, near Barton), Sallie (wife of Mr. King), Susan E. (wife of E. A. Hicks, of Barton), Nannie, Jennie (wife of D. H. Crebs, of Helena) and Robert (of Poplar Grove). Mr. Cook died in 1872, and his wife in 1876. To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. King were born five children: James P., W. C., Jennie, J. W. and A. F. In 1878 Mr. King was elected county treasurer, and served one term. In 1885 he was elected to the legislature from Phillips County, and served in that cspacity in a highly creditable manner. He is a member of the K. of H, Marvell Lodge No. 1628, and he and Mrs. King are members of the Baptist Church. He is one of the most prominent citizens of the county, and has the confidence and respect of all.

James H. Lanier, farmer, Halens, Ark. This prominent and much respected citizen of Philips County, Ark, was born in Person County, N. C., on March 10, 1826, and is one of thirteen children born to the union of Lewis G. and Sarah E. (Henning) Lanier, natives of North Carolina. The father was born in 1800, and was married in his native State to Miss Henning. About 1830 they moved to Maury County, Tenn, and there the mother died in 1850, when about forty-nine years of age. The father was afterward married three times, and received his final summons in Maury County in 1880. His last wife survives him and is now living in Maury County, Tenn. The mother of our subject was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the father a member of the Masonic fraternity, and a Whig in politics. He was a well to-do farmer and stock raiser. Of their large family of children, three are now living, and James H. is fourth in order of birth. They are named as follows: James H., Joseph (a saddler, and is now living in Wynne, Ark.) and William (a farmer in Maury County, Tenn.). Those deceased were: Lewis (a farmer of Maury County), Mary (died in that county), Albert (died during the war while in the Confederate service, and it is thought his last days were spent in a Federal prison), Hugh H. (died in Maury County, Tenn.; was a farmer), Martha (died in Tennessee), Sallie (died in that State) and Rebecca (who is the eldest daughter and the wife of James H. Colburn, died in Tennessee). James H. Lanier passed his school-boy days in Maury County, Tenn., and when twenty-two years of age engaged in agricultural pursuits, which he continued only a short time until he turned his attention to mercantile pursuits, serving in the capacity of salesman at Mount Pleasant for three years. He again returned to tilling the soil, and in 1855 moved to Phillips County, Ark., serving in the capacity of overseer on the plantation of Thomas Barrows, continuing thus for three years. In 1862 he enlisted in Capt. Weatherby's company of Col. Dobbins' regiment of cavalry, and served until the close of the war, being in the commissary department during the latter part of the war. He participated in the battle of Helena; was with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri, and was at Pilot Knob. After the war he commenced to farm for himself, bought forty acres of land, and has added to this until he has an extensive farm. In 1858 he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah E. Lanford, a native of Alabama, born near Huntsville on November 14, 1885, and the daughter of William Lanford. The fruits of this union were two children: James R. (in the employ of Lohman & Co., at Helena) and Mittie N. (attending school at Helena). These children are deceased: William L. (died when ten years of age), Sallie R. (died at the age of eight years), Martha F. (when six years of age) and Mary L. (at the age of ten years). Mrs. Lanier has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, since early girlhood. Mr. Lanier is a Mason, a member of the Wheel, and is a Democrat in politics. He is an enterprising and much respected citizen of the county.

Henry Lawrens is a proper representative of the energetic business men of Helena, which element has done and is doing so much for the advancement of the material interests of the city. He was born in Shelby County, Tenn., June 13, 1856, and is a son of Joseph and Margaret Lawrens, who were born in the old country and removed to America during the early part of their lives, settling in the State of Indiana. From this point they moved to Nashville, Tenn., where the father worked as engineer in a brewery; and in this city the mother's death occurred. Henry Lawrens resided in Nashville until he was fourteen years of age, when he went to Memphis and worked for some time in a cooper shop, learning the trade, and two years later came to Helena, Ark., and spent sometime in working in different restaurants. In 1880 he established his present business, but began on a small scale, and now carries a large and well selected stock of dry goods, and in fact everything to be found in a general establishment. He is in every respect a self-made man as he came to this county without a dollar, and is now deservedly classed among the leading business men of the county, which reputation he has acquired by the active, intelligent management of his affairs, and by his honesty and fair dealing. He is worth at least $10,000, and instead of carrying a stock of goods valued at $156, as he did at first, his present stock is valued at $6,000 at least, and his establishment is known as the Magnolia Store. He [p.783] has served as city alderman six years or three terms, and is a director in the Mutual Building and Loan Association. Socially he is a member of the K. of P. He was united in marriage November 9, 1886, to Miss Clara Dissman. Their one child is Minnie.

Silas Lingg is a member of the firm of Lingg, Lambert & Co., undertakers, of Helena, Ark., and was born in the State of Delaware, on May 21, 1849, being a son of Joseph and Judith (Ffirth) Lingg, the father a native of Switzerland, and the mother of America. Their marriage took place in the State of Delaware, and shortly after they moved to Chicago, Ill., later to Grand Detour, that State, and here Joseph Lingg was engineer of a plow factory until his death, his wife also dying there. Of eight children born to them, only two are now living. He and three brothers were in the Union army during the Rebellion, and his brother Joseph A. was killed in battle at Spottsylvania, Va. The maternal grandfather Ffirth was judge of a court in Philadelphia in 1796, and was a very intellectual and prominent man. The ancestors of the wife of Mr. Lingg's maternal grandfather settled on the site of Philadelphia, Penn., in 1623, which place is still occupied and owned by one of Silas Lingg's cousins. Nine generations of children have been born on the homestead, which is still in the family. Silas Lingg was reared and educated in Illinois, but being of a rather enterprising disposition, he went to Nebraska, and followed river life until 1875, and at present has in his possession his commission as pilot and captain of a steamboat. In 1875 he took an interest in a soda water and cider manufactory belonging to Jacks & Co., and was thus associated until 1880, when he

bought out his partners, and has since managed the business alone, meeting with the best success. Since 1880 he has been in the undertaking business also, and has become thoroughly experienced in the details of this difficult branch. He is very prompt day and night, and guarantees striot and careful attention to all orders. He is a director of the People's Building and Loan Association, and socially belongs to the K. of P., the A. O. U. W. and the A. L. of H. In 1880 he was elected city treasurer, and in 1885 was chosen city marshal, and was re-elected in 1886. He was married in 1873 to Mattie E. Gordon, by whom he has three children: Vera, Blanche E. and Silas L.

Dr. D. A. Linthicum is one of the very foremost of the professional men of the county and is acknowledged by the medical fraternity to be one of their leading members. He was born in Bardstown, Ky., June 15, 1827, and is a son of Rufus and Eliza (Anthony) Linthicum, the former a native of Maryland and the latter of the "Blue Grass State." The paternal grandfather, John Linthicum, was born in Wales, and on coming to the United States, settled in Maryland and later in Bardstown, Ky., where he followed the occnpation of farming and lived until his desth. The maternal grandparants were native Germans and were early settlers of Kentucky, in which State they both breathed their last. Rufus Linthloum, like our subject, was a physician and was a graduate of the Transylvania University of Lerington, Ky. He was twice married, and his first union resulted in the birth of seven children, only two of whom are now living: Dr. D. A. and Susan A., the wife of Dr. J. A. Hodge, of Henderson, Ky. To his second marriage six children were born. He practiced his profession in Henderson County, Ky., until his death in the winter of 1864, his wife having died in an adjoining county many years earlier. The subject of our sketch received the principal part of his rearing in what is now McLean County, Ky., and received an excellent knowledge of books in the Hartford Academy of that State. Having always been desirous of following in his father's footsteps, he began his medical studies under the able instructions of the latter and after receiving sufficient preparation, he entered the St. Louis Medical University, graduating in 1849. He first entered upon the practice of his profession in McLean County, Ky., where he remained until the breaking out of the war, then enlisted as a private in the Eighth Kentucky Regiment (C. A. S.), and was subsequently made surgeon of his regiment which position he held until 1862. He was then made chief surgeon of Gen. Patrick Cleburne's division of Hardee's corps of the Army of Tennessee, and served in this capacity [p.784] until the final surrender. He then returned to Kentucky, where he was an active medical practitioner until 1867, when he became a resident of Helena, Ark. In 1870 he graduated from the Washington University of Baltimore, Md., and in 1872 had an honorary degree conferred upon him by his Alma Mater. He has been president of the State Medical Society of Arkansas and is a member of the American Medical Association, also of the County Medical Society. He was married in 1848 to Miss Phoebe C. Johnson, of Daviess County, Ky., and by her has had three children, of whom Dr. Theodric C. is the only one living. He is a graduate of the Kentucky School of Medicine and of the Philadelphia School of Pharmacy.

Thomas J. Lucado, planter, Marvell, Ark. One of the foremost men among the agriculturists of Phillips County is he whose name appears above, and who has borne an influential part in promoting the various interests of the county. He owes his nativity to Fayette County, Tenn., where his birth occurred November 29, 1843, and is the son of Joel Lucado. The father was a native of the Old Dominion, born in 1797, was reared in that State, and was there married to Miss Mary Johnson, a native also of Virginia, born in the same year. They moved from their native State to Tennessee about 1836, were among the early settlers of that State, and resided there until 1859, when they moved to Phillips County, Ark. He died in 1862, and

his wife the year following. His father, Isaac Lucado, was born in Virginia, and there passed his entire life. He was of Spanish-English descent, and was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Thomas J. Lucado was the youngest of twelve children born to his parents, three of whom are now living. He attained his growth in Fayette County, Tenn., received his education in the common schools of that county, and there remained with his parents until reaching his majority. He then came with them to Phillips County, Ark., and here the father purchased about 1,200 acres of land, which he owned up to the time of his death. In 1862 Thomas J. enlisted in the Confederate army, Company G, Fifth Arkansas Regiment Infantry, served three years, and received a slight wound at the battle of Prairie Grove. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Helena, removed to Alton, Ill., and from there to Fort Delaware, where he remained until April, 1865. He then returned to this county. In 1871 he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Peterson, of Phillips County, born in 1854, and who died in 1873. Two children were born to this union, both now deceased. His second marriage took place in 1884, to Miss Molly Impey, who was born in this county in 1868, and died in 1886. In 1888 Mr. Lucado married Miss Mary Kitchens, who was born in Phillips County. Mr. Lucado has 540 acres of land, with about 250 acres in cultivation, and raises 100 bales of cotton annually. He erected a cotton-gin in 1867, but this was burned in 1876, and the one he now has, and which is run by steam, cost about $1,500. He is a Democrat in politics, and his first presidential vote was cast for Horatio Seymour. He is an honest, upright man, a substantial farmer and a highly respected citizen. He and Mrs. Lucado are members of the Baptist Church.

William M. Lowry, planter, Helena, Ark. One of the foremost men among the agriculturists of Phillips County, is he whose name appears above, and who has borne an influential part in promoting the various interests of the county. He was originally from Louisana, his birth occurring at Milliken's Bend, September 20, 1832, and is the son of Alfred J. and Cleora C. (Hynes) Lowry, natives, respectively, of Frankfort and Bardstown, Ky. The father died at Milliken's Bend, La., in 1872, when fifty-five years of age, and the mother died in 1864 at the age of forty-two years. They were married in Bardstown, Ky., and later moved to Natchez, Miss., where they remained two years, going thence to Milliken's Bend, La. The mother died while on a visit to Louisville. The father was a graduate of St. Joseph College, Bardstown, and was a planter by occupation, raising annually from 600 to 1,000 bales of cotton. He was a member of the lower house of the legislature while residing in Louisana, and served in that capacity for four years. He was a Mason and held an office in the Graud Lodge of [p.785] the State, was a Whig at one time, but during the latter part of his life was a Democrat. Mrs. Lowry was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Their family consisted of eight children, six of whom lived to maturity, and five of whom are living at the present time, viz.: Mrs. S. D. Tompkins (now residing in Helena), William M., Mrs. Carolina Polk (wife of Col. Cadwallader Polk, of Phillips County), F. M. (wholesale merchant at St. Louis, Mc.), Mrs. C. C. (now residing at Helena). One son, A. J. Lowry, contracted consumption during the war, and died one year after peace was declared. He was aidde-camp to Col. Cadwallader Polk. William M. Lowry received his education at Bardstown, Ky., and remained there until three months before graduating, when he was compelled to leave St. Joseph's College, at that place on account of ill health. He went from there to New Orleans, La., where he was engaged in planting for three years,

after which he returned to his father's old plantation in that State. In 1869 he came to Phillips County, and is now the owner of 520 acres of land, with 480 acres under cultivation. He was in the Confederate service a short time during the war, but was discharged on account of disability. He lost $100,000 in two years after the war, and consequently was obliged to begin over again. He has been quite successful since that time, and is one of the first cotton growers in the county. He has reared an interesting family of children, three sons attending college at Bardstown, Ky., and two daughters attending at Fayetteville, Ark. His marriage occurred in 1860, to Miss Artana Majoun, of Bayon Sarah, La., and the fruits of this union have been eight children, five now living: Bruce (carrying on the home plantation), Alfred J. (in the employ of . H. Crebs, of Helena), Sam T. (is in the employ of J. W. Clopton, cotton broker of Helena), Jennie (at home) and Annie T. (at home). Mr. Lowry is a member of the Catholic and his wife a member of the Episcopal Church. He is a Democrat in his political opinion, and is one of the most enterprising citizens of the county, always manifesting public spirit in worthy movcments.

Gen. L. H. Mangum, attorney at law, Helena, Ark. What is usually termed genius has little to do with the success of man in general. Keen parception, sound judgment, and a determined will, supported by persevering and continuous effort, are essential elements to success in any calling, and their possession is sure to accomplish the ends hoped for in the days of his youth. The jurisprudence of a commonwealth is the most necessary factor toward its growth and permanence, for, without a thorough knowledge and administration of the law no form of popular government could long exist. Gen. L. H. Mangum, by virtue of his ability as a jurist and his victories at the bar, is eminently worthy of a place in the record of successful men, and the history of his life is an important and honorable part of that of his State and country. He was born in Hillsborough, N. C., on May 26, 1837, and is the son of Prleetly H. and Rebecca H. (Southerland) Mangum, natives of North Carolina. The maternal grandfather, Ranson Southerland, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and that family was one of the most prominent in the State of North Carolina. The Mangum family were originally from Wales, were early settlers of North Carolina, and W. P. Mangum was State senator from North Carolina for thirty years, being president of the senate during President Tyler's administration. Priestly H. Mangum was a very prominent and noted lawyer, was solicitor for a number of years, and was also a member of the North Carolina legislature for a number of years. His whole heart was in his profession, for he loved the law and had the most exalted respect for its conscientious and honorable followers, und he found very little time to mingle with politics. His reputation was that of a safe counsellor, a fearless, eloquent, earnest, and most convincing advocate. His death occurred in 1850, and the mother's in 1838. They were the parents of six children, three sons and three daughters, four of whom are now living. Wiley P. was consul-general, sent by President Lincoln to China and Japan, and held this position for twenty-one years. He died at Tientsin, China, in February, 1881. Catherine (deceased), Priestly H., Mary L. (wife of [p.786] J. J. James, of N. C.), Rebecca T. (widow of John R. Williams), and Leonard H., who is the youngest of the family. The latter remained in his native State until eighteen years of age, having previously read law, and then entered the school at Princeton, N. J., graduating from the same in 1857. The same year he came to Helena, and in 1858 was admitted to the Helena bar, afterward forming a partnership with Gen. Cleburne & Scaife, under the firm title of Cleburne, Scaife & Mangum, the same continuing thus until the breaking out of the war, when all entered the army. Mr. Mangum enlisted in the celebrated Yell Rifles, and went out as second sergeant. He was badly wounded at the battle of Shiloh, where he had several horses shot from under him, and was shot seven times, through the hip, thigh, arm and hand. He was given up to die, but rallied and returned to the army. He was then offered a captaincy, but declined to serve, and went to Gen. Cleburne's staff, where he remained until the surrender. After returning to Helena he found his library stolen, and although he had but $30 in money, he began practicing his profession and met with excellent success. This he continued until he was appointed by President Cleveland chief of warrants, land and territorial accounts, and steamboat inspector accounts, holding the position for four years, and then resigned on his own account, thinking that he ought to do so to give way to the opposing party. He held the office of probate judge for a number of years, and from time to time held the circuit judge's place. He has been prominently identified with Phillips County for over thirty years, and was a member of the Democratic National Convention of 1868, held at New York, nominating Seymour and Blair, also of the convention of 1876. He served on the Committee of Resolutions and Platforms. He has been twice married, first to Miss Anna W. Nunn, by whom he had two children, one living: Wiley P., who is now in Washington City, and his second marriage was to Mrs. Fannie Metzger (nee Clements) of Helena. Personally, Gen. Mangnm is upright, honorable and just in all matters concerning his political action, as well as in matters of private life. His entire career has been one to which he may refer with pardonable pride, and just satisfaction.

Isam Manning, farmer, Poplar Grove, Ark. This much-respected and esteemed citizen was originally from Indiana, where his birth occurred in 1822, and was principally reared in Phillips County, Ark., whither he had removed with his parents in 1834. His education was received in the private schools, and when twenty-three years of age he commenced farming for himself on his own land. In 1846 he went to Mezico as a soldier in Capt Preston's Company, Col. Yell's First Arkansas Regiment, and was at the battle of Buena Vista. He was in the service one year and came home in 1847. In February of the following year he was married to Miss Lucinda Bailey, daughter of Thomas and Milly Bailey, of Kentucky, and became the father of three children, only one now living: John, who is a farmer and resides in Johnson County, Ark. Mrs. Manning died in 1857, and in May of the following year Mr. Manning was married to Miss Samantha Thomas, daughter of W. A. Thomas, a native of Georgia. To the second marriage were born eleven children, six now living: Biddie (wife of Robert McGinnis), Walter, Etta, Jessie, Edmond and Robert. In 1859 Mr. Manning bought his present property, consisting of 400 acres, and now has 200 acres improved, with a splendid frame residence, outbuildings, etc. He has a gin on his place, with which he did his own and some custom ginning until this year. He raises on his home place about thirty baes of cotton yearly, and up to this year ginned, on an average, about seventy-five bales per year. Besides his home farm, Mr. Manning is the owner of 620 acres of land, with 100 acres improved. He did not serve in the late war, but lost a great deal of property. He is a liberal donntor to all laudable enterprises, and he and wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is a member of the Wheel, and in his political views affiliates with Democratic party. His parents, William and Jane (Elliott) Mauning, moved to Arkansas in 1834, and rented land on Big Creek, close to what is now Middle Bridge, where there was a ferry kept by a man by the name of James Hanks. The country at that time was [p.787] wild and unsettled, bear, panther, wolves, deer, etc., were plenty all over the county, and Helena was a small place with only two dry-goods stores there, kept by Judge McKinzie and F. & M. Hanks. There was several saloons and grocery stores, and population numbered about 250. Mr. Manning remained here about two years, and then went to Mississippi, where he remained but one year. He never bought or entered land in this county. He died in 1843, at the age of forty-seven years. His widow afterward married in (1847) a Mr. Mosby, of Phillips County. She died in 1853, at the age of fifty-five years.

Peter Mengoz. In all ages of the world, industry, perseverance and energy, where intelligently applied, have achieved excellent results, and Mr. Mengoz is an excellent example of what can be accomplished when the spirit of determination is exercised in connection with the every-day affairs of life. His farming and stock raising operations have resulted most satisfactorily, and he now owns 1,600 acres of land and has 600 acres in a fine state of cultivation. He is also the owner of the Grand Opera House at Helena, and is a director and the main stockholder in the Fair Association. He has some fine thoroughbred horses on his plantation, and makes a specialty of Alford cattle and Berkshire hogs. Although a native of France he has become thoroughly Americanized, and takes a deep interest in the affairs of his adopted country. His birth occurred on April 27, 1837, and he is a son of Franco A. and Lucile (Vouron) Mengoz, who were born, reared, educated and married in France. After residing there until 1853 they concluded to cross the "big pond" and seek their fortune in America, and, upon reaching the United States, settled first in Stark County, Ohio, but not liking the situation, moved the following year to Iowa, and purchased land in Black Hawk County, Iowa, being among the first to locate at Gilbertville. Here the mother's death occurred in 1866, at the age of fifty-five years, and, after this event, Mr. Mengoz returned to France, and after a few years' stay there, came back to Iowa to settle up his affairs, roalising on the sale of his property quite a handsome sum of money. While in New York City, on the eve of returning to his native land, he was unfortunately robbed of all his money, and was compelled to join his son, the subject of this sketch, and with him made his home until his death, August 25, 1878, at the age of seventy-seven years. He was a stone cutter and contractor by trade, and was compelled to leave France on account of his political views, and after reaching "the land of the free and the home of the brave" gave his attention to farming exclusively. He served in the French War seven years, and he and his wife were members of the Catholic Church, Of five children born to them, their son Peter is the eldest, and only three of the family are now living: France (who has been working in the gold mines of Oregon since 1867), Mary (wife of Nicholas Deisch) and Peter. Eugene was born in 1842, was a farmer by occupation, and died in Phillips County in 1876. Charles died in France at the age of five years. Peter Mengoz received the most of his education in the schools of his native land and came with his parents to this country, remaining with them until 1858, when he came to Arkansas and became an employe of a New Orleans firm, and was foreman of different forces of men in the State of Arkansas until the opening of the war, when he joined the Confederate army and was in the commissary department, or rather was a contractor furnishing beef for the army. He drove his cattle from Texas, and was in this business until the close of the war, when he came to Helena and engaged in farming, but at the end of one year became a salesman in the grocery and provision house of John Meadow, remaining with him two years. He then became associated with William Baggett in the grocery business, but at the end of one year began business alone, and opened a wholesale and retail grocery, provision and liquor establishment, which he continued to conduct until 1880, when, as stated above, he retired to his plantation. His property has been acquired through his own business ability and energy since the war, as at that time what property he had accumulated was swept away. He is a devout member of the Catholic Church, socially belonge to the K. of H., and in his political views is [p.788] a Democrat. In 1873 he returned to his old home in France, and visited Switzerland the same year, and in 1889 again went to Europe and traveled through England, France, Switzerland, Bavaria, Baden, also other provinces of Prussis, and then returned to the United States fully contented to make his home here for the remainder of his days. He has been quite an extensive traveler in the United States also, and in 1855 made a trip to the Rocky Mountains for a St. Louis Fur Company.

Aaron Meyers, wholesale and retail grocer, Helena, Ark. Among the most important indnstries of any community are those that deal in the necessaries of life, and next to bread and meat, nothing is more necessary than groceries. Helena has a number of first-class establishments doing business in this line, and prominent among the number is that conducted by Mr. Meyers. This gentleman was born in Prussis, Germany, on August 25, 1841, and is the son of Isaac and Yetta Meyers, natives of the same province. There the parents grew up, married, and received their final summons. Aaron Meyers was reared and educated at Schwarza, graduated in 1856 and the same year sailed for America. He first located at St. Louis, was engaged in the grocery business at that place until 1868, and then came to Helena, Ark., where he filled the position of salesman for some time. He was city marshal and city tax collector, and for five years filled the position of mayor of the city to the satisfaction of all. In fact he has been connected with almost every public enterprise that has taken place since he came here and has taken a deep interest in improving the city. He has been president of the Chamber of Commerce for two years, secretary of the school board for six years, president of the Helena Building & Loan Association, treasurer of the Helena Opera House, Grand Chancellor of the K. of P. of the State of Arkansas, and holds several offices in different orders. He is a director in the Fair Association and a stockholder in the opera house. He was married in 1879 to Miss Johanna Potsdamer and to them were born four children: Ellen R., Bettie M., Issac M. and Gertrude R. Mr. Meyers was married the second time to Miss Bianca Potedamer, by whom he has one child, Joseph C. He and wife are church members.

P. T. R. Miller, farmer and stockman, Poplar Grove, Ark. Mr. Miller, another of the many substantial citizens of foreign birth, now residing in Phillips County, owes his nativity to Scotland, where he was born in 1848. His father, George Miller, followed agricultural pursuits the principal part of his life, but in his younger days was engaged in merchandising in his native country, Scotland, where he now resides with his wife, who was formerly Miss Elizabeth Robertson. They both enjoy good health in spite of their advanced years, he being eighty-four or eighty-five and she seventy-five years of age, and both are members of the Old School Presbyterian Church. Their family consisted of eight children, six of whom are now living and P. T. R. being the eldest. The next in order of birth, Elizabeth (is now the widow of David Walker, and lives in Scotland. Mr. Walker died in Helena, Phillips County), William A. (resides in New York City, and is entry clerk for Hilton, Hughes & Denning), James R. (came to America, but in 1881 returned to his native country and is engaged in tilling the soil), Esther (resides in Scotland), Maggie (deceased), Georgiana (in Scotland), and Daniel (deceased, who was the youngest, and who was killed by a fall from his horse in Australia). P. T. R. Miller was reared and educated in Scotland, and when nineteen years of age crossed the ocean to America, where he followed agricultural pursuits in New York State. He was afterward with the Adams Express Company as messenger until 1870, when he returned to Scotland. In 1871 he came back to America and located at Cleveland, Ohio, where he remained four years, part of the time being engaged in the cornice maker's trade, and afterward had charge of some horses. He left there in 1875 and came to Phillips County, Ark., where he has since tilled the soil. He is at present a member of the firm of Bailey & Miller, which was established in the spring of 1888. This firm has 250 acres under cultivation, the principal part of which is seeded down to grass for the summer herding of cattle. They have commodious barns with sufficient room [p.789] to care for about 100 head of stock, and take it all in all, this is one of the leading stock farms in Eastern Arkansas. They have on hand a fine Holstein animal, preparatory to the breeding of fine cattle, and their intention is also to breed for market a fine grade of sheep. Mr. Miller has been twice married, first in 1877, to Miss Martha Gallatin, who died in 1878, leaving one child, Martha E. Mr. Miller's second marriage was to Mrs. Mattie Banks (nee Hipps), a native of Alabama, and the fruits of this union have been four children: George R., Lizzie and Henry B. and Ed. W. (twins). Mrs. Miller was the mother of three children by her former marriage: Georgia A. (wife of W. P. Vernor, of Phillips County), W. H. H. and James (both at home). Mr. Miller is a member of the A. O. U. W., Junior Lodge, Helena, Ark., and Mrs. Miller is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

John P. Moore is vice-president of the First National Bank, also of the Peoples Savings Bank, and is also a real estate and plantation supply dealer of Helena, Ark. His career is but another evidence of the possibilities young men have for advancement in the world when supported by strong resolution to rise. He was raised on a farm, though he acquired an education in the Western Military Institute of Kentucky, and in the University of Mississippi, at Oxford. His opportunities he improved and became well posted on the current literature of the day, and laid the foundation for a successful career in later days. He first began business for himself as a merchant in Aberdeen, Miss., but in 1856 sold out his business there, and came to Helena, where he opened a mercantile establishment, which he has since conducted, with the exception of the time during the Civil War, when he was obliged to suspend business. His mercantile business is now conducted under the firm name of John P. & F. Moore, Dr. Frierson Moore, his son, being the partner. He owns a vast amount of land in Arkansas and Mississippi, of which a large portion is under oultivation, and his real estate in the city of Helena is very valuable. He is a strong advocate of investments in real estate, and has been active in advancing the interests of the city and county. He was

married near Aberdeen, Miss., in 1854, and is the father of four children, two sons and two daughters. His parents were Alabamians, and moved to Chickasaw County, Miss., at an early day, in which State they both died. Our subject was born in Alabama, and reared in the great State of Mississippi.

John T. Moore, the obliging and courteous postmaster of Red Store, was born in Chicot County, Ark., January 20, 1845, the son of Stephen P. and Margaret (Cassidy) Moore. Stephen P. Moore immigrated from South Carolina (where he was born in 1814) to Mississippi when only sixteen years of age, and was there married in 1840, by his union with Miss Cassidy becoming the father of seven children, two daughters and a son (John T.) now living. Mrs. Moore died in Phillips County, Ark., in 1885, at the age of seventy-one years. John T. Moore was reared in Mississippi from the age of four years, and received his education in the schools of that State. In 1875 he was married to Miss Eugenia Goodman, who was born in Mobile, Ala., in 1849, and died in Arkansas County, Ark., in 1882, leaving two children: Robert and Eugenia. Mr. Moore immigrated to Arkansas from Mississippi in 1882, which has been his home ever since. He owns 1,200 acres of land, a greater portion of it being under a successful state of cultivation. The principal crop that he grows is cotton, averaging about 140 bales annually. Mr. Moore belougs to the Baptist Church, in which he is regarded as a faithful and prominent member. He can remember and loves to recite his early adventures of hunting, many times having killed over 100 bears in a season.

William M. Neal is a real-estate and insurance agent at Helena, and a record of his life will be of more than passing interest, for he is a man of recognized worth and of a substantial and progressive spirit. He was born in Wilson County, Tenn., September 6, 1853, and is a son of William Z. and Josephine (Puckett) Neal, who were also natives of that State, the father being a man of superior education, and the founder of the Lebanon (Tenn.) Herald in 1852. This journal he continued to publish until 1872, at which time he sold out, purchasing [p.790] a farm and moving thereon, and there now lives. He was internal revenne collector under Gen. Grant, and was a Whig in his political views for many years. He and wife, who is now dead, became the parents of five children, three now living, of whom our subject is the eldest. His early scholastio advantages were received in the Cumberland University at Lebanon, Tenn., and he there also learned the printer's trade, serving a four-years apprenticeship in his father's office, after which he wrote for and read-proof on the Nashville Daily American for some time. He next went to Washington, Miss., and after working as a bookkeeper for a number of years he, in March, 1876, came to Helena and worked in the same capacity for the bank here, continuing to be thus occupied four years, at which time he began giving his attention to merchandising. Four years later he embarked in his present calling, and in this branch of business has become one of the leading men of the county. He handles an immense amount of real estate and owns some very valuable property himself. He represents the Manhattan Life Insurance Company; being, too, a stockholder in and secretary of the Helena & Brick Manufacturing Company, and is also a stockholder and secretary of the Mutual Building & Loan Association, which he assisted in organizing, in June, 1887, with a capital stock of $600,000. He is also secretary of the Helena Gas, Water & Power Company, which has a capital stock of $10,000. December 5, 1888, he was married to Miss Margaret Redford, who is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

M. Newman, wholesale and retail dealer in liquors, etc., Helena, Ark. A very reliable as well as popular store is that of Mr. Newman, who opened the saloon business in Helena in 1874, and has every requisite and convenience in his line of business. He was born in Hesse Castle, Germany, on October 31, 1837, and is the son of William and Esther (Frendenberg) Newman, natives of Germany, where they passed their entire lives. Mr. Newman was reared in Germany, received his education at Hesse Castle, and in 1856 he sailed for America, taking passage at Bremen, and landing at New York City after a fifty-six days' ocean voyage. He remained in New Year for one year, and then traveled over nearly the entire continent, especially the Western and Southern States. In the fall of 1858 he located at Little Rock, and made his

headquarters there until 1861. The following year he located at Helena, Ark., and was occupied as clerk for two years. He then engaged in the mercantile business, carried this on until 1869, and then entered into the stock business for one season. In 1871 he embarked in the cigar business, and two years later in the dairy business, which he continued for one year. After this he opened a saloon, and has since conducted the sale of liquors, cigars, etc. Mr. Newman was only seventeen years of age when he came to America, and had nothing but the clothes he was wearing. He has been quite successful, and is one of the enterprising business men of Helena, doing an extensive business in his line. He was married in 1864 to Miss Bertha Platt, and the result of this union was five children: Eli (who is now twenty-three years of age), Theresa (twenty years of age), Albert (eighteen), Willie (fifteen) and Estella (ten years of age). Mr. Newman is a Royal Arch Mason, a Knight of Pythias, belongs to the A. O. U. W., and is a member of the Knights and Ladies of Honor, Beni Brith, and Kersher Shel Barzel. He is the agent for Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company, the largest company in the South.

Judge R. W. Nicholls is an attorney at law of Helena, Ark., and his name is identified with his professional standing, the welfare and material and social happiness of Phillips County. He was born in the Parish of Assumption, La., December 9, 1849, and on his father's side is descended from an old English family of note, and inherits French blood from his mother. The paternal grandfather, Thomas C. Nicholls, was judge of a district court in Louisiana, and upon his death was succeeded by his son, R. W. (the father of our subject), who held the office until his death, at the untimely age of thirty-five years, having discharged his duties in a manner highly satisfactory to all. He was a lientenant in the Mexican War and was aid-de-camp for Gen. Taylor. An old trunk which he carried through this engagement is in possession [p.791] of his son, Judge R. W. Nicholls, and has his name engraved upon it. He was a brother of the present Gov. Nicholls, of Louisiana, who is the only one of the seven sons living, and, in fact, is the only member of his father's family who survives. R. W. was married to Miss J. M. Phillips, and by her reared one son, Judge R. W. Nicholls. The youthful days of the latter were spent in his native State, a part of his time being spent on his father's plantation and the rest of the time in the city of New Orleans, where he acquired a good common-school education, which he subsequently improved by attendance at the State University at Alexandria, where he graduated in 1869. In 1870 he came to Helena, Ark., and began the study of law, and in December of the following year was admitted to the bar. He at once entered upon a career of distinction and success, business coming to him unsolicited, and his strong, good sense, his knowledge of human nature, his calm conservatiam and his genuine legal ability were soon perceived, and he gained the general confidence of the people, so much so that, in 1876, he was elected city attorney, and in 1879 was chosen mayor of Helena, and this position held by re-election until 1882. Since that time he has been county and probate judge, and selfish and personal considerations have been laid aside when the question of duty has been presented. Every enterprise of a public nature finds in him a warm advocate, and his opinion is sought and his counsel heeded, in nearly every question of a public nature, as well as on private matters. He was married, in 1873, to Miss Janie McAlpine, a native of Mississippi, and by her he has a family of three children: Winifred, George and Robert W., Jr. The Judge belongs to the I. O. O. F., the Knights of Pythias, the Knights of Honor and the Royal Arcanum. He is a grand-nephew of the famons poet, Rodman Drake, the author of "Culprit Fay.".

William B. O'Shields has long had the reputation of being one of the best farmers in the county, and as a merchant his name and fame is co-extensive with Phillips and the surrounding counties. Every step of his career has been marked by acts of liberality, and he has ever displayed a vital interest in the higher development of his county, which is no doubt owing, in a measure, to his having been born here. His birth occurred on the farm where he now lives, October 5, 1851, and he is the youngest of ten children born to Isasc and Jarvey G. (Nixon) O'Shields, both of whom were born in South Carolina, the former's birth occurring about 1813, and the latter's in Phillips County, Ark., October 16, 1873. His wife died in 1863 at the age of fifty-one years. Their marriage took place in South Carolina, and in 1844 they came to Arkansas, locating in Phillips County, where he followed farming until his death, being quite successful in this calling. He inherited Irish blood from his parents, who were born in the Emerald Isle, and in his political views was first a Whig, but later became a Democrat. His wife was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and bore him the following family of children, the names of those who are living being here given: Jennie (widow of Thomas Certer, who died while serving in the Confederate army), Thomas N. (who is a farmer and blacksmith of this county), Richard L. (also a farmer of the county), Isaac (following the same occupation here) and William B. The following are the names of those who are deceased: Nancy (wife of William Jackson), Fanny (who died after reaching womanhood), Mollie (wife of William Jackson), John, and Elizabeth (the wife of Thomas Kibby). William B. O'Shields received the most of his education in Phillips County, and supplemented a common school course by an attendance at Phillips Academy, where be acquired an excellent education. On attaining his majority he began farming for himself, and in 1881 began merchandising also, and has since followed both these occupations, his labors being attended with the best results. In his political views Mr. O'Shields is a Democrat, and on that ticket was elected, in 1878, to the position of constable, and, in 1882, to the office of justice of the peace. In 1885 he was married to Miss Mary Davidson, a daughter of John and Margaret Davidson. She was born in Helena, Ark., is a member of the M. E. Church, South. They have two children: Lottie B. and Maggie May.

E. D. Pillow, sheriff, Heleua, Ark. Mr. Pillow, the popular sheriff of Phillips County, though born in Columbia, Tenn., on May 17, 1846, has been a resident of Phillips County, Ark., since 1866, and the confidence which the people have in him, is therefore intelligently placed, for in that time they have had every opportunity to judge of is character and qualifications. His parents, Jerome B. and Elvira (Dale) Pillow, were both natives of Middle Tennessee, and the grandparents were among the early settlers of that State. The paternal grandfather was in the War of 1812. The father of E. D. Pillow, Jerome Pillow, was a brother of Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, who made a lasting reputation in the Mexican War. Jerome B. was a farmer, and some time in the 40's he came to Phillips County and invested largely in real estate, although he never resided in the county. He is still living in Tenuessee, and is in his eightieth year. The mother died in 1889. They were the parents of seven children: Mrs. J. W. Q. Ridley. Mrs. Lena Long, Mrs. W. D. Bethel, Mrs. John M. Gray, Mrs. Minter Parker, Edward D. and Jerome B. Edward D. Pillow, the subject of this sketch, was reared in Tennessee, and received a limited education in that State. When in his sixteenth year, or in 1862, he enlisted in Company E, First Tennessee, and served until the surrender, being but nineteen years of age when the war closed. He was in many hard-fought battles, and was a brave and daring soldier. In 1866 he came to Helena and engaged in farming, which pursuit he has since continued. He is the owner of about 3,000 acres of land, has about 1,600 acres under cultivation, and is deeply interested in the raising of cotton. In 1884 he was elected sheriff, re-elected in 1886 and 1888, and is now serving his third term. He was married to Miss Emma Rice, a daughter of Dr. F. H. Rice, and to this union were born three children: William B., Edward Rice and Camille Polk.

Allen J. Polk owes his nativity to Mecklenburg County, N. C., where his birth occurred on March 5, 1824. He is the son of Dr. William J. and Mary (Long) Polk, and the grandson of Col. William J. Polk, of Revolutionary fame, Col. Polk started out from Queens College when sixteen years of age, entered the army as lieutenant, and served in different capacities until the close of the war, when he held the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He is said to have been the first man wounded south of Lexington. He died at Raleigh, N. C. This Polk family is the same as that of James K. Polk, and our subject is a grandson of Gen. Thomas Polk, whose name is so intimately connected with the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, or Resolvency, of June 20, 1775. Dr. William J. Polk and wife were natives of North Carolina, born in Mecklenburg and Halifax Counties, respectively, the father on March 21, 1793, and the mother on March 10, 1797. Both died in Columbis, Tenn., the former in 1860, and the latter on September 20, 1885, at the age of eighty-nine years. They were married in North Carolina on June 1, 1818, and in 1836 moved from that State to Columbia, Tenn., where they passed the closing scenes of their lives. In 1848 Dr. Polk sent his son, Allen J. Polk, to Phillips County, Ark., to purchase land, and the latter is now living on land purchased in 1849. Dr. Polk was a graduate of Jefferson School of Medicine, but during his later years he was engaged exclusively in planting. In his political views he was a Whig, and took a deep interest in politics. He was president of the Bank of Tennessee, at Columbia, for many years, and was a man universally respected. He and wife were members of the Episcopal Church. Allen J. Polk received his education at the University of North Carolina, and in 1845 began the study of law at Columbia, Tenn., being admitted to the bar at that place in 1846. He practiced law for one year, and in 1849 commenced planting, which occupation he has since followed, although be has met with many reverses. In 1859 Mr. Polk married Miss Fitzhugh, daughter of Clark Fitzhugh, and the fruits of this union were four living children: Mrs. Susan Keesee (of Helena), Mrs. Anna Pepper (of Memphis), Zelda and Robbin. Mrs. Polk is a member of the Catholic Church. She is a grand niece of Gen. George Rodgers Clark, who captured the Northwest Territory. Mr. Polk is a member of the Masonic order and a Democrat.

Col. Cadwallader Polk, planter, Helena, Ark. The subject of this sketch needs no introduction to the people of Phillips County, for a long residence, and, above all, a career of usefulness and prominence, have given him an acquaintance which shall last for many years. He was born in Columbia, Tenn., October 16, 1838, and is the son of Dr. William J. and Mary Rebecca (Long) Polk. [For further particulars of parents see sketch of Allen J. Polk.] Of the fourteen children born to his parents six are now living, and Col. Cadwallader Polk is sixth in order of birth, viz: Allen, Lucius E. (was a planter at Columbia, Tenn.), Rufus (who resides at Little Rock), Mrs. Houston (wife of Russell Houston, of Louisville, Ky.), and Mary P. Branch (resides at Nashville, Tenn.). Russell Houston is attorney for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Col. Cadwallader Polk received his aducation at the University of North Carolina, graduating with honor from the same in 1858, and soon after he turned his attention to planting, which occupation he has carried on since. During the late war he enlisted as second lieutenant of the First Tennessee Confederate Infantry, and served in different capacities until promoted to the rank of colonel of an Arkansas regiment after the battle of Shiloh. He was appointed aid-de-camp to Gen. Hindman, and was in service from that time until the close of the war. While major of Hawthorn's regiment, and at the battle of Prairie Grove, he was wounded in the right cheek by a musket-ball, which came out at the left side of the neck, and soon after he was made colonel, serving in that capacity until cessation of hostilities. He was in West Virginia with Gen. Stonewall Jackson, was in the second day's fight of Shiloh, Prairie Grove, Helena and Little Rock. His regiment surrendered at Camden and Pine Bluff. He soon after turned his attention to planting, and is now the owner of 1,400 acres in the home place, with 600 acres in cotton, corn and grass. He was married March 29, 1864, to Miss Carrie Lowry, of Milliken's Bend, La., and the result of this union was six children, viz.: William J., Anna T., Walter R. (at Little Rock in the employ of the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad in the capacity of book-keeper), Cadwallader (at home), Nena (at home), and Edward M. Mr. and Mrs. Polk are members of the Episcopal Church. Mr. Polk is a Masson, a K. T., and in his political opinions affiliates with the Democratic party. He takes a great interest in politics, but has never desired to hold office. He is now very much occupied in the rearing of stock, and has a flock of Southdowns, probably the finest in the State. He has some Almont's stock of horses, also other fine stock, and is one of the progressive and enterprising farmers of the county.

E. A. Porter, agent for the Pacific Express Company, at Helena, Ark., is a native of Helena, Ark., his birth occurring here June 5, 1865, he being a son of William and Ann A. (Hanks) Porter, the latter being a sister of Judge James M. Hanks, ex-Congressman. William Porter was born March 9, 1818, at Cincinnati, Ohio, and in his youth, or youthful days, came to Arkansas and located in Helena, owning and operating a tannery, saw and grist-mill at the mouth of the St. Francis River. He conducted this business on a very extensive scale until the opening of the war, during which time he lost nearly all his accumulations of years. After the war he set to work to retrieve his fortunes, and for some time operated a saw-mill and cotton-gin, but later on made farming his chief avocation, possessing a good farm about four miles south of Helena. He is still living (retired from the active duties of life) in Helena, and possesses the full consciousness of having fought the battle of life successfully, and can now rest from the labor and beat of the day. He has never aupired to political positions, and although his views are in accord with the Democratic party, he has never been a partisan. His son, E. A. Porter, was reared and educated in Helena, and at an early age became a messenger boy in the express service, receiving various promotions until he attsined his present position of agent for the Pacific Express Company. He is a young man of push, energy and enterprise, and owing to his many other admirable business qualifications, his future success is assured. He has shown his approval of secret organizations by becoming a member of the K. of [p.794] P., being a charter member of this organization at Wynne, and he also belongs to the A. O. U. W. March 19, 1888, he espoused Miss Ida B. Dickson.

James C. Rembert is the efflcient county clerk of Phillips County, Ark., and is a man whom the citizens delight to honor, for he is careful, prudent, and undeniably honest, and in every walk in life has shown himself to be eminently worthy the respect which is sccorded him by all. He is a native of Shelby County, Tenn., born January 17, 1849, and is a son of Llewellyn C. and Mary (Jackson) Rembert, who were also Tennesseeans, in which State the mother died, the father's death occurring in Prairie County, Ark., he having been a worthy and fairly successful planter throughout life. James C. Rembert attended school in the State of Tennessee, until fifteen years of age, his time being also spent in assisting his father on the farm, and in 1806 he came to Helena, Ark., and was salesman in a dry goods house until 1870, when he was made chief deputy in the sheriff's office, and ably diecharged the duties of that position until 1874. He then alternataly acted as deputy sheriff and salesman of dry goods until 1882, when he became deputy county clerk, recaiving the appointment from Gov. Hughes to fill a vacancy in April, and his labors were so satisfactory that, September 2, 1888, he was elected to the office which he still continues to hold. Every worthy enterprise of a public nature finds in him a warm advocate, and as be is a man of intelligence and thinks for himself, his views are always sound. He has been fairly prosperons in a worldly point of view, and is the owner of some excellent real estate in Helena. Socially he belongs to the A. O. U. W., the K. of P., and the Royal Arcanum. He was married, in 1871, to Miss Cortney C. Cage, and by her has three children: J. C., Jr., Bettie C. and Cortney T.

William H. Benfro (deceased) was one of the thirteen children born to the union of Talton and Elizabeth (Harrison) Renfro, his birth occurring in Maury County, Tenn., March 8, 1833. Of that large family of children only three are now living: John H. (residing in Sacramento, Cal.), D. B. (a resident of Holly Grove, Ark.) and Matilda (the widow of William Baulch). When William H. Renfro was nineteen years of age, he came to Phillips County, having accepted a position to superintend a large plantation, owned by a Mr. A. W. Smizer, which he continued to do until the breaking out of the war. He then enlisted in the Confederate army, serving two years. During the war he purchased the farm where Mrs. Renfro now resides, the place then consisting of 480 acres, with only filty improved. Mrs. Renfro owas 200 acres of improved land, with only forty unimproved, on which are good buildings and many modern evidences of progression and prosperity. That Mr. Renfro was a popular and influential man is demonstrated beyond a doubt by the manner in which he is mentioned, and the reverence in which his memory is held. He was a quiet, law-abiding citizen, keeping pace with the world, in the even tenor of his way, and many improvements of his county stand as monuments of his liberality and support. No one ever realized, not even his own family, how largely Mr. Renfro gave in charities. On this point he was secretive, nothing abashing him more in his own eyes than when a deed of merey was traced to its source by some grateful recipient of his generosity. He was married December 8, 1856, in this county, to Miss Amanda E. Graves, who was born in Shelby County, Tenn., December 26, 1836, and a daughter of Alezander and Annie (Graves) Graves. Mr. and Mrs. Renfro reared a family of three children: Ella R. (wife of B. Y. Turner) and Lizzie (Mrs. W. C. Brooks). One daughter is deceased. Mr. Graves (father of Mrs. Renfro), was born in Greenville, N. C., in 1800, and was married in Giles County, Tenn., having moved to that county when twenty-one years old. To his marriage eight children were born, three now living: N. L., Maggie (wife of her cousin, Joseph Graves, of this county) and Amanda (Mrs. Renfro). Mr. Graves died in Phillips County, Ark., in 1803. His wife, who was born in Louisa County, Va., in 1804, died in 1864. Mrs. Renfro manages her farm in a good business-like way. She is a supporter of all charitable movements, an earnest worker in and a highly-respected member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

S. M. Reynolds, one of the prominent farmers and stock growers of Marion Township, is the sixth of a family of eight children born to the union of Thomas and Elizabeth (Winters) Reynolds, natives of Tennessee. Thomas Beynolds was a furmer by occupation and continued this pursuit in his native State until about 1848, when he moved to Franklin County, Ark. He purchased land near Ozark, Ark., continued his former pursuit, and was among the first to settle in that county. He died in 1854 and the mother the year previous. Of their eight children, four are now living: Christopher Clolumbus (resides in Kansas), S.M., Zach (resides in Missouri), and Robert C. (who resides at Plano, Tex.). W. D. (deceased) was in the war with Mexico, and was in the battles of Buena Vists, Marengo and at the City of Mexico at the surrender. S. M. Reynolds was born in Greene County, Tenn., in 1846, and was reared by his brother W. D., and received his education in the common schools of Phillips and Lee Counties, Ark., as his brother moved to this State in 1859. The latter entered land and S. M. worked on the same until twenty-two years of age. In 1868 he married Miss Mary J. McGrew, of Phillips County, and the daughter of William and Sallie (Clabough) McGrew, natives of Tennessee and North Carolina, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds are the parents of eight children: W. T., Henry L., James P., Marion F., Mary E. (deceased), Carrie A., Minnie G. and Octavus (deceased). After his marriage S. M. Reynolds moved to Sharp County, Ark., where he followed the trade of blacksmithing for about one year and then returned to Phillips County. He settled on his present property, which was owned by his wife and which consisted of 120 acres with fifty acres under cultivation. In 1802 Mr. Reynolds joined the boys in gray, Anderson's company, commanded by Dobbins, and was in the battle of Helena, July 4, 1863. He was at the surrender of Little Bock, and was also in a number of skirmishes, etc. He was captured in Phillips County, was sent to Helena and there remained for two weeks when he was paroled. This was the latter part of 1864. Mr. Reynolds is a member of the County Wheel and Farmers' Alliance, and is Vice-President of the Subordinate Wheel. He is a member of the K. of H., Spring Creek Lodge No. 2643, and is also Vice-President of this. He and Mrs. Reynolds and three of the children are members of the Christiau Church. William Reynolds, the paternal grandfather of our subject, was in the War of 1812, and the maternal grandfather, Christopher Winters, was a German, from Pennsy lvania, and last resided at Charleston, Tenn.

William Rose, an old resident and substantial farmer of Searcy Township, was born in Jackson County, Ohio, on January 7, 1817, being one of eleven children born to William and Mary (Atkins) Rose. William Rose, Sr., was a native of Montgomery County, Va., and moved with his parents to Ohio when a small boy. He was reared, married and died there in 1879. He was of English-Irish descent, and his wife a direct descendant of the Germans, and died when William, Jr., was a boy. Our subject received his education in the schools of Ohio, and, when twenty-one years old, immlgrated to St. Francis County, Ark., where he rented land until 1847, at that time purchasing 160 acres, on which he lived until 1870, when he came to Phillips County, settling on his present farm. This place cousists of 440 scres, with 200 acres under a fine state of cultivation, and the improvements, which are numerous, show him to be of an industrious and enterprising spirit. In 1889 Mr. Williams erected a steam cotton-gin, at a cost of $1,500. His farm, situated eighteen miles southwest of Helena, is well adapted to the growing of grain, hay and cotton. He is also engaged in stock-raising, a profitable source of income. Mr. Rose was first married in St. Francis County, in 1848, to Miss Marian Castile, a native of that county, who died in 1847, having borne two children, now deceased. Mr. Rose was again married in 1850 to Miss Augustine Forbes (a cousin of the former wife). She died in 1864, and of five children born to their union only one is now living: Margaret F. (the wife of F. M. Cox, residing in Lee County). In 1865 Mr. Rose married Mrs. Emily Brown (nse Brown). His fourth wife was Martha Brown, a native of Mississippi, and who has two children by her former marriage: John L. and [p.796] Carrie. Mr. Rose is a Democrat politically, having cast his first vote for President James K. Polk. He is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and a quiet, law-abiding citizen.

Judge M. T. Sanders, Helena, Ark. Matthew T. Sanders was born in Abbeville Distrlct. S. C., but during his childhood his parents moved to Alabama and settled in Greene County. His father, Dr. Charles P. Sanders, was a native of Charleston, and was married to Elizabeth Ann Thomson, of Anderson District, S. C. After their removal to Alabama, his father became a prominent physician and practiced his profession with great auccess until his death. His mother is living. The subject of this sketch was educated in part at Erskine College, S. C., but completed the collegiate course at the University of Alabama, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. The same year he located in Helena, Ark., where he began the practice of his profession. He entered the military service of the Confederate States in 1861, was afterward appointed first lieutenant of artillery, and assigned to ordnance and staff duty. At the close of the war he was a member of McNair's staff, Churchill's division, received his parole at Shreveport, La., returned to Helenain 1866, and resumed the profession of law. He soon became a successful and prominent lawyer, and enjoyed an extensive practice until he was elected to the bench. Judge Sanders has always been an active Democrat. For two years after the close of the war he was editor of the Helena Clarion, a leading Democratic journal. For several years he was chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of his county, and in the local political revolution in Phillips County, by which the Democrats, after an exciting campaign, defeated the Republicans in 1878, he was chosen for county judge. In this administration of county affairs he relieved the tax-payers of oppressive burdens, reduced current expenses of the county 50 per centum below what they were previous to his election, and earned the lasting gratitude of the people by many wise reforms in matters affecting the welfare of the county. In 1882 Judge Sanders was a Democratic candidate for Congress in the First Congressional district, but after a partial canvass of the district withdrew from the race. In July of the same year he was nominated for circuit judge by the Democracy of the first judicial circuit, and elected the following September by a majority of more than 5,000 votes over his Republican opponent, Col. W. H. Hawes. This honor was unsought, and for that reason affords the best evidence of the confidence of the people in his ability, integrity and purity of character. He was re-elected in 1886. Judge Sanders has served nearly eight years on the bench, and by his fine legal attainments and superior administrative capacity he has proven a valuable acquisition to the judiciary of the State. He is both a Mason and an Odd Fellow, and a member of the Episcopal Church. In 1868 he was married to Miss Sallie Alexander, of Helena, Ark., and by this union has five children.

Arthur M. Scott, a well-known merchant and farmer of Spring Creek Township, came originally from Alabana, and is a son of Adam C. and Catharine (Shackelford) Scott, natives of Kentucky and Virginia, respectively. Mr. Scott was a relative of the noted Winfield Scott. He was a mechanic by trade, and died during the Mexican War, while in service. His wife is now living in Yell County, Ark., at the age of seventy-two years. They were the parents of four children, f whom our subject is the only one living. Arthur M. Scott was born in Sonthern Alabama, on August 12, 1837. He was reared in his native State until eleven years of age, when he came to Arkansas with his grandfather, John L. Shackelford, and has resided in this county since that time. His mother removed to this State three years later. Arthur received his education at Batesville, where he was attending school at the breaking out of the war, and then enlisted in the Confederate army, in Company C of the Fifteenth Arkansas Infantry, in which he served until the close of hostilities. He participated in the battles of Missionary Ridge, Perryville (where he was shot through the right hip and disabled for eleven months), Jonesboro, and, a number of others, and was captured at Franklin, Tenn., and taken to Camp Douglas, at Chicago, where he was held until June 16, 1865. Returning [p.797] to Arkansas he engaged in farming for a year, then going to Helena, where he remained until 1869. After being engaged in clerking until 1871 he started in business for himself, opening a store of general merchandise, that he still owns, and which has proven very successful. He also leases 200 acres of land near North Creek, and on this raises annually about fifty bales of cotton, and a large amount of hay. Mr. Scott is a leading Democrat, and has served in a publis capacity for a number of years. He has filled the position of justice of the peace for some four years, has been a notary public since 1879, and has held the office of postmaster of North Creek since 1872, being the present incumbent.

Jesse C. Shell, a prominent planter and an old resident of Phillips County, is a native of Louisiana, and a son of Jesse J. Shell, who was born in Orange District, S. C., May 4, 1802. His father, Jacob Shell, first saw the light of day in South Carolina in 1771, dying in Louisiana in 1833. He was under Gen. Jackson at the battle of New Orleans. His wife, Sarah Rutlidge, a descendant of Gov. Rutlidge, died in 1832. Jesse Shell, Sr., moved to this county from Louisiana, in 1833, to escape the cholera, and settling ten miles from Helena, was one of the early settlers and prominent men of the locality. He represented his county in the first legislature of the State, in 1836, and was re-elected in 1838, and again in 1840. To himself and wife were born nine children, two of whom are living: Margaret A. (the wife of Maj. Palmer, of Monroe

County) and Jesse C. The latter was born in Lake Providence in 1829, but grew up in this county from his ourth year, being reared by a Mr. Mooney after his father's death, which occurred in 1841, a result of a kick from a horse. He was employed, at the age of eighteen, as a manager, and had charge of a plantation. In 1849 he went to California, was engaged in mining for two years, and then returning, he located in this county, and was appointed deputy sheriff the same year. The following year Mr. Shell was again employed as a manager, in which occupation he was employed until the war, when he enlisted in the First Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, and served until the close of the war, being in Price's raid through Missouri. After peace was declared he commenced farming, and has since followed that calling. He was married, in 1878, to Miss Mary Ward, who was born in Preston, England, on September 8, 1852, being a daughter of Henry and Alice Ward, who lived and died in England. She came to this country with an aunt, and was reared in the city of Cincinnati and New Orleans. They were the parents of four children: Jesse R., Walter P., James H. and Margaret C. (who is deceased). Mr. Shell owns a farm of 160 acres, which is mostly under cultivation. He is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the Knights of Honor, holding the office of Protector in his lodge, and also belongs to the Knights and Ladies of Honor. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and his wife of the Catholic Church.

Frank B. Sliger, president of the First National Bank of Helena, Ark., is one of the foremost business men of Phillips County, although he is young in years. His birth occurred in New Orleans, La., July 16, 1854, and he is a son of Samuel and Mary (Klock) Sliger, the former a native of Frankfort, Germany, and the latter of Strasburg. They were married in their native country, and in 1846 embarked on board a vessel bound for the United States, landing at New Orleans, where Mr. Sliger engaged in the produce business. He enlisted in the Mexican War, and is supposed to have been assassinated at the City of Mexico. Besides his wife, who afterward died in Covington, Ky., he left a family of six children, of whom Frank was fourth. His opportunities for acquiring a good education being excellent, he secured a fair general knowledge in the public schools of New Orleans. It was not long until he had to rely entirely upon his own resources for support, and although his education was very good he was young in years and unacquainted with the ways of the world, and therefore found it somewhat difflcult to obtain a living for a number of years. In the spring of 1868, when only fourteen years of age, he came to Helena and immediately entered the employ of Straub & Lohmann, merchants, and is still associated with the senior partner, having been connected with him a period [p.798] of twenty-two years. By economy, industry and a judicious use of his money saved, wealth soon began to come in, and he engaged in the brokerage and real estate usiness, his wealth materially increasing while thus occupied. In 1884, in connection with L. Lucy, he started a private bank, but their business increased to such an extent that they were compelled to reorganize with more capital. and the Natioal Bank was established, he beoming its president. He also desls in real estate, and owns a vast amount of land in different localities. He is public-spirited, progressive, and possesses keen perception and sound judgment, and is acknowledged by all to be one of the leading business spirits of Helena. He is a stockholder in the Planters' Compress Company, the Electric Light and Power Company, and so secure is he in the estimation of the people that he could command almost any position in their power to give, did he so wish it. He has been city treasurer for several years, was treasurer of Cotton Belt District No. 1, and as he has always been deeply interested in educational matters, he has been president of the school board for a number of years, but is now resigned. He is Grand Treasurer of the Knights of Honor of the State, is Grand Commander of the American Legion of Honor of the State, is a member of the Grand Lodge of the Knights of Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and also belongs to the Royal Arcanum and I. O. O. F., being Noble Grand in the latter organization. He was married in March, 1886, to Miss Maggie Carpenter, by whom he has one child, Eugenia, born in March, 1887.

Edward Sonfield, merchant, Poplar Grove, Ark. Mr. Sonfield owes his nativity to Cincinnsti, Ohio, where his birth occurred on May 30, 1854, and is the eldest of eleven children, the result of the union of Henry and Rosa (Kornik) Sonfield, natives of Germany. The father came to this country and settled in Cincinnati in 1850 or 1851, and was engaged in the jewelry business, following the same for ten or eleven years. He then moved to Nashville, Tenn., in 1861, embarked in the dry-goods business, which he followed until 1865, when he moved to Memphis, here continuing the same occupation. He died in that city on July 27, 1873, a much respected and honored citizen. Mrs. Sonfield still resides in Memphis, where she was married in 1879 or 1880 to S. Eichwald. To Mr. and Mrs. Sonfield were born eleven children, eight now living: Edward, Annie (wife of D. Zellner, of Memphis), Sarah (wife of M. Hirshberg, of Boston), William (salesman at Memphis), Sallie and Jennie (at home), Engene and Leon. Those deceased were Henriette (died when small), Julia (was accidentally burned to death at Cincinnsti in 1874) and Morris (died at Memphis, in 1881, in his twenty-third year). Edward Sonfield was educated at Cincinnati and Memphis, and at the age of thirteen years was employed as cash boy for Menken Bros., of Memphis. He was then employed as salesman for several years, and from 1873 to 1876 was traveling salesman for Otto

Schwill & Co. In 1870 Mr. Sonfield moved to Trenton, Phillips County, Ark., and was saesman here for several years, traveling a portion of the time. In March, 1885, he commenced merchandising for himself at Poplar Grove with a small capital, and has since done a good business, his aunnal sales being about $6,000. He owns a fine store-house and dwelling. He chose for his companion in life Miss Alice Myers, of Helena, Ark., the daughter of Alex, and Mary (Poe) Myers, and was united in marriage to her on March 3, 1881. Her parents were natives of Germany and Mississippi, respectively. The father came to America when a young man, settled in Holly Springs, Miss., was married there and became the father of a family of children, seven now living: Blakly (residing in Memphis), Minnie (wife of Ben. Wiley, of Helena, Alice, Samuel, Lucy, Snsie and Alex (the four last at home). To Mr. and Mrs. Sonfield were born four children: The eldest, an infant, died December 21, 1881; Henrietta (died October 6, 1883), Henry (born October 29, 1884) and Julia (born December 14, 1886). Mr. and Mrs. Sonfield are both of the Jewish faith. Mr. Sonfield is a member and Reporter of the K. of H., Poplar Grove Lodge No. 2442; also Secretary of the American Legion of Honor, Hendrix Council 737, and is notary public of this county. Politically he is a Democrut.

Christopher Columbus Spain is a son of Mabry and Delilah Spain, natives of South Carolina. The former died in 1855, somewhere out West, the partioulars of which were never known. C. C. Spain made his appearance in this world in Union County, S. C., on October 4, 1838. His mother dying when he was nly seven weeks old, he was reared by an uncle, and in 1860 immigrated from South Carolina to Trenton, Ark., locating where he now lives in 1870. This place consists of 175 acres, with over 100 acres under cultivation. In 1875 he opened a store and engaged in the mercantile business, to which he has since given his attention. He was the prime mover in getting the postoffice of Coffee Creek established in 1878, and has been postmaster ever since. Mr. Spain has been married three times; first in 1867, to MissMellissa Browning, who was born in this county, on August 11, 1845, and who died on August 15, 1878, leaving four children, two still living: Ida M. and Mary E. Arthur and Christopher C. are deceased. He married his second wife, Dorathy E. Phillips, in January, 1879, who died in March, 1880. His third and present wife was formerly Sarah A. Higginbotham, to whom he was married in November, 1882, and who was born in this county on March 12, 1861. They are the parents of two children: Mellissa C. and Dortha E. Mr. Spaim served as a gallant soldier in the Confederate service twelve months during the war. He is a strong Democrat, and a member of the K. of H., and he and his wife belong to the Baptist Church. He held the office of justice of the peace for over five years. In addition to his farm work Mr. Spain owns and operates a steam cotton-gin, which he erected at a cost of $1,200, and which is largely patronized.

William H. Stone is a prosperous insurance agent of Helena, Ark., and we may truthfully say that no other business calls for better judgment, keener foresight, greater caution or more honest dealing than does this. By it the penniless and dependent are protected as well as the rich, and it is one of the great interests of the age, ranking with banking, railroading, mining and mercantile pursuits. Mr. Stone is the sble representative of ten different insurance companies in Helena, and is accounted one of the successful business men of the county. He was born in St. Francis County, Ark., September 30, 1841, and is a son of William H. and Caroline S. (Heslep) Stone, the former a native of Tennessee, and the latter of Kentucky. After the father's death, which occurred in Tennessee, the mother came to Helena, Ark., in 1847, and here died on March 8. 1877, just thirty years to the day after her arrival. Of their family of five children all are deceased with the exception of William H. and his brother Joseph H. The former was but six years old when brought by his mother to the county, and here he grew to honorable manhood, receiving his education in a private school. Early in the year 1861 he enlisted in the Yell Rifles and during a service of four years saw much hard service, and participated in some hardfought battles. Upon his return to Helena at the close of the war he clerked for two years, but since that time has followed his present calling, at which he has done remarkably well, being now the owner of considerable valuable real estate in the town. He has been a Mason since 1867, and also belongs to the Royal Arcanum and the Knights of Honor. In 1867 he wedded Miss. Sallie L. Miles, a native of Arkansas, and by her has two children: Ellice and Clinton.

W. B. Stout, agent for the Southern Express Company, and passenger agent for the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas Railroad, owes his nativity to Paducah, Ky., where his birth occurred on November 25, 1848, and is the son of Hezekiah and Mary G. (Gholston) Stont, the father a native of Indiana, and the mother of Kentucky. The father was a prominent business and saw mill man in Indiana, Tennessee and Kentucky, and was city tax collector for a number of years in Paducah, Ky., before his death, which occurred in Paducah, in November, 1877. The boyhood days of W. B. Stout was passed in the common schools and later in college. At an early age he was employed in the Adams and Southern Express office at Paducah, and has followed this business for twenty-two years. In 1880 he was transferred to St. Louis, and remained there until coming to Helena, in 1886. He has occupied every position of trust while in the employ [p.800] of this company, and now occupies both positions as express agent and passenger agent. He has much experience and thoroughly understands his business. He was married in 1880 to Miss Louiss M. Simon, of Paducsh, Ky., who was born in Louisville, Ky., became a member of the Catholic Church in early life, both children being baptized in the same church. Their names are: Mamie Threasa (was born at Little Rock, Ark., January 14, 1882) and Arcbibald L. (was born in St. Louis, Mo., in March, 1885). Mr. Stout is a member of the K. of H., and is a stockholder in two building and loan associations, American Building & Loan Association and Tontine Savings Association; being secretary and treasurer of the same.

Maj. J. A. Tappan, hardware merchant, Helena. Ark. In Fayette County, Tenn., in January, 1847, there was born to Capt. E. S. and Sarah E. (Williamson) Tappan, a son, J. A. Tappan. The parents were both natives of Tennessee, and the father was a merchant by vocation. He was a prominent politician of Tennessee, and was a member of the legislature several terms. He was a captain in the War of 1812. J. A. Tappan was reared to maturity in his native county, receiving his education there, and when only sixteen years of age, or, in 1863, he enlisted in Company A, Sixth Tennessee Regiment, and served until the surrender. He then learned civil engineering, following the same for years, and engineered the St. Louis & St. Joe Railroad; also the Missouri, Kansas & Topeks Railroad. In 1870 he came to Helena and built the Arkansas Midland Railroad, being chief engineer of the same. He then took charge of and reconstructed the gas-works, which were $8,000 in debt, got them in good shape and turned them over with $2,500 cash. He represents W. H. Brown & Co., at Pittsburg, the largest coal dealers in the world. He engaged in the hardware business in January, 1889, and is doing a good business, carrying a large stock of goods. Their coal business is an ertensive one, selling about 500,000 bushels annually. It is shipped both by river and railroad. He is a stockholder in the Fair Association. He was married in 1878 to Miss Maggie Lambert, and the fruits of this union have been three children: Maggie, Mattie and Bessie. Mr. Tappan is a member of the I. O. O. F. Lodge, and is one of the leading and prominent men of Helena. He has done a great deal in the way of improving the city.

Reuben Terry is a native of Kentucky, and a son of John and Jane (Gray) Terry, originally from Kentucky and Virginia, respectively. John Terry was born on April 3, 1801, and died in 1833 at Evanaville, Ind., while on his way from New Orleans. He was married on June 20, 1819. Renben Terry, his father, was of Irish descent and a native of Virginia. Reuben Terry, the principal of this sketch, was born in Bourhon County, Ky., on April 1, 1821, and at the age of sixteen commenced learning the carpenter's trade, which he followed for twenty years. He was married in Indiana, in 1847, to Miss Nancy Ann Shaver, who was born in Ripley County, that State, in 1828. She died in January, 1885, having been the mother of nine children, two of whom are still living: John W. (residing in Poplar Grove) and Albert (who resides in this county) Mr. Terry's second marriage was on June 11, 1889, to Miss Fannic Jones, who was born in Tennessee, August 22, 1858. In 1872 Mr. Terry engaged in the mercantile business at Turner, this county, taking his eldest son, J. W., in partnership, the firm being known as J. W. Terry & Co. They carry a stock of $4,000, and do a business of $12,000 to $15,000 annually. He has been portmaster of this village since 1879. In 1846 he enlisted in the Mexican War, serving under Gen. Taylor, and was discharged at New Orleans in June, 1847. He is a member of the Masonic and I. O. O. F. fraternities, and he and wife are connected with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

G. F. Thomin, M. D., physician and surgeon, Marvell, Ark. A. prominent physician and surgeon, who by his own sbilities has attained distinction in his profession, is Dr. G. F. Thomin. This gentleman was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1848, and is the son of Conrad Frederick Thomin, a native of Germany, who came to America in 1824. The latter settled in Cincinnati, and embarked in the milling business, which he still continues, [p.801] running a custom and merchant mill, although he is now seventy-seven years of age. He was married in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Miss Catherine Folenious, who is also living, and is now sixtyfour years of age. Both are members of the Old School Presbyterian Church. Of their family of five children, four are now living: Louisa (deceased, wife of Joseph Cohn, the family now residing in Hamilton County, Ohio), Fredericka (wife of B. Buell, of the same place), Eliza (wife of Robert Wade, who is the grandnephew of Gen. B. Wade, of Ohio. He also resides in Hamilton County), G. F., and Charles F. (who resides in Ohio). G. F. Thomin was reared in Cincinnati, Ohio, and attended the free schools of that place until six years of age, when his father moved in the country, to Venice on the Great Miami River. There he attended school until sixteen years of age, when he entered Hanover College (Indiana), graduating from the same at the age of twenty years. He then entered the Ohio Medical School the same year, and at the age of twenty-one graduated from the same. In 1865 he enlisted in the United States army as one of the Ohio State National Guards, commanded by Col. Fisher, of Cincinnati, and spent most of his time while in the army on the eastern coast of Virginia. He was a drummer boy, and was discharged at Camp Denison, Ohio. The Doctor commenced practicing at Millville, Ohio, where he remained for three years, and then moved to Northeast Missouri in 1872. He practiced at Williamston, Lewis County, and remained there until December, 1884, when he located at Marvell, in Phillips County, his present home, and still has his large practice. Although he has spent a comparatively short time in this county, he enjoys a large and lucrative practice, and from all appearances the confidence in his abilities is not misplaced. The Doctor has been twice married, his first wife being Miss Nautilla Woodyard, daughter of Col. M. D. Woodyard, whom he married in 1870. Col. Woodyard commanded the United States forces from Missouri, and was under Gen. Moore. To the Doctor and wife was born but one child, who died in infancy. Mrs. Thomin died in 1872 of consnmption. In 1874 Dr. Thomin married Miss Mamie K. Sprinkle, daughter of W. J. Sprinkle, of Canton, Mo., who was quartermaster under Gen. Moore. Doctor and Mrs. Thomin became the parents of three children: Ada, Frederica and Harry (deceased). The Doctor is a member of the Masonic fraternity. Marvell Lodge No. 369, of which he is Master, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church.

William Thompson, an extensive planter of Cypress Township, is a native of Tennessee, and was born in Williamson County October 22, 1821. He moved to Kentucky in 1843, and in 1855 to Greene County, Mo., coming in 1866 to this county. The first year he rented a farm, and the following year purchased a tract of wild land. Mr. Thompson was married in Kentucky about 1847 to Miss Henrietta. Roper, who was born in Kentucky in 1833. She is the mother of twelve children, ten of whom are still living: Joseph E. (married to L. F. Renfraw), William A., Sarah M. (widow of Robert Henderson), Lucretia (married to J. F. Jarrett), Anna (wife of F. Dawson), Henrietta B. (wife of William McKinley), Charles F., Laura, Allie and Alice (twins). They are the grandparents of twenty-two children. Mr. Thompson owns 320 acres of land, with 140 acres under cultivation. Though upon locating in this county he had but $1 in his pocket, he is now in good circumstances, and owns a wellimproved farm, stocked with cattle, mules and horses, Mr. Thompson, formerly a Whig, cast his first presidential vote for Henry Clay; he now votes the Democratic ticket. During the war he served as wagon master in the Confederate army for three years. He and wife and all but two of the children belong to th Baptist Church. Mr. Thompson is a model farmer, an old resident and a highly respected citizen.

Judge P. O. Thweatt, attorney at law. To undertake to introduce to our readers the subject of this sketch would be something entirely unnecessary, for his extensive acquaintance and long connection with the affairs of this county have rendered him well and popularly known. Born near Franklin, Williamson County, Tenn., October 10, 1834, he is a son of Harwood D. and Elizabeth [p.802] (Echols) Thweatt, who were of Welsh and English origin, and natives of the Old Dominion, their ancestors having settled in that commonwealth prior to the American Revolution. Both the paternal and maternal grandfathers participated in that war, and two of the Judge's paternal uncles died while serving in the War of 1812, and his mother's only brother died the next year of disease contracted at Pensacola. Harwood and Elizabeth Thweatt moved from Virginia to Tennessee in 1811, and located near Franklin, but in the year 1845 moved to Mississippi and settled in Yalobusha County, where both died on a farm. Two of their seven children are now living: Nichols and Judge P. O. The latter spent his youth and received his early education near what afterward became the battle-field of Franklin, he being an attendant of Harper's Academy, from which institution he graduated in 1856. From that time until 1859 he made his home in Mississippi, and at the latter date removed to Monroe County, Ark., where he spent some time in teaching school and studying law, being admitted to the bar at Clarendon, in March, 1860, and entered at once upon a successful career. His labors were interrupted, however, by the opening of the war, and in June, 1861, he went to Fort Smith and joined Churchill's regiment, but owing to his receiving a gunshot wound in the left leg, at the battle of Oak Hill, Mo., August 10, of that year, he was unfitted for active duty for the remainder of the war, but served as commissary. In 1862 he was elected county and probate judge of Monroe County, and served until the Federal troops took possession of the county, in 1863, when he went as a refngee to Texas and there remained until the war closed. In 1865 he returned to Clarendon, Ark., built him an office and resnmed his law practice. In 1866 he was elected prosecuting attorney of the First Judicial District, which extended from the Missouri line to the mouth of White River, and served until the reconstruction period, when he was removed from office. Having located at Helena, he practiced alone until April, 1870, then formed a co-partnership with Judge T. B. Hanley, continning until 1873, when he became associated with Hon. G. Quarles, which partnership lasted for about ten years. His professional career was one of gratifying success, and he has built up a reputation for ability that is not merely local, but extends over a wide range. He owns two good farms, each containing several hundred acres, and his farm on Old Town Ridge comprises 800 acres, of which 400 are in cultivation; and the one on Old Town Island comprises 320 acres, of which 220 are in a high state of cultivation, and on which is erected a fine steam cotton-gin. All this has been earned through practicing his profession. He was associated for some time with his brother, W. H. Thweatt, at Clarendon, but like himself the latter enlisted in the Confederate army, was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, in 1862, and died in 1864. The Judge is a Royal Arch Mason, has passed all the chairs in the Odd Fellows lodge, and is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Royal Arcanum and the Legion of Honor. His marriage, which occurred on February 23, 1870, was to Mary, the only daughter of Judge J. S. Hornor, and by her he is the father of three children: Bessie, Oscar and Re, who are living, and two dead. The Judge has now in his possession a Virginia land grant, dated 1735, to a tract of land in Prince George County, Va., signed by George II., and granting a large tract of land to his ancestors on the father's side.

Joseph Woodson Thompson, farmer, Marvell, Ark. A life-long experience in the channels of agricultural pursuits has contributed not a little toward the success which has fallen to the lot of Mr. Thompson, who is acknowledged by all to be one of the enterprising and substantial citizens of the county. He is the owner of 370 acres of excellent land, and has 140 acres under cultivation, with a good orchard, fine buildings, etc. He was originally from Williamson County, Tenn., where his birth occurred on March 3, 1826, and is the son of Joseph Lee Thompson, and grandson of William and Rachel Thompson. The grandparents moved from North Carolina to Williamson County, Tenn., when Joseph was six years of age, and there he grew to manhood. William Thompson was of Scotch descent, and he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Joseph Thompson was married [p.803] in Williamson County, Tenn., to Miss Sarah Adams, a native of Blount County, Tenn., born in 1800; she died in 1877, in Phillips County, Ark. He moved from Tennessee to Greene County, Mo., in 1856, and from there to Phillips County, Ark., in 1862. There he died July 3, 1874. They were the parents of eight children, five now living: William (in this county), Joseph W., John L. (resides in Greene County, Mo.), Mary (widow of Mr. Carter, and now resides in Fulton County, Ky.) and Samuel H. (in Monroe County, Ark.). Joseph Woodson Thompson was the third in order of birth of the children born to his parents. He attained his growth and received his education in Williamson County, Tenn., and in 1854 he went to Greene County, Mo., where he resided eight years,

engaged in farming. He then enlisted in the Confederate army, in May, 1861, in Company A of the State service, and in 1862 entered the regular army in Company B, Hawthorn's regiment of infantry. About February, 1863, he was discharged on account of disability. He was in the fights of Pea Ridge and Oak Hill. After his discharge he came to this county, and here he has resided ever since. He was married here on March 27, 1882, to Mrs. Helen Pasley, a native of Phillips County, Ark., and the fruits of this union has been one child, Woodson Lee. Mrs. Thompson was born in 1852 as the daughter of William and Laura Thompson, both of whom died when their daughter was about two years old. They were married in this county, and after their death Helen was reared among strangers. She was married about 1875, to Harvey J. Pasley, who died in 1877, leaving one child, Harvey C., who now resides with Mr. and Mrs. Thompson. Mr. Thompson is Demonratic in his political views, and his first presidential vote was cast for Z. Taylor. At one time he was a Whig. Mr. Thompson is a member of the Masonic order, Marvell Lodge No. 369, Royal Arch Chapter at Clarendon, Monroe County, Ark., and is also a member of the K. of H.

Mrs. Emma Ann Turner is the widow of Nathan S. Turner, who was born in Caswell County. N. C., December 28, 1825, as a son of Edmund and Mary (Slade) Turner, also natives of Caswell County. The paternal grandfather, Edmund Turner, originally from Maryland, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and was one of the early settlers of North Carolina. He was of English descent. Edmund Turner, Jr., removed from North Carolina in 1844, going first to Tennessee, then to Missouri, where he remained ten years, then to Mississippi, and in 1857 came to Phillips County, Ark., where he died the following year, his wife dying the same month. They were the parents of five children, two of whom only are living. Nathan S. Turner and the subject of this sketch were married in Mississippi January 7, 1852. He came to this county in 1856, and embarked in farming, and was one of the influential men of the county. He was a member of the Masonic order, in which he had taken the Royal Arch degree, and was a prominent Democrat. He died on February 28, 1874. Mrs. Emma Turner was born in Currituck County, N. C., on September 30, 1838, her parents being Daniel B. and Nancy (Gray) Lindsey, also of that county. They were married in their native State, and resided in Currituck County until 1840, when they moved to Hardeman County, Tenn., remaining five years. After removing to Mississippi, in 1856, they came to Arkausas, and located in this county. Mr. Lindsey afterward went to St. Francis County, where he died in 1868, at the age of sixty years. His wife was born in 1816, and died in December, 1858, in Monroe County, Ark. They were the parents of nine children, four of whom are still living—one son in Texas, one son in Mississippi, a daughter in Faulkner County, Ark., and the principal of this sketch. Mrs. Turner owns 285 acres of land, near the village of Poplar Grove, of which 200 acres are under cultivation. She also owns twenty-two town lots. She is now engaged in keeping a boarding house, which is largely patronized. She is the mother of two children, William T. and John B.

Nathaniel Berry Turner, a large planter of Clypress Township, is a native of South Carolina, and is the owner of 1,320 acres of land, with over 400 acres under cultivation. Besides being the owner of a steam cotton-gin, which he erected in 1873, he is quite an extensive stock-raiser, and the largest [p.804] hay producer in his township. His principal crop is corn and cotton, of the last of which he raises from 100 to 160 bales annually. He was born in South Carolina, March 7, 1834, and is a son of John and Nancy (Cooper) Turner. John Turner, a native of South Carolina, died in that State in 1855. His father, Joseph Turner, was a Virginian by birth. The mother of our subject, originally from South Carolina, died in May, 1871. She bore a family of eleven children, five boys and six girls, three of whom are living in South Carolina, one in Alabama, and three in this county. The rest are now deceased. The subject of this sketch remained in his native State until 1859, when he came to Arkansas, and located in Phillips County. Here he was married, in 1868, to Miss Ellen McDowell, who was born in Mississippi, in 1847. They are the parents of eleven children, eight of whom survive: John L., Laura A., Nathaniel G., Ellis, James C., Nellie, Blanche and Liza Josie. Mr. Turner enlisted in June, 1862, in Company C, of Johnson's regiment, in which he served until the close of the war. He is a strong Damocrat, and one of the influential men of

his township. He has served as school director for six years, is a member of the County Wheel, and is a self-made man. When he came to this county he was employed as overseer of a gang of negroes, and had no property. Now he is one of the largest land owners in the county.

Capt. B. Y. Turner, farmer, Poplar Grove, Ark. Mr. Turner is recognized as a careful, energetic agriculturist of this community, and by his advanced ideas and progressive habits has done no little for the farming elements hereabouts. Originally from Tennessee, he was born in 1888, and is the youngest of five children, the fruits of the union of Edmond and Mary (Slade) Turner, natives, respectively, of Maryland and North Carolina. Edmond Turner moved to Tennessee about 1837, but after a residence there of one year moved to Greene County, Mo., and settled near Springfield in 1839. Springfield was at that time a very small place, the principal merchant being Daniel P. Berry, and only two or three business houses were there at that time. The section of country between that place and the Arkansas line was very sparsely settled, and Mr. Turner was among the pioneers of that county. He remained there sixteen years, and in 1855 came to this county, settling where his son, Capt. B. Y. Turner, now lives, and on a portion of this land the city of Poplar Grove was laid out in 1878. When Mr. Turner first purchased this farm there were but thirty acres cleared, and at the time of his death he had improved only forty or forty-five acres. He died in 1858. Of the five children born to his marriage only two are now living: W. C. (who resides in California and is extensively engaged in farming and stock raising) and B. Y. Turner. The mother of these children died in 1858, within a few days of her husband. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity. B. Y. Turner was reared and educated principally in Marshall County, Miss., whither his father had moved in 1851. He attended graded school at Oxford, Miss., for two years, and afterward came with his father to this State, where he studied medicine under Dr. R. G. Dunn, and attended his first lectures at Louisville Medical College in 1855. He never practiced to any great extent, but spent the time between 1856 and 1861 engaged in farming. In the last mentioned year he joined a company known as the South Western Guards, as a private, and

was elected lieutenant, and upon its organization was promoted to the rank of captain. After his company was joined to the Second Arkansas Infantry, Capt. Turner was engaged in the following battles: Green River, Shiloh, Corinth (1st) and Iuks. After the last named battle he was transferred to the west side of the Mississippi River and served in Dobbins' brigade, under Gen. Price. He was in the battles of Helena and Big Creek, and at the last place was wounded by a minie-ball in the left leg, which disabled him for some time. He was with Gen. Price through Missouri, and participated in most of the battles fought during that time. He surrendered and was paroled at Helena in July, 1865. Capt. Turner then returned home and found himself a poor man, his property consisting of two six-shooters and a black horse. He [p.805] was not discouraged, however, and went to work at tilling the soil. He is now the owner of 400 acres of land, with 250 acres under cultivation, and is also the owner of a large cotton-gin and grist-mill combined. He gins annually 500 bales of cotton, and produces from his farm seventy bales annually. In 1867 he was elected sheriff (this was the first election held after the war), but was disqualified by the new constitution of 1868. Ten years later he was elected to the same office and filled this office in a highly creditable manner until 1884. Mr. Turner has been three times married; first, in 1859, to Miss Fannie Swan, who died the same year. In 1869 he married Miss Virginia A. Cowley, daughter of Edward A. Cowley, who was one of the early county and circuit clerks of Phillips County, and one of the old pioneers of Helena. To Mr. and Mrs. Turner were born two children: Edward B. (died at the age of nine years) and Virginia (who died at the age of six years). Mrs. Turner died in 1875. She was a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church. In 1879 Mr. Turnor was united in marriage to Miss Ella B. Renfro, of Phillips County, and daughter of W. H. and A. A. Renfro, natives of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Turner became the parents of two children: Renfro H. and Bartlett Y., Jr. Mr. Turner is a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church, and is a member of Poplar Grove Lodge of the K. of H. He is a Democrat in his political views, and is a prominent citizen. Mr. Turner is a member of the American Legion of Honor, Hendrix Lodge No. 737.

James R. Turner, livery merchant, Poplar Grove, Ark. This stable, from the large business it does, not only exemplifies the importance of the town, but reflects credit on its management. Mr. Turner engaged in this business near where he is now located, at the age of twenty-one years, and in 1873 he moved to his present place of business, having built the first business house in the village, and started the first general store. He was also appointed postmaster in his twenty-first year, and served in that capacity for twenty years. At the time he was appointed postmaster he was elected justice of the peace, which office he retained for eight years. In January, 1868, he married Miss R. N. McCoy, a native of Phillips County, born on Christmas day, 1851, and the daughter of John and J. E. (Howard) McCoy, natives of Kentucky, who came to this State in 1840. Mr. McCoy was a short time in the Confederate army, and died in 1864. Mrs. McCoy afterward, in 1872, was united in marriage to M. A. Stripline, of this county. He died in 1877, and Mrs. McCoy now resides with her son-in-law, James R. Turner. To the latter's marriage were born seven children, four now living; Robert N., Daisy, Eva and Templin. Three died when small. Mr. Turner is a member of the Masonic fraternity, La Fayette Lodge No. 97, and he and wife are members of the K. & L. of H., Poplar Grove Lodge No. 518, he being Treasurer of the same. Mrs. Turner is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. Turner is an earnest worker for emigration, and is a member of the

county emigration body called the Phillips County Emigration Society. He was born in Phillips County, Ark., in 1848, and is the third of nine children born to the union of W. R. and Elizabeth F. (Ewett) Turner, and the only one now living. The father came to this county from Maryland in 1836, settled near Helena, which was then only a small trading point, and when Indians were numerous. He bought land and tilled the soil the principal part of his life, and at one time, previous to the war, was the owner of a number of negroes. He was one of the pioneer settlers, and helped to open nearly every public road in the county. He served as justice of the peace previous to the late unpleasantness, and was for those days one of the best-educated men in the county. He was born in 1818 and died in 1877. He served for a short time in the Confederate service before the close of the war. He was twice married, first, in 1843, to the mother of the subject of this sketch, who died in 1862, and in 1863 to a sister of his first wife, Martha A. Ewett, who bore him three children, two of whom are now living: J. C. (in the store of James R. Turner) and Mrs. Emma F. Pearson (of Poplar Grove.) Mrs. Turner resides with her daughter, Mrs. Pearson.

Richard N. Venable, M. D., physician and surgeon, Poplar Grove, Ark. Among the people of Phillips, as well as surrounding counties, the name that heads this sketch is by no means an unfamiliar one, for, for many years he has been successfully occupied in the prosecution of his chosen profession. During this time his career as a practitioner and thorough student of medicine has won for him no less a reputation than has his personal characteristics as a citizen and neighbor. He was born in Virginia in 1828, and is the third of seven children, the result of the union of Henry and Margaret (Ried) Venable, natives of the Old Dominion, also. Henry Venable was a merchant and farmer of Virginia, and was postmaster of Prince Edward Court House (some member of this family has been postmaster at that place for over 100 years). He was a slave owner, having at one time fifty negroes, but devoted most of his time to merchandising. He died in 1856, in his fifty-eighth year, and Mrs, Venable died in 1870, at the age of seventy years. The maternal grandfather of the Doctor was sent by George III. to survey and sell a large tract of land, located close around Prince Edward Court House, Va. The maternal grandfather, Gilford Morton, was in the Revolntionary War, and was wounded at Guilford Court House, N. C. Of the seven children born to the marriage of Henry Venable, only three are now living, Dr. Venable being the eldest one, Andrew and Margaret (now Mrs. Hanna, of Prince Edward County, Va.). Andrew resides in Charlotte County. Dr. Venable was reared in Prince Edward County, Va., received his education at home until twelve years of age, when he entered the Washington University, later the University of Virginia, and in 1851 he entered the Jefferson Medical School of Philadelphia, graduating from the same. He then began practicing at Lynchburg, Va.; from there want to Minnesots, thence to Mississippi, and in 1876 came to Phillips County, Ark, where he settled near Poplar Grove. He has been twice married; first to Miss Caroline I. Craft, of Holly Springs, Miss., who died in 1876, and in 1883 he was united in marriage to Mrs. Wallace, who had been a resident of Phillips County for thirty years. Dr. Venable was in the Confederate service from 1862 to 1865, was surgeon of Baldwin's brigade and the Second Texas (Moore's) brigade. During the siege of Vicksburg he was transferred to another brigade, and remained with the same until the close of the war. He was engaged in numerous battles as field-surgeon, was taken prisoner at Vicksburg but was immediately paroled. He returned to Phillips County at the close of the war, and at once resumed his practice. Dr. Venable is a man who favors all public improvements for the benefit of his county, and favors all newcomers with a hearty welcome. He and Mrs. Venable are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, is a K. & L. of H., Myrtle Lodge No. 518. He is a prominent physician, and has a large practice.

B. B. Waddell, president and manager of the Citizens' Street Railway and superintendent of the Highland Improvement Company, was originally from Carroll County, Tenn., where his birth occurred on August 24, 1832, and is the son of Amos and Nancy (Pratt) Waddell, the father a native of Georgia and the mother of Virginia. The parents emigrated to Tennessee about 1820, were among the first settlers, and here the mother died. In 1849 the father moved to Southern Arkansas, locating in Ashley County, where he remained for several years. He then returned to Tennessee, where be passed his last days. He was a captain in the War of 1812. Their family consisted of eleven children, four now living: Dr. A. P., Mrs. Smith (of Tennessee), B. B. and Lucinda (in Texas). B. B. Waddell attained his growth and received his education in Tennessee. In 1849 he came with his father to Arkansas, but only remained a few weeks when he returned to Memphis and entered the law office of Judge Henry G. Smith. In 1853 he was admitted to the bar and is the only one of the Memphis bar admitted at that time who is now living. He practiced law at that place until 1866, with the exception of the time during the war, after which he gave up his profession and engaged in keeping hotel until 1873. In 1861 he entered the staff of Gen. Polk, was

transferred to Gen. Beauregard's staff, and remained [p.807] with the same until 1864, when his health failed and he returned to Memphis. While keeping hotel he was also engaged in laying the Nicholson pavement, and made other city improvements. In 1873 he went to St. Louis, embarked in the real estate business and remained there until 1880. He then engaged as general superintendent for Thomas G. Allen & Co., of Memphis, large real estate dealers, owning fifty-two plantations, and he remained interested in this business until 1887, when he came to Helena, and with other parties purchased a large interest here, which he is now superintending. He procured the franchise and laid the street railway in 1888, and this is now in a prosperous condition. Since his residence here he has consolidated his interest and formed the Highland Improvement Company, and purchased the large hills around Helena. He is now engaged in leveling the hills and making beautiful building sites of the same. Mr. Waddell is a progressive citizen and has always rendered his services of influence in Helena by many marked improvements. While living in Memphis he was principally engaged in the management of a large plantation in connection with his law practice. He was married at Denmark, Tenn., in 1856, to Miss Fannie Tarber, by whom he has four children: Tarber, Lizzie, Paul and Anna. He is a member of the Episcopal Church.

Capt. D. R. Weedman, farmer, Poplar Grove, Ark. Mr. Weedman, one of the leading farmers of Marion Township, first saw the light in Breckinridge County, Ky., in 1833, and is the third of ten children, the result of the union of Stephen and Mary A. (Gilbert) Weedman, natives of Kentucky and Virginia, and of German-English parentage, respectively. The paternal grandfather came from Germany to America when a small boy. Stephen Weedman was a farmer and house carpenter by occupation, and followed this the latter part of his life. He was among the early settlers of Grayson County, Ky., and died in 1866, at the age of sixty years. Mrs. Weedman still lives in Meade County, Ky., is eighty-nine years of age, enjoys perfect health, and is a member of the Baptist Church, of which her husband was also a member. Of the ten children born to their marriage only six are now living: Addison (resides in Kentucky), Amos (also resides in Kentucky), D. R., Mordecai, Miram (both residing in Kentucky), Jacob (deceased), William (deceased), Francis (resides in Kentucky), Martha (deceased), and Mary (wife of George Brands). D. R. Weedman was early taught the duties of farm life, and received his education in Breckinridge County, Ky. At the age of twenty-one years he commenced life for himself as a flat-boatman, and also learned the trade of ship carpenter. While engaged in the flat-boat business he carried on the building of flat-boats, following the same for ten years, or until thirty-one years of age. He then joined the Confederate army, Company F, First Kentucky Regiment, as a private, and was elected second lieutenant at the organization of the company. From that he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, and participated in the following battles: Stone River, Chickamauga, Dalton and all the cavalry fights in that section. From Dalton he went to Atlanta, Greensboro, N. C., and here his brigade was detailed as escort for Jefferson Davis and Gen. Breckinridge, and remained with them until the surrender on May 8th. This regiment was the last guard to Mr. Davis. Capt. Weedman has in his possession one of the silver dollars paid him by the Confederate States Government, just before his surrender, and has inscribed on it the following: "Last payment, C. S. A., Washington, Ga., May 8, 1865," and on the other side is, "D. R. Weedman, 1st Ky. Cav." At the termination of hostilities Capt. Weedman went to his home in Kentucky and remained in that State from June, 1865, to May, 1869, when he engaged at his trade, and also followed agricultural pursuits. He than came to Phillips County and worked at the carpenter's trade for four years. In 1874 he bought eighty acres of land, with sixty acres improved, but has since sold that, and is now the owner of 250 acres with 200 acres under improvement. The Captain was married in 1879 to Mrs. Martha A. Connelly, nee Thompson, of this county, and a native of this State, which union resulted in the birth of two children, only one, George, now living. Mr. Weedman [p.808] is a member of the K. of H., Poplar Grove Lodge No. 2442, and Mrs. Weedman is a member of the K. & L. of H., Myrtle Lodge No. 518, both lodges of Poplar Grove. Capt. Weedman, like the majority of his neighbors, favors all public improvements for the benefit of his county, and extends a liearty welcome to all emigrations of whites, no matter of what nationality.

L. J. Wilkes, grocer, Helena, Ark. There are several houses in this city that are thoroughly typical, not alone of the comprehensive growth and increasing importance of Helena as the supplying center of the growing West, but whose career is a source of public pride, delineating as they do the general business enterprise and commercial sagaity of some of our leading citizens. Such a concern is that conducted by Wilkes & Ford which was established under the firm title of Wilkes & Ford in 1884. They carry a full line of groceries, etc., and are doing a good business. Mr. Wilkes was born in Putnam County, Ga., on October 25, 1852, and is the son of Rev. T. U. Wilkes, a Baptist minister who came to Arkansas about 1861, and located at Trenton, where he passed the closing scenes of his life. The mother died in Georgia. L. J. Wilkes was quite small when he came to Arkansas, and here he grew to manhood, receiving a limited schooling at Trenton, Ark. In 1871 he came to Helena and was employed as a clerk for several years. Being economical he saved money and in 1876 went into the business for himself, taking a partner. As above stated, he formed a partnership with Mr. Ford in 1884, and they are now doing a thriving business. Mr. Wilkes is a stockholder in the Home Mutual Building & Loan Association and is a wide-awake and thoroughgoing business man. He was married in 1876 to Miss Mary Jaquess, daughter of Dr. G. D.

Jaquess, of Indiana, and the result of this union has been three children: George R., Luther J. and Louisa. Mr. Wilkes is a member of the First Baptist Church, his wife a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Giles W. Wilkes, a well-known colored citizen of Big Creek Township, Phillips County, and extensively engaged in planting, was born in North Carolina about the year 1833. He was reared in Georgia and came to Phillips County, Ark., in 1861, ten years later purchasing the plantation on which he now resides. This consists of 580 acres, with 250 acres cultivated, and his spirit of progression has made his farm one of the most carefully cultivated in the community. He has many modern improvements, a good house, out-buildings, and the general impression given to the observer is that thrift and prosperity abound. Mr. Wilkes was first married, in 1866, to Miss Salina Scaile, of South Carolina, who died in 1885, having borne one child. One year later Mr. Wilkes was married to Mrs. Mary Joyce, who has two children by her former marriage: Mary and Anna. By her union with Mr. Wilkes she is the mother of two children living: Luther and James. Mrs. Wilkes owns in her name 250 acres of land, making a total of 830 acres under the skillful and efficient management of Mr. Wilkes. Himself and former wife were members of the Colored Missionary Baptist Church. The present Mrs. Wilkes is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Wilkes is a Republican in his political views, having cast his first vote for U. S. Grant. He is n honest and industrious citizen, liberal in all his contributions to worthy enterprises, and is quite wealthy.

S. A. Wooten, wholesale and retail grocer, Helena, Ark. The grocery trade is one of the most important departments of commerce all the world over, representing as it does the staple article of consumption. In Helena it is somewhat extensively carried on, the establishments being of a general representative character. Prominent among those engaged in this trade are Messrs. Wooten & Co., who are classed among the most successful business men of Helena. S. A. Wooten owes his nativity to Tipton County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1858, and he is the son of Arthur and Eliza Wooten, both of whom died when our subject was an infant. He was given a good common-school education in Tennessee, and there remained until fourteen years of age, when he came to Helena, Ark. He was from early youth a boy of strong will power, and his greatest desire [p.809] was to rise higher in position. He first sought employment as a clerk in a store, followed this for a number of years, and gave the best of satisfaction to his employers. Being industrious and economical he saved some money, and in 1882 embarked with his brother Charles in the mercantile business, but continued but a short time when each started out for himself. S. A. was in partnership with others for some time, and is now considered one of the leading grocers of Helena, doing an extensive trade in both the wholesale and retail. He was married in 1882 to Miss Cora Eddins, a native of Tipton County, Tenn., and three children were born to this union: Katie, Floy and Shadie. Mr. Wooten is a member of the A. O. U. W. and the Golden Rule. He carries $2,000 insurance in the Travelers, $1,000 in the Manhattan and $2,000 in the New York Life Insurance Company.

George W. Yancey has been a resident of Phillips County since sixteen years of age. He owns a farm of 140 acres, with ninety acres under cultivation, situated three and one-half miles southwest of Trenton, his principal crops being corn and hay, and he is also breeding horses, mules and cattle, which he finds to be one of the lucrative branches of agriculture. Mr. Yancey was born in Virginia, on July 4, 1855, and is a son of James E. and Mary E. (Waller) Yancey, also natives of that State. They removed to Kentucky in 1859, then to Illinois in 1867, and 1870 came to this county, engaging in farming. James E. Yancey was born in 1813, and was a son of Charles Yancey, a native of Virginia, and of English descent. He died in 1875, on the farm on which the principal of this sketch now resides. Mrs. Yancey is still living and resides with her son. She was the mother of nine children. George W. Yancey was married in 1876, to Miss Viola Crenshaw, who was born in this county in 1859. She is the mother of four children, two of whom are living: Winnie, William J. (deceased), Ann (deceased) and Berton C. Mr. Yancey is a member of the Knights of Honor, and is a Democrat in politics, having cast his first presidential vote for Tilden in 1876.

Simon Krow was born in Prussia in 1837, and emigrated to this country when seventeen years of age, locating in Cincinnati, where he was employed as book-keeper for several years. He then went to St. Louis and engaged in the mercantile business, going in 1860 to Memphis, Tenn., where he was engaged in the same branch of trade for five years. In 1865 he came to Arkansas and devoted his attention to buying cotton along the Arkansas River, trading in this manner from Fort Smith to the Mississippi. Four years later he came to Trenton andagain entered into the mercantile business, in which he is still occupied, carrying a stock of from $25,000 to $30,000. He has a large and increasing trade and well deserves his success. Mr. Krow is a member of the Masonic order, and also of the Knights of Honor. In addition to his mercantile interests he is interested in the real estate business and owns considerable property, and is one of Trenton's influential and prominent citizens.

The following extract from the speech of Hon. Theodoric F. Sorrells, delegate to the Denver Deep Water Convention, as delivered before the Arkansas legislature, is deemed of sufficient importance to occupy the best attention of the readers of the present volume:

Gentlemen of the General Assembly: In obedience to the announcement made to-day I appear before you to address you upon the great commercial question of the age, and one to be carried out by this generation, and I do thank you for the courtesies thus extended to me in tendering me this hall for the purposes of this occasion, that I might have an opportunity of giving you a short account of my stewardship as your representative to the Denver convention in August last, as well as my views touching the probable results of the meeting of said convention. I was appointed by Gov. Simon P. Hughes as a delegate to the Inter-State Deep Water Harbor Convention at Denver, Colo., which was held there August 28, 29, 30, and 31, 1888. This, to my mind, is the most important step that has been taken in forty years, and one in the right direction, and was held at a suitable time, when gentleman from every portion of the Trans-Mississippi States had an opportunity to attend and participate in the deliberations of the said cenvention, who may have desired to take a part in its permanent organization. No country occupied by civilized man has been suffering more than the Trans-Mississippi States for the want of a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, so as to make a convenient outlet for the Trans-Mississippi States to the sea.

THE inhabitants of the Trans-Mississippi States must be aroused from their commercial inactivity and change their mode of operation, and prepare for a different and more convenient commercial existence; and with a view to that end the convention assembled with 750 delegates from all the Trans-Mississippi States. After four days and night's labor the convention adopted the following resolutions:

WHEHEAS, it is the sense of the States of Texas. Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas, Californla and Nevada, and of the Territories of New Mexico, Wyoming, Utah, Arizona, Dakotu and Indian Territory, in convention assembled at Denver, Colo., under the call of his excellence, Alva Adams, governor of the State of Colorado, that the commercial, agricultural, mining, manufacturing and stock interests of all that part of the United States lying west of the Mississippi River, and the commercial and naval advantages of our country generally, demand a permanent deep water port on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico; therefore be it

Resolved,

1. That the senators and representatives in Congress, from the States hereinbefore referred to, and the delegates from the Territories herein set forth, be and they are hereby most earnestly requested to procure at once a permanent available appropriation of the amount [p.811] necessary to secure a deep water port on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the 931 west longitude, capable of admitting the largest vessels, and at which the best and most accessible harbor can be secured and maintained in the shortest possible time and the least cost.

2. That for the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing resolutions, committees to consist of five from each State and three from each Territory representative in this convention, be appointed by their respective delegations; that it shall be the duties of said committees to see that the object of said resolutions be properly presented and vigorously urged before Congress, and to that end and with the view of co-operation and concert of action the chairman of the respective committees shall be and they are hereby constituted and created a central committee.

3. That the States and Territories and commercial bodles represented in this convention approve the idea of securing deep water on the gulf coast of Texas by private capital, and they do hereby respectfully request and respectfully urge their senstors, representatives and delegates in Congress to lend their united support to such bills as may be introduced for such purpose with proper safeguards for the protection, of the government, provided that the port or point suggested be one desirable for the location of a deep water harbor.

WHEREAS, the need of a deep water harbor on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico directly and vitally affects nearly one-fourth of the people of the United States, we deem the requests contained in the foregoing resolutions of such great and paramount importance as to justify their early reference to the official notice of the president of the United States, in order that he may be duly and fully informed, and be able, as contemplated in the Constitution of the United States, to "give to Congress information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;" therefore be it

Resolved, that a copy of the foregoing resolutions be transmitted to the president of the United States, and that he be requested to make in his next annual message to the Congress of the United States such recommendations with reference to the location of a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico as to him shall seem proper and expedient.

WHEREAS, it is of vital importance to all that vast region of our country between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean, including Minnesota, Oregon and Washington Territory on the north, and Arkansas, Texas and California on the south, that a harbor deep enough to float any vessel that sails the ocean, and ample enough to protect the fleet that will be required to handle the commerce of this whole region of country, nearer to it than any other Atlantic seaport, be constructed on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico as soon as practicable; and

WHEREAS, such a harbor is of such great national importance that it is worthy of an ample appropriation from Congress for its construction; and WHEREAS, we have already adopted a request to the present members of Congress to favor such appropriations, but would make that request more emphatic; therefore, Resolved, that the legislatures and people of all the States and Territories included in the region described be earnestly requested to elect no senators, representatives or delegates to Congress, except such as are known to be heartily in favor of such an appropriation, and will earnestly and faithfully work for it until such a harbor is completed.

After the adoption of the above resolutions and the appointment of the general committee and the State executive committees, the general committee adjourned to meet in the city of Dallas, Tex., on October 17, 1888, and a quorum being present the committee formulated and adopted the following act, to be presented to Congress:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled:

Section 1. That the President be and is hereby empowered and requested to appoint three engineers of the army and two engineers from civil life, who shall proceed to make a careful and critical examination of the coast of Texascand select the most eligible point for a deep water harbor, to be of ample depth, width and capacity to accommodate the largest ocean-going vessels and the commercial and naval necessities of the country, said selection to be made at one of the present ports or at a different place if the commission find one more eligible for the purposes above indicated.

Section 2. That the sum of $10,000,000, or as much thereof as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby appropriated and made a permanent and available fund for the purpose of selecting such deep water harbor and constructing the same as soon as the selection shall be made.

Section 3. That the commissioners herein provided for, not in the employ of the Government, shall receive as compensation —– dollars per day, and their expenses while traveling.

Section 4. The money hereby appropriated to be paid out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated; said work to be conducted and the money expended under the direction of the secretary of war.

The reason I voted for the above act asking Congress to appropriate $10,000,000 is simply from the fact that I am opposed to the driblet system of appropriations for the improvement of rivers and harbors, for I do regard the system as having been a great drawback upon the improvement of our rivers and harbors now and heretofore so much needed. In consequence of the great and often ruinous delays caused too often by tacking appropriations for rivers and harbors on the general river and harbor bills, which is too often done by a system of demagogy, where each congressman wants some bayou or river opened up to give them a little brief local popularity that they may be returned to Congress. And so they frequently work for each other's local schemes to give each other local popularity, but with no advantage to navigation, but to the great injury of the country and the depletion of the Federal treasury.

Still this system is quite expensive and ruinous, because the work that is done under the driblet system frequently washes away between the appropriations. For instance, take the Mississippi River improvements. The unfinished levees wash away as fast as the appropriations are received; hence the labor bestowed, the money spent, and no permanent good results. For that reason I am in favor of making ample appropriations to commence and carry out the work to completion, without any delay, and for that reason I voted for an appropriation of $10,000,000, and would never be satisfied with anything less. What is $10,000,000 to such a great country as this? The difference in the price of freights in one year will more than pay for a first-class harbor on the Texas coast. But, before I commence the argument, I will say that I have no written speech prepared for this occasion, but my remarks will be drawn from my observation and study of this great commercial question for the last fifteen years, and I regret that I have not time to discuse this great question as its magnitude demands, but I will not weary your patience or impose upon your kindness and good nature. But I do unhesitatingly say that the question I present to-night is one of more importance than has been presented to the people of the Trans-Mississippi States in forty years, and without any further delay I will subdivide the question into three divisions.

The first subdivision of the question is: Do the inhabitants of the Trans-Mississippi States need a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico?

The second division of the question is: Can a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico be built?

The third division to the question is: What will be the results to the Western Hemisphere and to the world if built?

I will now proceed to dispose of the question as indicated, by each subdivision, as the same presents itself to my understanding, and say with great earnestness that the 15,000,000 of people embraced in the Trans-Mississippi States do greatly need a deep water harbor, a great commercial entrepot, somewhere on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico as an outlet, mart and market for the produce of that great country, to save the expense of the long railroad haul that those people in the Trans-Mississippi States have in order to reach the Atlantic seaboard with their produce raised in those States and Territories. The Trans-Mississippi States on 1, 132,245,113 acres of land, with a population of nearly 18,233,696, and an assessed value of property of $3,296,320,568, produced in the aggregate, in 1886, 715,791,000 bushels of corn, and shipped out of the counties where grown 315,677,940 bushels. The wheat crop of the same year amounted to 30,240,500 bushels, and the crop shipped out of the counties where raised, 22,393,270 bushels.

Now, in order to determine whether the country west of the Mississippi River needs a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, which question I think will be fully settled in the minds of all fair-minded men, whether they live in the East or West, as soon as I make a statement of the comparative distances and difference in the railroad haul from any given point in the Trans-Mississippi States to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic seaboard, which I will proceed to give. [p.813]

To Gulf Coast From–: Little Hock, Ark Miles.: 440

To Gulf Coast From–: St. Louis, Mo Miles.: 750

To Gulf Coast From–: San Francisco, Cal Miles.: 1820

To Gulf Coast From–: Topaka, Kas Miles.: 680

To Gulf Coast From–: Lincoln, Neb Miles.: 820

To Gulf Coast From–: Bismark, Dak Miles.: 1249

To Gulf Coast From–: Sanla Fe, N. M Miles.: 760

To Gulf Coast From–: Denver, Colo Miles.: 920

To Gulf Coast From–: Sult Lake City Miles.: 1200

To Gulf Coast From–: Helena, Mont Miles.: 1485

To Gulf Coast From–: Oregon City, Ore Miles.: 1885

To Gulf Coast From–: Carson City, Nar Miles.: 1480

From New York To—: Little Rock, Ark Miles.: 1080

From New York To—: St. Louis, Mo Miles.: 885

From New York To—: San Francisco, Cal Miles.: 2650

From New York To—: Topaka, Has Miles.: 1185

From New York To—: Lincoln, Neb Miles.: 1185

From New York To—: Bismark, Dak Miles.: 1865

From New York To—: Santa Fe, N. M. Miles.: 1735

From New York To—: Denver, Colo Miles.: 1020

From New York To—: Salt Lake Miles.: 1960

From New York To—: Montana Miles.: 1920

From New York To—: Oregon City. Miles.: 2440

From New York To—: Carson City Miles.: 2580

Hence the expense of rail haul to and from the Atlantic seaboard to the cities west of the Mississippi River to any point in the Trans-Mississippi States. That a great saving in the expense of transportation by bringing the consumer and producer in close proximity with each other, and such would certainly be the case with a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and by that means obtain much lower freight rates, which would cause the producer to obtain much greater increase of profits on the productions of their farms than they have been able to do when depending alone on European countries.

By reference to the trade of Central America, West India Islands, South America and Mexico, and the trade of Mexico with foreign markets, as will fully appear from the statement of surplus grains produced in the Trans-Mississippi States alone, is almost as much surplus of wheat and corn as the balance of the United States. The truth is that the Trans-Mississippi States, including the Pacific States, do furnish almost the entire export trade of the United States; and from an accurate estimate that has been made, giving the number of horses, mules, milch cows, sheep, hogs and cattle in the United States in 1887, it will be seen that the greater portion of live stock in the United States is now west of the Mississippi River, and the greatest production of meat of the United States is furnished by the Trans-Mississippi States and Territories.

A large portion of the trade from Europe to Mexico is at this time being carried through the ports of Corpus Christi and Galveston, and it is believed that the completion of the Mexican National Railway, that runs down Galveston Island, when connected with any railway running to the city of Mexico, will turn away much of the trade from Vera Cruz and bring the same down to a deep water harbor on the Texas coast, and a suitable harbor on the Texas coast would save 1,500 miles of transportation. And the trade of Northern Mexico will in the future greatly increase the commercial business and trade of the United States.

This opinion seems to be entertained by railroad men, as they seem to be pushing their lines toward Mexico. And an immense saving would be made in the long lines of through shipments. If there was a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, this would certainly control much of the trade of Mexico, because the same would pass through the ports on the Texas coast, there being no good harbor on the Mexican coast.

From the foregoing table of distances from the Texas gulf coast to the different points above indicated, and the difference between those points and a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic seaboard, the necessity of a deep water harbor in the interest of trade and commerce on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico seems to go without argument, for the opening of a gateway to the Gulf of Mexico is the commencement of a new commercial era. In the countries of North and South America, the West India Islands, Central America, Mexico and all the Trans-Mississippi States new commercial destiny that will attract the attention and consideration of the civilized world, and place in the hands of the American people the commerce of the world. Through this gateway to the Gulf of Mexico the future opens to the people of the Trans-Mississippi States a great harvest of wealth, and they are now beginning to learn the lessons before them and turn their trade away from Europe and Asia, and seek other markets, if necessity require, of their own creation in the southern climes of the Western Hemisphere, because there is an immense uncultivated country situated far beyond the control of our laws and constitution, an immense area of navigable waters, a gulf and a sea, destined to become the grestest commercial place in the Western Hemisphere, full of islands and the wealth of nature. All are struggling and striving to take an active part in the great commercial movement of this progressive age.

Still beyond there lies a vast continent, full of all that is valuable in nature; those continents and islands are our natural co-operators, and with us to become the world's benefactors, for with us under the present civilization our people are turned away from old Europe and Asia to distant continents in pursuit of trade and commerce. We are not familiar with the lands and waters of the Western Hemisphere that lie beyond and under the tropies. Our people ought to learn more of them. They have a longitudinal position in the Western Hemisphere. In the position they occupy with the people of the Trans-Mississippi States and in accordance with the requirements of a great natural commercial law of trade, mutual intercourse would maintain and wealth be amassed by exchange of products. Alexander the Great was compelled to earich his empires with the wealth of the tropics. He, with the great tide of human beings, moved from the

Persian gulf and built up great commercial harbors on the Mediterranean Sea, and thence onward to the Netherlands, and to-day has a controlling influence over England's commerce. Such we learn from history and the same has come down to us. Such a destiny now lies in sight of the people of the Trans-Mississippi States, and the rapid increase to 20,000,000 in the Trans-Mississippi States and from that to 40,000,000 in the next half century does certainly command the prompt action of those now living to make ready for the new trade and commerce now growing up between the two continents of the Western Hemisphere, and sttocess of trade and commerce will depend upon the co-operative movements between the two countries, one with the other. If we look back through history to ancient times we will find the world full of examples to stimulate us in this great commercial enterprise. We are only required to look back through history to that dark commercial age when commerce and trade commence its final struggle with the military under the feudal despotism of Europs and Asia; when five great commercial highways were opened and traveled from the Persian gulf to the commercial markets on the Mediterranean Sea, which were the great highways traveled by Phśneciana, Jews and the merchants of Alexandria to Constantinople and other cities.

Now, if it be true in those ancient days that nations were made wealthy by the trade of Africa and the East Indies, the prospects must be much greater for the people of the Trans-Mississippi States to enrich themselves by the trade of the West Indies, Central and South America and Mexico. The trade that now opens to the people of the Trans-Mississippi States is certainly a much broader field for human enterprise than Europe and Asia affords at this time, which they have only to cultivate to make the same a great ally in trade and commerce and not a rival in any of the chosen industries of the great Trans-Mississippi States. It is certain that the universal tendency of the race of mankind upon this globe has been to make the circuit of the world upon parallel lines with the equator, seeming as by instinct to follow the sun in his movement around the planet. It is also certain that the great wealth of former ages in other nations have been obtained from the tropics. No people have ever been vitalized by civilization who have failed to exchange earth's products with different latitudes and zones. The exchange of similar products do not enrich either country. The difference in products when exchanged will create wealth in both. For instance, there is no advantage derived by the exchange of the cotton of Tennessee for the cotton of Arkansas, or the tobacco of Kentucky for that of Virginia, for these are the products of each State; and no exchange can be made that will be profitable to either. It must appear to all fairminded men that the exchange of the products of the warm climate for those of the cold climate, such as corn, wheat, fruits and arts of industry of the North, for the sugar, coffee, cotton, rice and other productions of the South, that our people are to be mostly benefited in securing the rewards of their varied industries.

The circuit of the globe is now complete. Upon our land the chain of the world's empire has been finished; the conquest has been carried from the East to the West. Astonished at such a triumph, [p.815] the Anglo-Saron race now turns to new fields of labor on longitudinal lines. What else can be done in order to achieve their greatest possibilities in civilization and commerce? It seems to me that nothing else can be done in these progressive and grasping times. It does appear to me that man's travel on this globe has been to make the circuit of the same within the lines of the same temperature with his own home in the East; and the westward movement of the human race along the growth of progress and improvement corresponds with the movement of the sun in Zodiac. But the next great and important movement to be made must correspond to the second solar movement which is known in astronomy as the procession of the equinoxes. The varying of the sun in its ethereal pathway, what is known as the elliptic, creates the changes and variations in the seasons and revives the vegetable kingdom and causes everything to grow for man's happiness and comfort, and the varying and vibrating of the human race, north and south of the line of equal temperature, creates the immense wealth of the world and pushes forward civilization into every country.

For that reason the people of the Trans-Mississippi States have but to live in obedience to this great law of the universe to fultill the ends of their earthly mission. The development of these facts will at once completely reorganize the present system of exchange in the Trans-Mississippi States, as well as this continent, and decrease the importance of east and west railways in comparison to those running north and south, and railways running from any of the great commercial cities of the valley, Chicago, St. Louis or Kansas City, or other kindred cities, to the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean will sink into utter significance in comparison to those running north and south and uniting the lakes with the gulf. The truth is, one good railway connecting with a good harbor on the Guif of Mexico will be of more value to any one of the cities from which it may run than any Pacific railway that well can be built. For this reason it must appear to every candid mind that in less time than two years the trade with the West India Islands, Central and South America will be more valuable to the Trans-Mississippi States than all the trade they will have with Europe and Asia. This statement to some persons may seem remarkable. Nevertheless time will prove it to be true. In this I desire to be fully understood. I don't intend to say that the trade of the West Indies, Central and South America will be greater than the trade of Europe and Asia, but I do say that the time will come in the near future when the people of the Trans-Mississippi States will carry on more trade with the West Indies, Central and South America, than they will with Europe and Asia.

Now let me stop and argue the case, and see if I am not correct. As a proof I will state that the greater portion of the trade of the Trans-Mississippi States, as well as the entire Mississippi Valley, at present with Europe and Asia, is confined to such products as are produced in the country where they live; and in the same latitude are to be found in all North America, in much greater quantities, all those natural products that Europe and Asia have in the same latitude. For that reason may we not suppose that the time is near at hand when the people will produce out of the same kind of raw material such fabrics and implements as they may need in their varied industries? And for that simple reason our people will no longer be forced to go to Europe and Asia for such things as can be raised and manufactured at home. Then our people will only be required to go down to the elements we do not possess in order to carry on this trade with the commercial marts and markets of the world. This will of course lead them down to the tropical regions of the globe, and for that simple reason another evidence of the commercial destiny of the people of the Trans-Mississippi States, and the surplus producer of these States following the flow of the waters to the gulf, whether carried by river or by rail. Our trade with the warm climates of the Western Hemisphere is rapidly increasing; and to keep it on the increase demands liberal legislation and far-seeing statesmanship on the part of our congressmen. No man can calculate the value of our future commerce with the Central and South American States, the [p.816] West Indies and Merico, when these countries shall be more fully developed, the soils forced to produce and yield to their utmost capacity, the productions of which will mostly find its way to the Trans-Mississippi States. And whatever trade is carried on with Europe and Asia with the great Mississippi Valley must be done through the Gulf of

Mexico.

The construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, as well as the railroad from Panama to the City of Mexico, will most certainly bring the trade from the western slope and the Pacific Ocean through there and into the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, which is destined to become the great commercial place of the world, and thousands of ships comprising the fleets of all christendom will meet in this great commercial highway, which these waters will most certainly become.

But without a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico these things can never be; and with a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico the great commercial advantages can and will be accomplished in the near future as certain as any future event, the building of which is not a local matter, but of great national concern, being needful for national defenses, where she can erect her forts and fortifications to protect the sea coast, as we have much open coast along that line that is entirely unprotected, and the civilized world is alive to the fact that the United States has a poor navy.

I do hope I have convinced you of the necessity of a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico with ample sea room to accommodate the trade and commerce of the world. This is the great question, the all-absorbing question, the question of the hour with the people of the Trans-Mississippi States.

I am convinced that the thing can be done and that speedily, if Congress will make the required appropriation for that purpose, which I believe Congress will do if the people of the Trans-Mississippi States will unite and properly present the matter to Congress.

The next question to be considered is, can a deep water harbor be constructed on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico with ample sea room to accommodate the trade and commerce of the civilized world? The solution of the question, to my mind, is quite easy, if we are allowed to judge the future by the past, and for our purpose we will look back through history for 2,000 or more years and see what has been done beyond the seas. Have not the nations of the Old World spent millions upon millions of dollars in the improvement of their rivers and harbors? The Danube, Seine, Oder and other rivers? The harbor at Antwerp and the Amsterdam Canal? And have we not a more powerful nation than any that ever existed beyond the Atlantic? Besides vast sums of money expended by the nations of the Old World for the improvement of their rivers and harbors, none of which is equal, in commercial importance, to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Still our legislators hesitate to move forward in the development of this great country, as the situation demands, for the best interest of this generation and others to come.

I will call attention to two of the great canals of the globe, the character and magnitude of which require the deepest thought and the most profound consideration.

I will first mention the great imperial canal, of China, completed in the thirteenth century, which was 1,250 miles long, a distance from the northern lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, and the Chinese wall, which is 1,500 miles long. And during this century the Suez Canal was constructed, which carries the waters of the Red Sea through the Gulf of Suez into the Mediterranean Sea, which is the greatest commercial water highway for trade and commerce that has been made since the time of Pharaoh, when Joseph was carried down to Egypt. The said canal furnished more direct communication with the Eastern Hemisphere famous in those Trojan times. This canal is ninety-two miles long, twenty-six feet deep, its draught is twenty-five feet, it required thirteen years to construct it, was finished in 1869, at a cost of 17,026,000 pounds. It has a

capacity for barges 400 feet long.

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To the American legislator this great commercial enterprise looks wonderful, and the expense [p.817] almost beyond computation. But what are they to this great country and its needs? Which canal has only been completed twenty years, and has done more to civilize and Christianize the inhabitants of the Eastern Hemisphere in this short time than had been done in a thousand years before, by bringing the people of the Eastern Hemisphere in close proximity with each other, and thereby the morals, customs, habits and intelligence of the people were improved. Within the memory of men now living many improvements have been made on the American harbors. The Erie Canal has been constructed: Milwankee, Chicago, Buffalo, New York and many other great harbor improvements have been made, too tedious to mention in the brief time allowed me. The truth is there has never been a failure to improve any American harbor that has been undertaken. So I do unhesitatingly say that a deep water harbor can be constructed on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. There can not be a question as to the successful construction of such a harbor, if Congress will make the required appropriation, which I believe it will do, as I have before stated.

The next and last question to be considered is as to what will be the social, financial and commercial results to be attained by the construction of a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. There is one thing of which I do feel certain, that at whatever place shall be constructed a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, there will spring up from the sand beach one of the grandest cities in the great Southwest. It will become the great central city of the Western Hemisphere, and will soon become a grand commercial mart and market for the produce of the great new West, which is now on a boom from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The city that will be built up there will soon stand out as one of the most flourishing cities that will adorn the American continent. Such is to my mind the character of the city that will be erected there, and there stand for the admiration and glory of succeeding geuerations as they pass down the stream of time, through the long vista of ages to come. And as the inhabitants of the great Trans-Mississippi States will in future time stand on the wharves of this great coming city and look back along the pathway of bygone years, they will be ready to exclaim, as did the queen of Sheba when she visited Solomon, that "half had not been told by me to-night."

When we look back through the dim distance of former ages and take a view of the commercial marts of the ancients, those which by their commercial growth have left their footprints on the sands of time, which time can never wipe out or obliterate, and for whose supremacy and control empires have been gained and lost; when we look back through the ages to those ancient cities, see the resources that nourished and upheld them, we find that they were quite small compared to those that now cluster around, and will become tributary to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. See, for instance, who are to be her contributors from the land side, which extends from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Lake of the Woods, including eighteen States and Territories, embracing nearly one-third of the whole United States, every inch of which will be beneficiaries to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The inhabitants of this vast country has doubled every two years, and the population of this great country comprises one-fifth of the national population. But as great as has been the growth of this great country, the same is at this time in the infancy of its future greatness.

The productions of this country are almost beyond computation at this time, and to undertake to estimate what the future productions will be, no human foresight can discover the amount of traffic and tonnage that will in the future roll down from this great country on the great railways to the wharves of this great coming city. This great city will, in a few short years, grow up to 200,000 inhabitants, and those who live will be prond of it, and gratified in feeling that they have been concerned in the inauguration of this great commercial movement, and helped to lay the foundation for their future great central city of the Western Hemisphere.

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The interest and happiness of generations to come plead for its completion. Nature has pointed out the way the products of this grand and great country shall be carried to the markets of the world.

The great Creator has so arranged the mountains and the valleys between the Alleghenies and the Sierra Nevadas that the commerce of this great country, comprising the Trans-Mississippi States, shall pass down to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico to reach the markets of the world without being required to make a long and expensive "rail haul" with the immense produce of the great valleys across the Alleghenies or the Sierra Nevadas to reach the seaboards of the Atlantic on the east and the Pacific on the west.

The truth is, there is no limit to the argument that can be made on behalf of a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. It grasps like the seas and takes in all the shores (of the Western Hemisphere at least). A few more thoughts and I will hasten to the close of an unfinished argument upon the great commercial question now before this country.

I have now discussed this great question from the land side. It now becomes my duty to look out over and across the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean sea to the great countries that lie beyond, all of which will become tributary to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico, which will be Central and South America, West India Islands, Mexico and Cuba, which will soon belong to the United States by purchases from Spain. So will the commerce of China and Japan come through the harbor on the gulf coast as soon as the canal is constructed through the Isthmus of Panama. All these great countries will bring their commerce through a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Such a brilliant future is not offered to any other harbor now on the globe, and all that is required to bring these grand results is an ample appropriation by Congress to carry out this grand commercial enterprise, which will contribute so much to the glory and happiness of generations unborn, and will contribute largely to the growth and commerce of the great State of Arkansas.

As soon as the deep water harbor is established on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the bridge is built across the Mississippi River at Memphis there will be many great trunk lines of railways running from Memphis and St. Louis to the deep water harbor on the gulf coast, all of which will be forced to run through the State of Arkansas—no way to go around her. Then the southern portion of Arkansas and Northern Louisiana and Southeastern Texas will finally loom up and make Little Rock a great railroad center and an extensive manufacturing city. I might say at this point that a deep water harbor on the gulf coast of Texas will forever be more favorable to our export and import trade than any harbor on the Pacific coast. For this reason the produce of the great country lying between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean will never be carried to the city of San Francisco to be shipped to the markets of Europe, for they will not ship their produce from San Francisco across the Northern Pacific and beyond the equator into the Southern Pacific, and around Cape Horn over a perilous sea of 10,000 miles to reach the Atlantic Ocean to go to Europe, in order to avoid which they will bring their produce directly down to a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico to tide water, where they can

have free ocean to the markets of the world. For that reason the city of San Francisco can never compete with a deep water harbor on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico in point of trade and commerce, whether imports or exports. So all this contributes to the future greatness of a deep water harbor on the gulf coast of Texas, and then we shall have established a permanent trade and commercial relations with all the South American States, Cuba, the West India Islands, Central America and Mexico.

No ship that sails from either shore

While to and fro it plies,

But weaves the thread of friendship o'er

The gulf that 'twixt us lies.

The following corrections have been received since the publication of the various sketches to which they refer. The publishers regret the delay in return of biographies, thus necessitating this Errata:

page 139. Sketch of Robert W. Canada.

8d line. Change "for a period of time" to Aince January 29, 1836.

5th line. Malissa for Melissa.

22d line. Dialpha C. for Alpha C.

Page 140. Same sketch.

24th line. Four years instead of eight.

Last line, "1830" for "1838."

2d line (second column). After Tennessee add: Coming to Arkansas.

7th line. January for June.

8th line. Clerk for instead of a merchant in busfness with.

17th line. Trustee of instead of steward in.

At end of sketch add: Mr. Canada was one of the judges of election in six townships of White County when Arkansas was reconstructed in 1868.

Page 141. In sketch of William H. Carodine, name should be spelled Caradine throughout.

18th line (second column). James for Jones.

Page 142. Same sketch. After Church add: South.

Page 176. Sketch of John T. Hicks.

7th line. Lytle should be Lightle.

 

8th line. Twenty-eight instead of eighteen.

9th line. Read after Arkansas: "Previous to which he read law."

10th line. Read: "After coming to Searcy he began practicing," etc.

19th line. "1857" should he "1859."

Page 177. Same sketch.

11th line. "1846" should be "1856."

18th line. "1858" should be "1859."

15th line. Lytls should read Lightle.

17th line. Before Tennessee insert: Fayette County.

19th line. After Tennessee add: In 1859.