Biographical and Historical
Memoirs of Western Arkansas
Goodspeed Publishers, 1891

 

Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Eastern Arkansas

MONROE COUNTY–TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES–TAXATION, VALUATION, ETC.–BONDED INDEBTEDNESS–PRODUCTIONS–LIVE STOCK–HORTICULTURE–LOOATION–TOPOGRAFHY–VARIETY OF SOIL–DRAINAGE–STREAMS, ETC.–TIMBER–ORIGINAL OCCUPANOY–PIONEER SETTLERS AND FIRST HOMES–COUNTY ORGANIZATION–SEAT OF JUSTICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS–LIST OF OFFICIALS–POLITICAL ASPECT–POPULATION–COURT AFFAIRS–CIVIL WAR–TOWNS AND VILLAGES–SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES – PRIVATE MEMOIRS.

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Daniel Wylds, the son of David and Mary Wylds, natives of Georgia and Tennessee, respectively, was born in St. Francis County, Ark., in 1846. David Wylds, when eighteen years of age, enlisted in the War of 1812, serving through the entire period as orderly-sergeant of his company. About the year 1821 he moved to Arkansas, locating in St. Francis County, where he died at the age of seventy-four years, and it can be truly said that no resident of the county ever passed away who was more sincerely mourned than he. A genial and courteous gentleman, he was one whom it was a pleasure to meet, and his absence in business and social circles was always regretted. He was broad shouldered, well proportioned, with a shrewd, kindly face that was more remarkable for its intelligence and keenness than for its beauty of features. He was a sympathetic listener to the sorrows and ills of the poor and needy, and no one ever told his tale in vain, or went from his home empty-handed. At the time of his removal to Arkansas it was almost a wilderness, and had not then reached the dignity of being a State. He began opening a farm, working under difficulties incident to that period, such as few, if any, of the present generation realize. They had to put up bear meat in winter to do them through the summer. It required a man of nerve and indomitable courage to undertake the work that he did, and his thrift and perseverance formed a oundation for the home of beauty and plenty that Daniel Wylds now enjoys. It should be added in this connection, however, that the wealth and accumulation of property was not all inherited by the son, for he began for himself at the age of twenty years. Possessing in a large degree his father's ambition and energy, he chose for his profession that most independent of all vocations–farming, and has continued it ever since. He has been remarkably successful in amassing property, and now owns large landed estates of over 1,168 acres, aside from being an extensive stock raiser. He is considered one of the wealthiest men in the county. When seventeen years of age, Mr. Wylds enlisted in Company K, Dobbin's regiment, Confederate States army, participating in several battles, and receiving a wound at the battle of Jefferson City, Mo.; he was taken prisoner to Illinois, remaining there until March of 1865, when he was exchanged at Eichmond, Va., and again captured in April, 1865, following, then receiving his parole. After the war he started for home, but was obliged to make more than two-thirds of this distance on foot. Mr. Wylds was married in 1872 to Virginia I. Thompson, a daughter of William and Mahala J. Thompson, natives of Virginia. To their union five children were born: Charles A., Wilmoth O., Mary E. (deceased), Daniel T. and Allen G. Mr. Wylds' mother, who was a lovely woman, came to St. Francis County in 1816, when only eight years old, and made it her home until she died, at the age of sixty-six, a Christian and philanthropist. In politics our subject is a Democrat, and in secret [p.506] societies is identified with the Knights of Honor. In religions faith he is a Presbyterian. Mrs. Wylds is a member of the Baptist Church. He has always been a consistent and liberal contributor to the cause of religions and educational movements, and his private charities are numerous and judicious. He has worthily followed in the footsteps of his honored father, whose favorite text was, "God loves the cheerful giver." His ideas of charity are indeed broad.

Ill fares the land, to hastening ill a prey,

Where wealth accumulates and men decay.–Campbell.

MONROE COUNTY has better shipping facilities than any other county in the State. The St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Railway enters it from the north and runs thence in a southerly direction, bearing a little westward for a distance of thirty-two miles, passing via Brinkley and Clarendon. The Little Rock & Memphis Railroad crosses the northern portion of the county, its length therein being fifteen miles. The Batesville & Brinkley Railroad commences at Brinkley, and runs in a northerly direction to Newport, its length of line here being about eight miles. The Arkansas Midland Railroad commences at Clarendon and traverses the county a distance of seventeen or eighteen miles in the direction of Helena, its eastern terminus. The Brinkley, Indian Bay & Helena Railroad is completed from Brinkley south to Pine City on the Arkansas Midland, a distance of twenty-five miles, and will have several miles more in the county when finished through. There are now nearly 100 miles of finished railroad within these limits. Aside from the shipping facilities by rail, Monroe has the advantages of the navigation of White River, a most excellent outlet for heavy products.

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In 1880 the real estate of the county was valued for taxation at $836,130, and the personal property at $299,612, making a total of $1,135,-742; and the total taxes charged thereon for all purposes were $36,002. In 1888 the real estate was assessed for taxation at $870,497, and the personal at $858,254, making a total of $1,728,751. This shows that of the real estate the assessed valuation was not much increased from 1880 to 1888, but the value of the personal property nearly thribbled, and the aggregate taxable wealth increased over fifty-two per cent. The total taxes levied in 1888 were $59,222.59. With the personal property of the latter year, the railroads were assessed as follows: St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas, [p.508] $261,570; the Batesville & Brinkley, $29,505; Little Rock & Memphis, $119,390; the Arkansas Midland, $63,020, making a total of $473,485. The assessment of the Brinkley, Indian Bay & Helena line when completed will add largely to the value of railroad property. The property of the Western Union Telegraph Company was assessed for taxation at $2,600.

In accordance with a decision of the people, expressed at a special election held May 23, 1871, the county subscribed $100,000 to the capital stock of the Arkansas Central Railway Company, and bonds to that amount were afterward issued. This has been a burden to the tax payers of Monroe County, but the bonds are mostly paid. The total indebtedness of the county as shown by report for the year ending July 6, 1889, was $53,800.07, and the assets in the treasury amounted to $18,468.81, thus leaving a net indebtedness of $35,331.26. A part of the bonded indebtedness is payable by Lee County, a portion of that county having been embraced in Monroe when the bonds were issued. The Arkansas Central Railway was the former name of the present Arkansas Midland.

In 1880 the census showed Monroe County to have 952 farms and 51,238 acres of improved lands. The value of the farm products for the year 1879 amounted to $783,470, the yield of certain products having been as follows: Cotton, 14,106 bales; Indian corn, 208,667 bushels; oats, 13,995 bushels; wheat, 200 bushels; orchard products, $50.20; hay, 511 tons; Irish potatoes, 6,193 bushels; sweet potatoes, 14,128 bushels; tobacco, 2,590 pounds. These figures show that cotton was then, as now, the staple product, and corn the next in order; also, that but very little attention was then paid to the growing of wheat. This is not surprising, for it is not prudent to try to raise wheat in a country not adapted to its cultivation. These figures will be interesting to compare with the census of 1890, which will show the products of the present year, 1889, and the great increase over those of 1879. With proper cultivation the lands of Monroe County will yield from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds of seed cotton, forty to sixty bushels of corn or oats, Irish or sweet potatoes from 200 to 300 bushels, and turnips 300 bushels per acre. Wheat may occasionally yield from twelve to fifteen bushels per acre, but it is not a certain crop, and would not pay at these figures. Carrots and rutabagas, the best of feed for live stock through the winter months, would "surprise the natives," if sown, with their abundant yield in the rich alluvial soil. Improved farms can be purchased at from $10 to $50 per acre, and unimproved lands at from $1 to $15 per acre, according to location and quality.

 

In 1880 the county had the following live animals: Horses, 1,459; mules and asses, 1,024; cattle, 8,470; sheep, 405; hogs, 13,318. The number of these animals in the county as assessed for taxation in 1888 were as follows: Horses, 2,222; mules and asses, 1,464; cattle, 8,345; sheep, 708; hogs, 6,749. This shows a large increase in horses, mules and sheep, and a decrease in the number of the other animals, the latter being more apparent than real. To get a more truthful comparison, compare the figures given here for 1880, with those of the forthcoming census of 1890. The raising of live stock for profit has not been developed in Monroe County, but certainly for this industry its advantages are equal to those of any other county in Eastern Arkansas.

 

Monroe County can produce all the fruits common to its latitude, but not with as good success as locations of higher altitudes. The small fruits and berries, especially strawberries, do exceedingly well. Not much attention is given, however, to horticulture. Cotton is the king which demands and receives the principal attention of the farmers and business men.

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Monroe County, in East Central Arkansas, is bounded on the north by Woodruff and St. Francis Counties, east by Lee and Phillips Counties, southwest and west by Arkansas and Prairie Counties. The base line of the public survey of lands runs east and west through, or near the center of the county, and the fifth principal meridian passes through the southeastern portion thereof. The greatest distance across the county from east to west is twenty-two miles, and from its extreme [p.509] northern to southern boundary is forty-seven miles. It lies partly in the 91stº, but mostly in the 92dº of west longitude. The area of the county is 642 square miles or 410,880 acres, of which about one-eighth is improved and cultivated. Nearly 30,000 acres belong to the State, all of which is subject to donation to actual settlers. The Little Rock & Memphis Railroad Company also owns a large amount. White River touches the county at or near the point where the line between Ranges 3 and 4 west, crosses the base line, and flows thence southeasterly to the southern extremity thereof, forming for many miles the southwestern boundary. Cache River flows through a portion of the northwestern part of the county and empties into the White just above Clarendon. White River is navigable the year round, and the Cache is navigable to points north when the water is high. Big Creek flows southeasterly across the northeast corner and returns into the county in Township 3 south, flowing thence in a southwesterly direction to its junction with White River in Township 5 south. These streams and their tributaries furnish all the drainage for the county. The natural surface is generally level, but sufficiently undulating to furnish good drainage. At no point is it elevated more than forty feet above the water level of White River. Good well water, mostly soft, is obtained at an average depth of twenty-five feet.

Nearly all the land of the county is of alluvial formation, and, with the exception of about fifteen square miles of prairie in the southeastern part, they are covered with timber. The soil is generally a dark loam composed of sand, vegetable mold, etc., and has a substratum of clay, at a depth of from two to three feet. It is very rich and productive, and is especially well adapted to the raising of cotton, corn, oats, clover, timothy, other tame grasses and all kinds of root crops. Clover has been introduced and raised to a limited extent, but the tame grasses, so essential to successful farming, by way of keeping the soil in good condition, have as yet, received but little attention.

In the eastern part of the county there are about 100 square miles covered with excellent pine timber; the bottoms along the streams abound with cypress, sweet gum, sycamore, elm, etc., the cypress being very abundant, and the more elevated lands are covered with nearly all kinds of oak, the white oak being large, thrifty and valuable for lumber. A few factories and several saw-mills have been established, which are cutting the timber, but as yet they have scarcely made an impression upon the native forests.

The settlement of the county, or of the territory composing it, began soon after the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the central and southern portion was settled first. Dedrick Pike settled in the vicinity where Clarendon now stands, about the year 1816, and subsequent pioneer settlers in that neighborhood were: William, John A. and N. T. Harvick, brothers, Alfred Mullens, Henry C. Toms, Samuel Martin and Col. James Harris. Isaiah Walker from Illinois settled about the year 1831 on the Walker Cypress, on the Helena road, and in October, 1855, John W. Kerr, father of B. F. Kerr, now of Clarendon, came from Missouri and settled in Jackson Township, on the Helena road, being the first settler in that vicinity. William J. Edwards, who was one of the first settlers in the Indian Bay country in the southern part of the county, is still living, and over eighty years of age, hale and active, and still hunts and traps. Dr. Duncan was the first settler of the Duncan Prairie settlement, a few miles south, bearing a little east from Clarendon. Other pioneer settlers of this neighborhood were William Pride, from Alabama, John Smith, from South Carolina, William McBride, also Oliver H. Oates, a subsequent secretary of State. Thomas and John Pledger, James F. McLaughlin and Henry F. Overton, from Alabama, were the first settlers of the Pledger settlement, about ten miles south of the present town of Brinkley.

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In what is now Montgomery Township, Indian Bay country, James R. and Robert Jackson, Robert Smalley, Thomas Jackson, Major Johnson, G. W. Baldwin, John Carnagee and George Washington were the pioneer settlers. The first settlers in the vicinity of old Lawrenceville, on Maddox Bay, were Thomas Maddox, F. P. Redmond, a large [p.510] planter who worked from 300 to 400 slaves, Lawrence Mayo, Elijah Kinzie, Simon P. Hughes (since Governor), John Simmons, H. W. Hays, James G. Gay and Clement C. Clark. The latter recently drew $15,000 from the Louisiana Lottery, but now is deceased.

The Daniels' settlement, northeast of Clarendon, was settled by William Daniels, S. P. Jolly and William H. H. Fellows. Capt. Andrew Park and his family, consisting of himself and wife and sons James, William, M. B., Reuben and Andrew, Jr., with three daughters, and H. A. Carter, the latter now of Brinkley, came from Mississippi in 1856, and settled what it known as the Park settlement, about six miles east of Clarendon. Three of the sons and all the daughters of this family are living now (fall of 1889). David Fancher and Thomas J. Brown, from Alabama, were early settlers in this neighborhood. Moses Guthrie was the pioneer settler in the vicinity of Brinkley. William Munn, Alexander White an a Mr. Buchanan were the pioneers of the Munn settlement north of Brinkley. The large planters began to settle in the county early in the fifties. Prior, thereto, the settlement was very slow, but little land was cleared and wild game had continued almost as plentiful as it had ever been. There is still plenty of game, though the deer have become scarce. A few bear linger in the cane brakes along White River.

 

The county of Monroe was organized under an act of the legislature of Arkansas Territory, approved November 2, 1829. The first section of the act provided: "That all that portion of the country bounded and described as follows: Beginning where the eastern boundary line of Range 1 east, strikes the boundary line between Phillips and Arkansas Counties; thence west on said county line to White River; thence up said river to the mouth of Rock Roe; thence west to the western boundary line of Range 4 west; thence north on said range line to the northern boundary line of Township 3 north; thence with the St. Francis County line to its intersection with the eastern boundary line of Range 1 east; thence south with said range line to the beginning, be laid off and erected into a new county, to be known and called by the name of Monroe." The act also provided that the temporary seat of justice for the county should be at the house of the widow of the late Thomas Maddox, until otherwise provided by law.

By reference to the original boundary lines it will be seen that when created, the county contained territory that has since been cut off and attached to surrounding counties, thus reducing it considerably below its original size.

The original county seat was located at Lawrenceville, on Maddox Bay, a point on White River several miles below the town of Clarendon, and there a small frame court house and a log jail were erected. The seat of justice remained at this place until 1857, when it was removed to Clarendon, where it has ever since remained. Here the walls of a brick court house were erected on the same foundation on which the present one stands, and the building was covered, when the Civil War began and stopped its completion. After the Federal army took possession of this part of the State, the soldiers took the building down and shipped the brick up the river to De Vall's Bluff and there used them in erecting fire-places and chimneys, etc., for their own comfort. Immediately after the close of the war a one-story frame court house, 18x36 feet in size and divided into two rooms, was erected on a corner of the public square at Clarendon, to be used until a more commodious house could be built. It was built by contractors Moses D. Cheek and Henry D. Green.

In February, 1870, the county court appropriated $12,000 for the purpose of building a new court house, and appointed W. S. Whitley commissioner to let the contract and superintend its construction. In July following another thousand dollars was appropriated. The house was finished in 1872 at a cost to the county of a little over $13,000. It is a plain two-story brick structure, with a hall and offices on the first floor and court room on the second, and stands in the center of the public square at Clarendon. On the southeast corner of this square stands the county jail, a common two-story wooden building.

Following is a list of the names of the officers of Monroe County, with dates of service annexed:

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Judges: William Ingram, 1829-32; James Carlton, 1832-36; R. S. Bell, 1836-40; J. B. Lambert, 1840-44; D. D. Ewing, 1844-46; William Harvick, 1846-48; J. R. Dye, 1848-50; William Harvick, 1850-52; E. Black, 1852-54; J. G. Gray, 1854-56; H. D. Green, 1856-58; W. W. Wilkins, 1858-62; P. O. Thweatt, 1862-64; E. Black, 1864-65; W. D. Kerr, 1865-68; Peter Jolly, 1868-72; B. F. Lightle, 1874-76; S. P. Jolly, 1876-80; T. W. Hooper, 1880-84; H. B. Bateman, present incumbent, first elected in 1884.

Clerks: J. C. Montgomery, 1829-32; M. Mitchell, 1832-33; R. S. Bell, 1833-36; W. B. Ezell, 1836-38; Philip Costar, 1838-40; R. S. Bell, 1840-48; H. H. Hays, 1848-50; E. W. Vann, 1850-54; N. T. Harvick, 1854-56; J. P. Vann, 1856-58; J. A. Harvick, 1858-65; D. D. Smellgrove, 1865-66; P. C. Ewan, 1866-68; A. A. Bryan, 1868-72; F. P. Wilson, 1872-74; W. S. Dunlop, 1874-86; C. B. Mills, present clerk elected in 1886 and re-elected in 1888.

Sheriffs: James Eagan, 1829-30; James Carlton, 1830-32; J. R. Dye, 1832-36; W. Walker, 1836-38; J. Dye, 1838-40; Philip Costar, 1840-46; D. L. Jackson, 1846-48; J. A. Harvick, 1848-54; S. P. Hughes (now ex-Governor), 1854-56; George Washington, 1856-60; W. B. Meeks, 1860-62; H. P. Richardson, 1862-66; R. C. Carlton, 1866-68; E. P. Wilson, 1868-72; A. Galligher, 1872-73; Frank Galligher, 1873-74; C. J. Harris, 1874-76; B. N. D. Tannehill, 1876-78; A. McMurtry, 1878-84; J. W. Walker, 1884-86; J. W. B. Robinson, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Treasurers: J. Jacobs, 1836-38; S. B. Goodwin, 1838-48; H. D. Green, 1848-52; T. D. Johnson, 1852-56; L. Walker, 1856-60; D. Pike, 1860-72; A. W. Harris, 1872-76; J. A. Garrett, 1876-78; A. W. Harris, 1878-86; R. N. Counts, 1886-88; H. D. Green, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Coroners: John Maddox, 1829-32; William Ingram, 1832-36; A. D. Nance, 1836-38; E. Frazier, 1838-40; W. B. Fail, 1840-42; W. Walker, 1842-44; D. L. Jackson, 1844-46; H. Watterman, 1846-48; J. S. Danby, 1848-50; V. Vanslyke, 1850-52; Peter Jolly, 1852-54; J. W. Garrett, 1854-56; John Dalvell, 1856-58; W. E. Moore, 1858-60; J. Brown, 1860-62; W. R. Elkins, 1862-64; E. Hennigan, 1864-66; R. F. Kerr, 1866-68; T. Pledger, 1868-72; J. H. Hillman, 1872-74; W. T. Stafford, 1874-76; W. H. Odem, 1876-78; Ed Kelley, 1878-80; W. J. Capps, 1880-82; R. F. Tyler, 1882-84; M. B. Dyer, 1884-86; W. J. Hall, 1886-88; A. J. Smith, present officer, elected in 1888.

Surveyors: Lafayette Jones, 1829-30; J. Jacobs, 1832-38; D. D. Ewing, 1838-44; L. D. Maddox, 1844-46; J. B. McPherson, 1848-50; M. Kelly, 1850-52; D. E. Pointer, 1852-56; H. Garretson, 1856-58; H. P. Richardson, 1858-62; R. T. Shaw, 1862-64; P. W. Halloran, 1864-66; A. A. Bryan, 1866-68; Henry Bonner, 1868-69; A. A. Bryan, 1872-74; John C. Hill, 1874-76; A. J. Houser, 1876-78; W. M. Walker, 1878-80; H. N. Allen, 1880-84; John C. Hill, 1884-88; A. A. Bryan, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Assessors: H. C. Edrington, 1868-72; P. Mitchell, 1872-73; John Rainey, 1873-74; L. Ward, 1874-76; D. D. Dickson, 1876-78; W. M. Speed, 1878-80; J. A. Lovewell, 1880-82; J. R. Riggins, 1882-36; B. L. Hill, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Delegates in State conventions: 1836, Thomas J. Lacy; 1861, William N. Hays; 1868, A. H. Evans; 1874, Simon P. Hughes.

Representatives in legislature: Isaac Taylor, 1836-38; L. D. Maddox, 1838-40; Isaac Taylor, 1840-42; John C. Johnson, 1842-44; J. B. Lambert, 1844-46; Lewis B. Tully, 1846-48; Philip Costar, 1848-50; R. Pyburn, 1850-52; Francis P. Redmond, 1854-56; Oliver H. Oates, 1856-60; Z. P. H. Farr, 1860-62; E. Wilds, 1864-66; S. P. Hughes, 1866-68; F. W. Robinson, 1874-76; J. K. Whitson, 1876-78; Lecil Bobo, 1878-80; J. K. Whitson, 1880-82; John B. Baxter, 1882-86; W. J. Blackwell, 1886-88.

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The vote cast in Monroe County for the candidates for Governor at the September election, 1888, and for President at the succeeding November election was as follows: For Governor, James P. Eagle (Dem.), 965; C. M. Norwood (Com. Opp.), 1,732; for President, Cleveland (Dem.), 784; Harrison [p.512] (Rep.), 1,167; Streeter (U. L.), 15; Fisk (Pro.), 6.

The population of Monroe County, in 1860, was 3,431 white and 2,226 colored, making a total of 5,657; in 1870, 5,135 white and 3,200 colored, making a total of 8,335; in 1880, 4,365 white and 5,209 colored, making a total of 9,574. The population in 1830 was, in the aggregate, 461; in 1840, 936; in 1850, 2,049.

During a portion of the war period, from 1861 to 1865, the courts of Monroe County were suspended. No term of the county court was held after April, 1862, until July, 1865. All other courts were suspended about the same length of time. The several courts convene now in regular session on the following dates: County, first Monday of January, April, July and October of each year; probate, on the second, and common pleas on the fourth Monday of the same months; the circuit on the fourth Monday after the third Monday in February and August. The following named attorneys constitute the legal bar of the county: Grant Green, S. J. Price, J. P. Roberts, M. J. Manning, J. S. Thomas, P. C. Ewan, J. C. Palmer, H. A. Parker, C. W. Brickell, W. J. Mayo, R. E. Johnson, R. C. Lansford and W. T. Tucker.

Upon the approach of the Civil War many citizens of Monroe held out for the Union until the first gun was fired at Charleston, S. C.; then they became solidly united and cast their lot with the proposed Southern Confederacy. In the spring of 1861 the first company of soldiers was organized and commanded by Capt. James T. Harris, of Clarendon, a brother of Senator Isham G. Harris, of Tennessee. This company was called the "Harris Guards." The next company organized, the "Monroe County Blues," was under the charge of Capt. G. W. Baldwin; another company, the "Arkansas Toothpicks," was commanded by Capt. L. Featherstons. Another company was commanded by Capt. Oliver H. Oates. These were all raised in 1861, and in 1862 two other companies were raised and commanded, respectively, by Capts. George Washington and W. J. F. Jones. In the battle of Shiloh the "Harris Guards" and the "Monroe County Blues" suffered very great loss, and soon thereafter they were reorganized and consolidated into one company, of which Parker C. Ewan became the captain. Capt. Harris was killed at that battle. The soldiers furnished by Monroe County, like their comrades in general, fought with great desperation and determination, and many fell to rise no more on earth.

The Federal forces, under Gen. Steele, took possession of Clarendon, in August, 1863, and camped there for some time, and then moved on and took Little Rock on September 10, following. Prior to this the county had not suffered much from the ravishes of war, but now it became foraging ground for the United States army possessing it. On one occasion, in 1864, Gen. Joe Shelby, with a Confederate force, captured the crews of two gunboats in White River, at Clarendon, and sunk the vessels. The next day a detachment of the Federal army went down from De Vall's Bluff, and drove Shelby's forces several miles out on the Helena road to a point from which they made their escape. The Union soldiers then returned to the Bluff. Aside from this fight there was only a few slight skirmishes in the county between guerrillas and scouting parties. However, the county suffered greatly from the ravishes of the war in general. 'Tis over, and one would gladly forget its painful incidents.

Lawrenceville, though for many years the site of the county seat, never gained much size nor importance. The town disappeared long ago, and the site thereof is now in farm lands.

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Clarendon, the county seat of Monroe County, is situated on the eastern bank of White River, near the center of the county north and south. Prominent among the settlers of this place was Samuel Martin, who opened the first store and kept the ferry across the river, and erected the first steam saw-mill. The ferry was established about the year 1836. The next store was opened by Henry M. Couch, who came from Tennessee, and in 1856 it was the only one in the town. Martin died prior to the latter date, and his widow opened and kept the first hotel in the place. Col. James Harris, of Tennessee, brother of Senator Isham G. [p.513] Harris, of that State, settled at Clarendon in 1856, married the widow Martin, finished the new hotel she was then building, and with her continued the business. Harris had the town surveyed and laid out in 1857, the same year it became the county seat. The next merchants were William Granberry and Jesse Brown. Prior to the removal of the county seat to Clarendon, the place was known only by the name of "Mouth of Cache." The next year, 1858, the town took on a more rapid growth, and when the Civil War began it did a large amount of business. During the war the town was entirely destroyed, not a building was left, and at the close of that struggle, the site was completely covered with weeds. Immediately after the war the town began to be rebuilt, and soon became a great cotton market, shipping from 4,000 to 5,000 bales yearly. It now ships from 8,000 to 9,000 bales per year. It contains fourteen general stores, three groceries, two drug stores, a meat market, an undertaking shop, two blacksmith and wagon shops, an extensive feed and farm implement store, where wagons are also kept for sale, two cotton-gins, a grist-mill and machine shop, a large stave factory, run by the White River Stave Company, which was erected in 1888, and where from seventy-five to 100 men are employed, a lumber yard, three hotels and a hotel kept by and for colored folks, several boarding houses, three churches (Methodist, Presbyterian and Cumberland Presbyterian) for the whites, and two churches (Methodist and Baptist) for the blacks, a very large frame school-house for the white people, and a comfortable one for the colored people. In addition to the foregoing, there are the county buildings, railroad depots, express and telegraph offices and several other important places of business.

 

Of the benevolent orders there are a lodge, Chapter and Council of Masons, and a lodge each of the Knights of Honor, Knights of Pythias and American Legion of Honor. There are seven physicians, and the same number of lawyers, and a population of 800 to 1,000.

 

The Monroe County Sun, published at Clarendon, was established in 1876 by Capt. P. C. Ewan. It is a seven-column folio, now published by the Sun Printing Company, and edited by W. E. Spencer. Politically it is Democratic.

The principal shipments from Clarendon consist of cotton, cotton-seed, lumber and staves. The town is not incorporated.

Brinkley is sitnated in the northeru part of the county, at the crossing of the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas and the Little Rock & Memphis Railroads, and at the southern terminus of the Batesville & Brinkley Bailroad, and the northern terminus of the Brinkley, Indian Bay & Helena Railroad. It was laid out in the winter of 1869-70, on lands belonging to the Little Rock & Memphis Railroad Company, and the first general sale of lots took place in August of the latter year. M. B. Park and H. A. Carter, under the firm name of M. B. Park & Co., opened the first store (it being also in 1870). Barter & Dillard established the second store (also in the same year). The town assumed a gradual and substantial growth, but has never had a boom. For the last two years, however, its growth has been more rapid than at any time before. The first brick buildings in the place were erected in 1887, and now there are six brick blocks, containing altogether fourteen large store-rooms on the first floor.

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It now consists of the Monroe County Bank, seven general, six grocery, three drug and two jewelry and notion stores, a boot and shoe shop, a furniture and undertaker's store, a millinery store, bakery, feed store, billiard hall, four hotels, a hotel and restaurant kept by colored people, a meat market, a meat market and restaurant, two blacksmith and two barber shope, a pool hall and temperance saloon, the machine and car shops of the Batesville & Brinkley Railroad, two livery stables, two brick-yards, a grist-mill, cotton-gin, Niffen's foundry, the Union Wood Turning Works, Brinkley Oil Mill (employing from fifty to seventy-five men), the Brinkley Car and Manufacturing Works (employing about 200 men), three churches (Methodist, Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian), also three Baptist churches and one Methodist for the colored people, a public school-house for the whites (the school for colored children being taught in one [p.514] of the church edifices). In addition to the foregoing, there is a lodge, each, of Masons, Knights of Pythias, Knights of Honor, Knights and Ladies of Honor, and two Building & Loan Associations. The town is incorporated, and in August, 1889, the school board took an actual census of the inhabitants within the corporate limits, and found a population of 1,498, and there is said to be several hundred outside of these limits. Brinkley is a railroad center, a good cotton market, and its shipments are extensive.

The Brinkley Argus, a neat seven-column folio newspaper, is now in its seventh volume and is published every Thursday by W. H. Peterson.

Holly Grove, situated on the Arkansas Midland Railroad about ten miles southeast of Clarendon, was laid out and established in 1872, by John Smith and James Kerr. D. B. Renfro opened the first store, and Kerr, Robley & Co. opened the second one. The village now contains one drug and seven general stores, a grocery and restaurant, an undertaker's shop, livery stable, a steam cottongin and grist-mill, a mechanic's shop, two churches (Methodist and Presbyterian) for the whites and churches also for the colored people, a two-story frame school-house, a Masonic lodge, two physicians, and a population of about 300. It is situated in the best cotton growing district in the county and ships a large quantity of that commodity.

Indian Bay, a small village in the southern part of the county, contains three general stores, two cotton-gins, grist and saw mills, and a small population.

Pine City, a station on the Arkansas Midland Railroad, a few miles east of Holly Grove consists of a large saw-mill, where extensive quantities of pine timber is cut into lumber. There are a few small residences.

The following statistics given in the last published report of the State superintendent of public instruction will serve to show the progress of the free school system in Monroe County. Scholastic population: White, males, 999, females, 892, total 1,891; colored, males, 1,449, females, 1,384, total 2,833; number taught in the public schools, white, males, 487, females, 424, total, 911; colored, males, 853, females, 803, total, 1,656. School districts, 38, of which only 26 made any report. Teachers employed: Males, 45, females, 13, total, 58. Amount expended during the year to support the schools: Teachers' salaries, $8,401.50, building and repairing, $2,718.97, purchasing apparatus, $79.55, treasurer's commissions, $112.55, other purposes, $200.65, total, $11,513.22. By comparing the scholastic population with the number reported attending the schools, it will appear that a very large percentage of the children of school age did not attend, but a greater percentage than shown by the figures undoubtedly attended, as twelve of the districts failed to make report.

Of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, there is the Clarendon and Brinkley Station, with a membership, as shown by the last Conference minutes, of 166, with Rev. S. L. Cochran as pastor; the Brinkley Circuit, with a membership of 172, and W. W. Hendrix, pastor; the Holly Grove Circuit, with a membership of 111, and N. E. Skinner, pastor; the Cypress Ridge Circuit, with a membership of 228, and T. Rawlings, pastor; the Howell and Cotton Plant Circuit, with a membership of 168, and M. B. Umstead, pastor. About one half of the latter circuit lies in Woodruff County. All of these belong to the Helena District of the White River Conference.

 

The Baptist Churches of Monroe County, as shown by the minutes of the session of the Mount Vernon Baptist Association, held at Salem Church in Phillips County, in October, 1888, are as follows with their respective pastors and memberships: Clarendon, G. C. Goodwin, pastor, 45; Mount Gilead, M. A. Thompson, pastor, 23; Brinkley, R. G. Hewlett, pastor, 52; Lone Chapel, G. C. Goodwin, pastor, 35; Ash Grove, S. D. Johns, pastor, 52, and Philadelphia, G. C. Goodwin, pastor, 78.

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The Cumberland Presbyterians have four church organizations within the county, one at Brinkley, with a membership of 25, and Rev. A. B. Forbess, pastor; one at Clarendon, membership 50, and Rev. R. V. Cavot, pastor; one at Valley Grove in the southern part of the county, membership 75, [p.515] and Rev. Cavot, pastor; the other on Cypress Ridge about twelve miles southeast of Brinkley, membership about 50, and Rev. Stewart, pastor. The organization at Brinkley has a new $2,500 brick church edifice, and the one at Clarendon has a fine frame building with the Masonic hall on the upper floor.

 

The Presbyterians (Old School) have an organization at Clarendon with a membership of about 70, and Rev. W. C. Hagan, pastor; another at Holly Grove with a membership of about 25, and Rev. Hagan, pastor; also an organization at Brinkley with a small membership, Rev. S. I. Reid, of Lonoke, pastor.

The churches in the towns in general have Sunday-schools connected with them, and some of the country churches also conduct Sunday-schools. There is a large Catholic Church with a strong membership at Brinkley; Father McGill is the priest. The people of the county are moral and hospitable, and persons seeking new homes will do well to visit this section of country.

J. T. Andrews, planter at Cotton Plant, is one of the leading planters of Monroe County. Born in Limestone County, Ala., in 1837, he is the son of Daniel and Mary (Morris) Andrews, natives of Virginia and North Carolina, and born in 1814 and 1815, respectively. The parents were married in 1836 and to their union were born two children, a son and daughter: J. T. and Dionitia F. (wife of T. L. Westmoreland). Daniel Andrews died in 1841 and Mrs. Andrews was married the second time in 1843 to J. H. Deaver. By this union she became the mother of five children: Mary A. (wife of Dr. J. W. Westmoreland), Thomas M., Martha J. (widow of Saul Salinger), Bettie M. (wife of H. C. McLaurine) and D. J. (wife of J. R. Whitfield). J. H. Deaver died in 1853, and Mrs. Deaver, who survives her husband, now lives with her widowed daughter, Mrs. Salinger, at Cotton Plant. She is, and has been for many years, a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. J. T. Andrews started in business for himself in 1858 by farming his mother's land in Tennessee, but left that State and immigrated to Arkansas in 1860, locating in Poinsett County. His mother purchased 240 acres of land, which he farmed until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the infantry under Capt. Westmoreland and

served until July 9, 1863. He was then captured at Port Hudson, taken to Johnson's Island, and there held until February 9, 1864, when he was transferred to Point Lookout. He was there retained until March 3, when he was sent to City Point and was there paroled. After the war he resumed farming and also operated a cotton-gin in Woodruff County. He selected as his companion in life, Miss Martha A. Westmoreland, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Westmoreland, and was united in marriage to her in 1858. This union has been blessed by the birth of three children, but only one now living: Sam (who married a Miss Cattie Keath and resides on a farm in this county). The children deceased were named: Edward and Minnie. Mrs. Andrews was born in Giles County, Tenn., in 1836. Her father died in 1865 and her mother in 1887, both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Andrews is a member of the I. O. O. F. Lodge No. 76, and he and wife have been members of the Methodist Episcopal Church for seventeen years. Mr. Andrews is one of the enterprising farmers of the county, and is the owner of 230 acres of land in Woodruff County, Ark., with 120 acres under cultivation and his principal crops are corn and cotton.

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Judge H. B. Bateman, judge of the county and probate and of the court of common pleas of Monroe County, Ark., has been a resident of the county all his life, having been born one and one-half miles from Clarendon, in 1857, and is a worthy descendant of an old and highly respected family. His parents, Baker H. and Jane E. (Harvick), Bateman, were born in North Carolina, but owing to their early removal to Arkansas, they were married in Monroe County. The father died in this county in 1861, aged about forty years, and the mother's death occurred in 1874, aged forty-eight years. She was married three times, Mr. Bateman being her third husband, and by him she became the mother of two sons: H. B. and Thomas T.,

the [p.516] latter being the present deputy sheriff of Monroe County. After passing many of the important years of his life on a farm, and in attending the common schools and the schools of Searcy, Judge H. B. Bateman began clerking in a country store, continuing one year, and in 1879 established a drug store in connection with J. B. Chapline, at Clarendon, the firm continuing business until 1889, under the title of Bateman & Chapline, at which time G. A. Franklin succeeded Mr. Chapline, and the firm is now Bateman & Franklin. Their stock of drugs is valued at $900, and their labors in this direction have met with substantial results, as they have the reputation of being safe, thorough and reliable business men. Judge Bateman has a fair share of this world's goods, and in addition to owning a fine farm of 350 acres, the most of which is under cultivation, he has a fine brick business block in Clarendon. His first presidential vote was cast for Hancock in 1880, and for some years he has been quite prominent in local political matters, and, besides being justice of the peace for about six years, he was elected to his present office in 1884, and has held it by re-election up to the present time. He has made a very efficient officer, and is respected and esteemed for his sterling integrity, sound judgment, broad intelligence and liberal

progressive ideas. He is a man whose decisions are not made without careful and painstaking study of the evidence, and all feel that his judgment can be relied upon. He belongs to Cache Lodge No. 235, of the A. F. & A. M., and he is also a member of the Chapter and Council of Clarendon.

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Maj. John B. Baxter is a real estate and insurance agent at Brinkley. In all business communities the matter of insurance holds a prominent place and deservedly so, for it is a means of stability to all commercial transactions, and is a mainstay against disaster should devastation by fire sweep property away. He was born in Wilson County, Tenn., in 1839, and is a son of George W. and Rebecca A. (Hooker) Baxter, who were born in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and were married in the latter State, their union taking place in Wilson County, about 1833, when the father was nineteen years of age and the mother fifteen. They remained in Wilson County until after the birth of our subject, then removed to La Grange, Tenn., and here the father died May 25, 1844, having been a farmer throughout life. George Baxter, the maternal grandfather, was of Scotch-Irish descent, and was born in North Carolina, but died in Tennessee. Joshua Hooker, the maternal grandfather, was also born in North Carolina, but after residing many years in Wilson County, Tenn., he removed in 1840 to Fayette County, Tenn., and in 1851 he came to Monroe County, Ark., where he died of small-pox in 1866. He was the father of a large family, a farmer by occupation, and was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was with Jackson at New Orleans. Our subject came with his mother to Monroe County, Ark., in 1851, but soon after removed to Des Are, where they resided until the opening of the war, then returned to Memphis, where the mother's death occurred in July, 1867, she being in full communion with the Methodist Church at that time. Maj. John B. Baxter is the fourth of six children, and only he and his youngest brother, Hon. George W. Baxter, of Hot Springs, Ark., are now living. The former received his education in the common schools of Tennessee and Arkansas, and upon the opening of the war in 1861, he joined Company K, Fifth Arkansas Infantry, and operated in Kentucky. He soon after assisted in organizing Company F of the Twenty-third Arkansas Infantry, of which he remained a member until the fall of Port Hudson, when he was captured and imprisoned at Johnson's Island, Point Lookout, Fort Delaware, Morris' Island off Charleston, Fort Pulaski off Savannah, Ga., and was returned to Fort Delaware just before the close of the war. He was released in June, 1865, and at once went to Memphis, Tenn., where his mother was still living. In 1866 he traveled in Arkansas for a Memphis cotton and wholesale grocery house, but before his marriage, in April, 1866, to Josephine, daughter of William A. and Mary Pickens, he removed to Cotton Plant, Ark., but removed shortly afterward to Clarendon, from which place he entered the army, where he followed mercantile pursuits. [p.517] He next engaged in farming near Cotton Plant, but since 1872 he has lived at Brinkley, and until 1882 was engaged in the practice of law, having prepared himself for this profession prior to the war. He has been a prominent politician since his residence here and served several terms as sergeant-at-arms of the lower house of the State legislature, and in 1882 was elected to represent Monroe County in that body, and was reelected in 1884, serving four years. He has been mayor of Brinkley several terms, and in 1887 was chosen sergeaut-at-arms of the State senate, being elected by the Democratic party to his various official positions. His first presidential vote was cast for Breckenridge. He is Worshipful Master of Brinkley Lodge No. 295, A. F. & A. M., and is Dictator of Brinkley Lodge No. 3127, K. of H., being also a member of the K. & L. of H. Maj. Baxter is one of only three of the original settlers of Brinkley, who are now residing in the town. His wife was born in Mississippi, but her parents were Tennesseeans who moved to that State, and in 1859 came to Cotton Plant, Ark. They both died here during the war.

William L. Benton is a farmer and blacksmith, of Pine Ridge Township, but was born in Jackson County, Ga., in 1834. His parents, Thomas and Sarah (Norman) Benton, were Virginians, spending most of their life in Georgia, in which State Mr. Benton died, September 1, 1889, at the age of eighty-six years, his wife's death occurring in 1872 or 1873, when sixty-seven years old. They were farmers, and of Irish descent. The paternal grandfather, Reason R. Benton, died in Georgia before the war, aged eighty-seven years, and the maternal grandfather's (Joseph Norman) death occurred in the State of Mississippi. William L. Benton is the sixth of fourteen children, and although his educational advantages were of a very limited description, he became a well-informed young man, and when twenty-two years of age went to Mississippi. He was married there in 1857, to Catherine Eavenson, but her death occurred in 1863, after having borne two children, only one now living, named Andrew. His second marriage took place in December, 1865, his wife being a Miss Eliza Latimer, but he was called upon to mourn her loss by death in 1878, she having borne him three sons and three daughters. Mr. Benton's third marriage was consummated June 14, 1884, his wife being a Mrs. Catherine (Aldridge) Graham, by whom he has one son. Mr. Benton resided in Mississippi until 1870, when he came to Monroe County, and in 1872 purchased a woodland farm, comprising 160 acres, of which seventy-five acres are in a state of cultivation. In 1862 he joined Company H, First Mississippi Partisan Rangers, and operated with his command in Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, and participated in nearly all the leading battles of those States, among others the battles of Shiloh, Franklin, Nashville, and was all through the Georgia campaign, and in the siege of Vicksburg, and during his entire service was never captured or

wounded, surrendering at Selma, Ala. He is a conservative Democrat in his political views, and his first presidential vote was cast for Buchanan, in 1856. He belongs to Clarendon Lodge No. 2328, of K. of H., and was formerly Vice Dictator in Oak Grove Lodge. He and wife belong to the Christian Church.

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Samuel Langley Black, planter, Indian Bay, Ark. Of that sturdy and independent class, the planters of Arkansas, none are possessed of more genuine merit and a stronger character than he, whose name stands at the head of this sketch; he has risen to a more than ordinary degree of success in his calling of an agriculturist, and wherever known he is conceded to be an energetic and progressive tiller of the soil, imbued with all these qualities of go-aheadativeness which have characterized his ancestors. Mr. Black is the son of John D. and Susan (Langley) Black, the father a native of Virginia and of English descent, and the mother a native of Kentucky. Samuel L. Black owes his nativity to Fayette County, Tenn., where his birth occurred March 22, 1842, and received his education in the high schools of that county, finishing at Bethel College, McLemoresvilie, Tenn. At the age of eighteen years he commenced the study of law at Clarendon, Ark., in the office of Oates, Cocke & Wilburn, there remaining until [p.518] 1861, when he enlisted in Capt. James T. Harris' company, organized at Clarendon, this being the first company organized in this county, and served in the capacity of junior lieutenant in Patrick R. Cleburne's regiment. This regiment was the first one organized in the State for the War of the Rebellion, but through error of the officer, the services of the regiment were tendered to the State service instead of the Confederate State Government, thereby losing the opportunity of being credited with being the first regiment of Arkansas organized in that State, Gen. Fagan's regiment securing that distinction. At Bowling Green, Ky., Mr. Black was made captain of his company in 1861, and his first battle was the famous battle of Shiloh, where, by his bravery and meritorious conduct, he won his spurs. He was immediately elected to the office of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and was appointed to the staff of Lieut-Col. Hardee as inspector-general of his corps, in which capacity he served the balance of the war. He participated in Gen. Bragg's invasion in Kentucky, which culminated in his retreat to Knoxville, Tenn.; was at the surrender of the Federal force at Munfordsville and the battle of Perryville. He took a leading part in the battle of Murfreesboro, and was with the Army of Tennessee until its retreat to Chattanooga. He went from there to Enterprise and Meridian, Miss., and served for a time upon the staff of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. He was ordered back to the Army of Tennessee after the battle of Chickamauga, participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge and the retreat to Dalton, and was in all the fights and skirmishes of the Army of Tennessee from Dalton to Atlanta, including the battles around Atlanta and Jonestown. After Hood took command of the Army of Tennessee, he was released with Gen. Hardee and went with him to Charleston, S. C. He was in front of Gen. Sherman in his march from Savannah through the Carolinas; was captured by a squad of his cavalry, but escaped after a few hours by a bold ride. He participated in the battle of Bentonville and soon after surrendered with the balance of the army at Greensboro, N. C., in May, 1865. He returned home on July 4 of the same year, went to work for a firm in Memphis, Tenn., and subsequently was united in marriage to Miss Rosa E. Beasley, daughter of John P. and Eveline T. Beasley. Only one child, John S., was the result of this union, his birth occurring on September 28, 1866. Mr. Black has been constantly engaged in agricultural pursuits since, and was also a member of the firm of Martin & Black from February 1, 1882, to February 1, 1889, when he sold out. Mrs. Black died on June 1, 1886. He has never held any civil office, but at one time was a candidate for the office of secretary of State.

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Mrs. Bena Black, widow of the late Maj. William Black, of Brinkley, was born in the State of New York in 1843, and her parents, John and Matelina (Leanhart) Colless, were natives of Germany. They were married in their native country, and three daughters were the result of this union: Catherine (wife of George Guisler), Julia (wife of John Bowers, of New Orleans), and the subject of this sketch. John Colless died in New Orleans in about 1847, and his wife afterward married a Mr. Frederick Buck, of New Orleans, and became the mother of five children, two sons and three daughters, all of whom are living in New Orleans, Maj. Black was born in Toronto, Canada, November 22, 1836, came to Memphis, Tenn., in 1856, and worked at ship carpentering for awhile, after which he went into the grocery business on Jefferson Street. He carried this on successfully, but subsequently disposed of this business and built a sawmill just south of Brinkley, which business increased so rapidly that a more suitable and convenient place for handling lumber had to be selected, hence the mill was moved to what is now known as "Old Mill," east of town. Again it was located on the site it now occupies, and the present corporation formed, The Brinkley Car Works & Manufacturing Company, which, in the meantime, owing to its excellent business management, has developed into the largest manufacturing concern of its kind in the State, and one of the largest in the South. It at several times had large railroad contracts, building about twenty-five miles of the Little Rock & Memphis Railroad, and about forty miles of the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Railroad. [p.519] He built what is known as the W. & B. R. V. Railroad as far as Tupelo, Ark. He built the Brinkley & Helena Railroad, and at the time of hie death was busily engaged in extending the road through to Indian Bay, about twenty miles of which was ready for iron. He was a director and stockholder in the Little Rock & Memphis Railroad, was president and principal owner of the Brinkley Car Works & Manufacturing Company, president of the Monroe County Bank, vice-president of the Brinkley Oil Mill Company, and principal owner of the business of T. H. Jackson & Co., the largest mercantile firm in Eastern Arkansas. About five years ago, through his great business sagacity, he saw an opportunity to start a lumber business in Memphis, and as a result, owned the Brinkley Lumber Company of that city, which is, without doubt, the leading lumber establishment of Memphis, receiving and selling more lumber and doing through his exertions a large and extensive business. Maj. Black served through the war with distinction, participating in all the battles in and around Memphis. Soon after the war he moved to what is now known as Brinkley, then a dense forest. At that time he had to walk twenty miles to the nearest railroad, which was the Memphis & Little Rock, at Palestine, while now, by his indomitable energy, Brinkley can boast of four railroads. Maj. Black was fifty-three years, nine months and twenty-six days old when he returned from Waukesha Springs, and looked the picture of health and vigorous manhood, with the exception of a large carbuncle on the back of his neck near the base of the brain, which caused much uneasiness among his friends, but were met with hopeful assurance from the friends of the family. There were in attendance the most eminent surgeons of Memphis and Little Rock in consultation with local physicians, and all felt hopeful until the fatal day, September 18, 1889, when at the close of a surgical operation, at about 1 P. M., he breathed his last. When the sad news spread among the people that Maj. Black was dead, a hush fell upon the town that will long be remembered. Business houses were closed, a Sabbath-like calmness rested upon the streets and in the dwellings, as if each one paused in the busy walks of life to commune with himself on the uncertainty of life and the awful change, death. On Thursday, September 19, the obsequies took place, and seemingly the whole city followed in mourning to the cemetery where they carried this honored and much-respected citizen. The funeral services took place at the Catholic Church, and were conducted by Rev. Father MeGill, after which the K. of H. lodge took charge of the burial ceremonies. A procession was formed at the church, headed by members of the K. of H., followed by the carriages of the family and immediate friends; next came the employes from the mill, numbering about 100, and as the procession reached the school-houses it was joined by the teachers and pupils from both schools, numbering about 200. After them came numberless carriages and many on foot, variously estimated at from 600 to 1,000 persons. The ceremonies at the grave were impressive, and at their close the school children were each permitted to place a handful of flowers on the coffin–a most touching tribute. Those most intimably acquainted with Maj. Black knew beet his noble traits of character, for, though possessed of wonderful business acumen, yet he was modest and retiring to an unusual degree. Though so active, he never neglected those delicate courtesies which beautify life, but paid the strictest deference to the feelings of all his business associates, instances of which will be kindly remembered by them in years to come. He never took a very active part in politics, although at one time he represented this senatorial district in the State Assembly. He was the founder and leader, as it were, of this flourishing city, and his death produced a shock on every side, making all feel, in the presence of such a calamity, as if the ordinary pursuits of life were vain. When his death was announced at a meeting of the Memphis Lumber Exchange, remarks of profound regret were made, and resolutions of sympathy adopted and sent to the bereaved family–commending his many virtues and his noble life as an example to those whom he left behind. He was the father of twelve children, eight of whom are living at the present time, two sons and six daughters: Lena (wife of T. H. [p.520] Jackson), Katie (wife of H. H. Myers), Anna (wife of Charles Labell), Maggie, Nellie, Garland, Sarah and Willie. Mrs. Black still resides in Brinkley, and is a most estimable lady.

AT. Blaine is another successful merchant of Indian Bay, and since 1882 has been established at his present place of business, the average value of his stock of goods amounting to $2,000. He was born in Worcester County, Md., in 1849, his parents, Thomas J. and Sarah G. (Burnett) Blaine, having been born in Somerset and Worcester Counties, in 1829 and 1833, respectively. They spent their lives in their native State, and the father at the time of his death, in 1884, was engaged in the boot and shoe business. He was a church member, as was his wife, and was a son of James Blaine, a native of Ireland, who came to the United States after becoming grown, and made his home in Maryland. Rixam Burnett, the maternal grandfather, was also born in Ireland, and after coming to the United States, settled in the west of Maryland. He had one son who was a ship carpenter and sailor for many years, on the vessel Ohio, and served in the United States navy during the war, the most of his time being spent on the Mississippi River. A. T. Blaine is the eldest of nine brothers, four of whom are living, and is the only one residing in Monroe County. He was educated in Pocomoke City, Md., attending both the private and public schools, but in 1871 he came to Indian Bay, Ark., and was engaged in clerking until 1882, when he again began business for himself, and as above stated, has done well. He is a Democrat, casting his first vote for Greeley, in 1872, and belongs to Indian Bay Lodge No. 249, A. F. & A. M., in which order he held the positions of Junior Warden and Secretary, and he is also a member of Advance Lodge No. 2491, K. of H., and is now filling the position of Past Dictator. In 1876 he was married to Jennie Rainbolt, who died in 1885, having borne one son and two daughters, and in 1887 he wedded Mrs. Emma (Erwin) Clark, a native of Tennessee, and a member of the Presbyterian Church. He owns 1,000 acres of land, with 500 under cultivation, and since 1885 has been postmaster of Indian Bay.

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William H. Boyce is a planter and cotton ginner of Montgomery Township, and has been a prominent and enterprising resident of Monroe County, Ark., since 1866. He was born in Jackson, Tenn, July 19, 1847, and is a son of Isham and Elizabeth (Tharpe) Boyce, natives respectively of South Carolina and North Carolina. Both removed to Tennessee with their parents when young and were married in Paris of that State, but afterward became residents of Jackson. Mr. Boyce died at Brownsville, Tenn., in 1866, at the age of fifty-four years, and his wife in 1853, aged thirty-four years. After the death of his wife Mr. Boyce married again. William H. is the youngest of seven children born to his first union and received his early education in the common schools of his native State. When the war opened he joined Company , Sixth Tennessee Infantry, and for some time was with Gen. Bragg in Kentucky and Tennessee, participating with that general in the battles of Perryville, Shiloh and Corinth. Just before the battle of Murfreesboro he was transferred to Company G, Ninth Tennessee Cavalry, and was at the battle of Chickamauga and in many skirmishes. He was captured at Panther Springs, Tenn., January 24, 1864, and was kept a prisoner at Ball's Island until just before the close of the war when he was released and rejoined his command and surrendered with it at Gainesville, Als. Mr. Boyce has been very successful in his farming ventures and has an excellent lot of land, comprising 1,400 acres, lying seven miles northeast of Indian Bay. His land was almost wholly covered with timber, but with the energy and push which have ever characterized his efforts, he began energetically to clear his property and now has about 500 acres under cultivation. He keeps his cottongin running almost the year round and finds this a lucrative business. In 1869 he was married to Laura, a daughter of Capt. William M. Mayo, whose sketch will be found in this work, and by her became the father of ten children, three daughters only now living. Mr. Boyce is a Democrat, and his wife is a member in good standing of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He has one sister living, Georgia, the wife of John W. Gates, [p.521] of Jackson, Tenn. William A. Tharpe, the maternal grandfather, was born in North Carolina, and died near Paris, Tenn.

W. F. Branch, merchant, Holly Grove, Ark. There are in every community some persons who, on account of their industry and practical management of the affairs which fall to their lot, deserve special credit; and such is Mr. Branch. He was originally from Wilson County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1849, and is the son of James Branch, who is also a native Tennesseean, born 1817. The elder Mr. Branch was a farmer by occupation, and was married to Miss Eleanor Neele, by whom he had seven children, two of whom only are living: W. F. and Sallie (wife of J. W. Walker, of Clarendon). The father moved from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1859, located in Monroe County, and there his death occurred in 1867. The mother died in 1885. W. F. Branch was married to Miss Ella Walls in 1874, and four children blessed this union, two of whom are living: Bessie and Addie. Mrs. Branch died in 1886. She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1888 Mr. Branch took for his second wife Miss Ada Peete, a native of Tennessee, a very estimable lady, and the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Peete, of Memphis. Mr. Branch is a prosperous merchant, and the firm title is Branch & Wall. He opened business in Holly Grove, in 1887, and is doing well. He also owns 600 acres of land. He is a member of the K. of H., and he and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church.

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Rev. Thomas J. Brickell. No calling in which a man can engage is so truly noble and unselfish as that of the man who devotes his life to the saving of souls, and although Mr. Brickell is a local minister, he has been instrumental in bringing many erring ones to the feet of the Master. He has been established in business in Brinkley since 1885, and deals in furniture and undertaker's goods, his stock being valued at from $1,500 to $2,000. He is a Georgian by birth, born in Palmetto, Coweta County, in 1849, and is a son of Nicholas and Martha J. (Sanders) Brickell, natives of North Carolina, their nuptials being celebrated at Palmetto, Ga. Since 1870 they have resided in Phillips County, Ark., and are there still living, both having been members of the Methodist Church, South, many years. The father, the oldest of a family of four sons and one daughter, was born May 11, 1824. About 1844 he went to Rockford, Surry County, N. C., living with an uncle, J. F. Harrison, and in 1846 moved to Palmetto, Ga. His wife's mother was formerly Fannie Harris. Mr. Brickell upon leaving Palmetto, was located at Franklin several years, and in 1870 moved to Trenton, Phillips County, Ark. He now lives at Poplar Grove in the same county. He served the Confederate cause for three years during the Civil War, as a mechanic in the saltpetre works, being in Georgia most of the time. He belongs to the A. F. & A. M., and is a grandson of John B. Brickell, a Frenchman who came to the United States with Gen. La Fayette during the Revolutionary War. After that conflict he settled in the lower part of North Carolina, subsequently going to Union District, where he died. His wife, Frances Gregory, a Virginian by birth, went to Surry County, N. C., and reared a large family. At that place our subject's grandparents were married. Rev. Thomas J. Brickell is the eldest of nine children, and in addition to attending the common schools in his youth, he worked in his father's cabinet shop. He began for himself as a clerk in 1869, in Atlanta, Ga., but a short time afterward he came to Arkansas, and taught school and farmed for a few years. In 1873 he joined the White River Annual Conference, and for five years was an itinerant preacher of the Methodist Church. On account of his wife's health he then located at Poplar Grove, and was there a partner with his father in business until his removal to Brinkley, where he has established a good home and a profitable business. He owns eighty-five acres of timber land, four miles from Brinkley, together with six town lots, all his property being acquired by his own exertions. He was for some time a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, joining when sixteen years of age, and at the age of twenty, upon removing to Arkansas, united with the Congregational Methodist Church, and was licensed to preach. Some three years after he returned to the Methodist Episcopal Church, and now preaches [p.522] the doctrine of that denomination as a local minister. His wife, whom he married in 1872, and who was born in Alabama, April 16, 1853, was a Miss Martha J. Morriss, a daughter of William D. and Harriet A. (Curry) Morris. She was reared principally in Phillips County, Ark. Her father was born in Lawrence County, Ala., November 28, 1820, subsequently moving to Phillips County, Ark. His wife was born in Maury County, Tenn., September 17, 1823, Mr. Morris died May 21, 1888, but his widow still survives him. Our subject and his wife have one son, now sixteen years of age.

Elijah C. Brown has passed his entire life in an industrious manner and his efforts have not been without substantial evidences of success, as will be seen from a glance at his present possessions. He was born in Fayette County, Tenn., in 1851, and is the third of four children born to Thomas J. and Frances (Branch) Brown, natives respectively of South Carolina and Tennessee. They were married in Fayette County, of the latter State, where Mrs. Brown was reared from infancy, and there their home continued to be until 1859, when they settled in Monroe County, Ark. They opened a farm in what is now Pine Ridge Township, and here Mr. Brown's life expired on January 6, 1866, his wife following him to his long home August 22, 1874. The maternal grandfather, Benjamin Branch, was born in Tennessee and spent his entire life in Fayette County, having served in the capacity of sheriff and clerk. His wife was a native of the Blue Grass State, and died in Tennessee also. Elijah C. Brown has one brother and two sisters: Sarah (wife of Dr. William Parks), Thomas M. and Eva Lillian (wife of E. T. Dyer). Elijah C. started out in life for himself with a limited education, but after the war he determined to remedy this defect and accordingly entered Hickory Withe Academy of Fayette County, Tenn., and upon leaving this institution was much better prepared to fight the battle of life. He followed the slow but sure way of making money by

farming until 1874, then spent two years in Clarendon, engaged in clerking, after which he returned to his farm and he and a brother opened a store and put up a steam cotton-gin, successfully operating both until 1883, when our subject sold out to his brother, and in 1884 came to Brinkley. Here he has since made his home and in addition to managing his farm he trades in stock and real estate. He has 582 acres of fine land with about 300 under the plow, and he also owns considerable real estate in Brinkley. He is a Democrat, a member of the K. of H. and his wife, whom he married December 16, 1874, and whose maiden name was Jennie Davidson, is a member of the Methodist Church. They have had eight children, but three sons and four daughters are now living. Mrs. Brown is a daughter of James B. and Harriet Davidson, native Tennesseeans. born. reared and married in that State. Before the opening of the Civil War they came to Arkansas and Mr. Davidson was sheriff of Poinsett County for nine years. He was a large mail contractor and died in Cross County in March, 1862, while serving as captain of a company belonging to the Confederate States army. His wife died in Craighead County in 1873.

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W. D. Burge has been a successful merchant of Indian Bay since 1876, F. J. Robinson also constituting a member of the firm until 1887, when he retired. Mr. Burge's stock of goods is valued at about $2,500, and his annual sales net him a handsome profit. His native birthplace is Rutherford County, N. C., where he was born in 1848, and he is a son of Woody and Dulcinea (McIntire) Burge, who removed to the State of Mississippi, when their son, W. D., was about two years old. Here the father died in 1877, having been a farmer throughout life, his wife's death occurring in 1865. W. D. Burge was the eighth of eleven children, and received his education in the common schools, and at the age of seventeen years he began for himself, his occupation being that of clerking. His life occupation has been merchandising and farming, and he has been successful in both occupations, and besides his store he is the owner of 400 acres of land in different tracts. He has been a resident of Indian Bay since 1871, and since 1877 has been a married man, his wife being Lila, daughter of Hon. F. M. and E. A. Robinson, a sketch of whom appears in this work. Mrs. Burge was born in the [p.523] State of Tennessee, and has borne Mr. Burge a son and a daughter. Mr. Burge is a Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Horace Greeley in 1872. He belongs to advance Lodge No. 2491, K. of H., and has held the office of Past Dictator in that order. His wife is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

 

Capt. Hilliard A. Carter is a planter and a retired merchant of Brinkley and was born in Wilcox County, Ala., in 1833, being one of seven surviving members of a family of fourteen children born to Aaron B. and Elizabeth (Lee) Carter, both of whom were born, reared and married in Fairfield District, S. C., removing in 1825 to Alabama and in 1835 to La Fayette County, Miss. In 1865 they removed to Hopkins County, Tex., and the following year Mr. Carter died. His wife's death occurred in Lamar County, Tex., in 1877, at the age of seventy-five years, both having been members of the Presbyterian Church for many years. The father was a successful planter and socially was a member of the A. F. & A. M. The paternal grandfather, John Carter, was a planter and a blacksmith and spent all his life in South Carolina. He served in the Revolutionary War. His parents were born in Ireland and were among the first settlers of South Carolina. The maternal grandfather, John Lee, being also one of the early settlers of that State and a Revolutionary soldier. Capt. Hilliard A. Carter is the only one of his family residing in Monroe County, Ark., and although he received little early schooling he became versed with the world's ways at an early day and was intelligent and well posted on all current topics. In 1856 he came to Monroe County, and until the opening of the war acted in the capacity of an overseer, but gave up this work and in 1862 joined Company E, A. W. Johnson's Regiment of Infantry and held the positions of sergeant and lieutenant until 1863, when he was made captain of his company. About a year later he and fourteen other men were detailed to look up absentees, and after securing sufficient men he and his followers were called Company C. He afterward raised another company, which he commanded until the close of the war and surrendered at Helena with a portion of his men. After his return from the war he resumed his farming operations, but in 1868 gave this up to engage in mercantile pursuits at Clarendon, which he continued until 1870, then came to Brinkley where he was in business until September, 1887, at which time his property was destroyed by fire and has never rebuilt, but has given his attention to his real estate, being the owner of about 1,000 acres. He has over 400 acres under cultivation, besides valuable property in Brinkley, all of which is the result of his own hard work and good management, as he started in life for himself a poor boy. In his political views he has been a Democrat all his life and is also a Mason, having been a member of Brinkley Lodge No. 295 for the past twelve or fourteen years. In 1884 he was married to Elizabeth, a daughter of William and Elizabeth Hawkins, who were Mississippians and removed to Monroe County, Ark., prior to the war, the mother dying in 1864, and the father in 1876. Mrs. Carter was born in Jefferson County, Ala., her parents being also natives of that State.

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James Allen Cocke, planter, Arkansas. That a life-time spent in pursuing one occupation will, in the end, result in substantial success, where energy and perseverance are applied, can not for a moment be doubted, and such is found to be the case with Mr. Cocke. He was born in Monroe County, Miss., on February 10, 1837, and is the son of Jester and Eliza C. (Atkins) Cocke, whose marriage occurred in 1828. The father was a native of Virginia, of English ancestors, who came to America prior to the Revolutionary War. To Mr. and Mrs. Cocke were born four children: Mary E., John B., James Allen and Sarah E. The father died in Monroe County, Miss., in 1841. After his death the mother married John M. Smith, and in 1845 came to Arkansas. James Allen Cocke was reared to agricultural pursuits, and received a limited education in the subscription schools of Monroe County. On November 6, 1866, he was wedded to Miss Nancy A. Youngblood, a native of Alabama, and a daughter of Ephraim A. and Mary A. (Bagby) Youngblood. The fruits of this union were three children: Jester Andrew (born June 28, 1868), [p.524] John Benjamin (born April 26, 1870) and Lucy Adaline (born October 26, 1871). Mrs. Cocke died on November 10, 1871, and on May 8, 1872, Mr. Cocke married Miss Elizabeth Virginia Hess, a native of Alabama, and the daughter of David and Louisiana (Kerr) Hess, the father a native of Holland, and the mother of Scotch-Irish descent. To this marriage six children were born: Sarah F. (born March 10, 1873), Thomas (born January 7, 1875), Ada Beulah (born December 5, 1878), Helen Bertha (born December 9, 1880), Anna Laura (born March 5, 1882) and David Hess (born October 12, 1885). During the late war Mr. Cocke enlisted in Company A, Fifteenth Regiment Arkansas Volunteer Infantry (the first company organized in Monroe County), and participated in the battles of Shiloh, Richmond, Perryville, Murfreesboro and Chickamauga. He was captured at the last-named place, on September 19, 1863; was a prisoner for about two months before finally reaching Camp Douglas, Ill., where he remained for eighteen months. On May 28, 1865, he was liberated at the landing below Vicksburg, and left on the first boat for home, where he arrived June 4, 1865, just a month from the time he left Camp Douglas. After this he rented land, and also carried on the carpenter's business until 1871. He then bought 160 acres of land, and now has forty-five acres under cultivation. He and wife, and his children, Benjamin and Sarah, hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Cocke is a member of Kerr Lodge No. 195, Holly Grove, A. F. & A. M.; Chapter No. 16, R. A. M.; Blakely Council No. 19, Clarendon, Monroe County, Ark. He was made a Mason in 1866, and united with the Chapter in 1869, the Council the same year, and has served his lodge as W. M., the Chapter as Capt. of H., and has also served in all the offices in the Council.

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John W. Cooper. For a period now approaching forty-five years, this honored resident of Monroe County, Ark., has been identified with the agricultural interests of this region, having settled here with his parents, Benson and Delphia (Lindsey) Cooper, in 1845. He, like his father, was born in Spartanburg District, S. C., his birth occurring in 1843, and there the latter's marriage occurred, his wife having been born in Lawrence County, N. C. Upon their arrival in Arkansas they spent the first year in Crittenden County, afterward locating on a woodland farm in Monroe County. The father died on his farm, three miles below Brinkley, in 1863, his wife having also died there three years earlier. They had been members of the Baptist Church for many years, and the father was of Irish descent and a son of Matthew Cooper, who probably spent all his life in South Carolina. John W. Cooper is the fourth of seven children, and spent his youth in the wilds of Monroe County, receiving but few advantages for acquiring an education, as the schools of that day were few and far between. In 1861 he espoused the Southern cause and joined Company E, Twenty-fifth Arkansas Infantry, and operated in Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky and Virginia, and was a participant in eighteen different engagements, among which may be mentioned Shiloh, Richmond, New Hope, Peach Tree Creek, Murfreesboro, Missionary Ridge and Chickamauga, and was all through the Atlanta campaign. He returned with Hood to Tennessee and was in the engagements at Franklin and Nashville, but was captured at the last-named place and taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was retained until after Lee's surrender. On being released he went to Fort Riley, Kan., but soon after returned home, and, in August, 1866, was married to Rachel, a daughter of Samuel and Rachel A. Martin, natives, respectively, of North and South Carolina. After the war they came to Faulkner County, Ark., where the mother died in 1846. Mr. Martin married again and in 1860 settled in Monroe County, where his demise occurred seven years later. He was a member of the Methodist Church, a farmer by occupation, and held the office of justice of the peace for some years prior to his death. Mrs. Cooper was born in what is now Faulkner County, in 1844, and has borne Mr. Cooper a family of nine children, three sons and two daughters now living. Mr. Cooper has resided in different parts of Brinkley Township, and has improved four good farms and is now putting in a tillable condition [p.525] his fifth farm, which comprises 520 acres, 200 acres of which are under cultivation, but a considerable portion of his land is devoted to stock raising. He has been a resident of Brinkley for six years, in order to give his children the advantages of the town schools, and is considered one of the wide-awake and public-spirited citizens of the place. He is a Democrat and a member of the K. of H. and the I. O. O. F. At the time of his marriage Mr. Cooper was $75 in debt, but by many years of hard labor he is now in affluent circumstances. He and his elder brother, Dillard L., served together throughout the war, and during their entire service were never separated but eight days, and that was while our subject was in the hospital, after being wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro.

Richard N. Counts is a general merchant and cotton buyer of Clarendon, and although he has only been established in business at this place since October, 1888, he has deservedly acquired the reputation of being a safe, thorough and reliable man of business. He is a native of the State, having been born in Independence County, in 1851, and he is the youngest of eight children born to the marriage of Richard N. Counts and Mary A. Tucker, who were born, reared and married in the State of Missouri, afterward removing to Independence County, where the father followed the occupation of husbandry, and died in 1858. His wife died when our subject was about one year old, and after his father's death he was left to depend on his own resources, and from 1860 has made his home in Prairie and Monroe Counties, receiving a common-school education. For about six years he followed book-keeping and clerking for B. F. Johnson, and the following five years worked in the same capacity for J. M. Wheelock, by this means acquiring sufficient means to enable him to engage in his present business, which has proven a decided success. His property has been acquired by his own exertions, and in addition to his store he has a fine farm of 320 acres, of which 160 acres are in a good state of cultivation. He is a Democrat, casting his first vote for Tilden, in 1876, and in March, 1885, he was elected to fill an unexpired term of county treasurer, and in 1886 was re-elected, serving in all nearly four years. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M., Cache Lodge at Clarendon, also the K. of P. and the K. of H., and for several years has been financial reporter of the latter order. He also belongs to the A. O. U. W., and he and his wife, whom he married in 1885, and whose maiden name was Lucy Bonner, are members of the Methodist Church. They have one daughter. Mrs. Counts was born in North Carolina, and is a daughter of W. H. Bonner, a Tennesseean, who came to Monroe County, Ark., in 1859, and here died in 1888, having been an assessor and farmer, his wife's death occurring in 1881. Mr. Counts had previously married in 1873 Fannie E., a daughter of James H. and Eleanor Branch. She was born in Tennessee, and died in 1879, at Clarendon, leaving two children, a son and a daughter. Mr. Counts is of Irish descent, and has a brother and two sisters living: William A. (a hardware merchant of Little Rock), L. J. (Mrs. Meeks, of Brinkley) and Linnie (Mrs. Loving, of Pine Bluff).

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Robert Craig, planter and ginner, Brinkley, Ark. There are many citizens of foreign birth represented within the pages of this volume, but none are more deserving of mention than Robert Craig, who was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1852. His father, John Craig, was a native also of Glasgow, Scotland, was a farmer and stock raiser for many years, and was also engaged in merchandising in Belfast for several years. He was married to Miss Ann Cruitle, of Scotland, in 1822, and they became the parents of eleven children, six sons and three daughters now living: James, Sarah, Mary (wife of John Curry, and still living in the old country), John, Annie (wife of James Hamilton), Robert, George, Thomas and Alexander. The father is still living and resides in Scotland. Robert Craig crossed the ocean to America in 1867, located in Arkansas, and was united in marriage to Miss Lou Stall in 1875. She was born in Arkansas in 1853, and her parents, George and Catharine Stall, were natives of Pennsylvania. To Mr. and Mrs. Craig were born three children: George R., Anna B. and Mary L. [p.526] Mr. Craig is the owner of 247 acres of land, with about 100 acres under cultivation, and his principal crops are cotton and corn. He erected a good cotton-gin in 1883, and has since added a cornmill, with a capacity for forty bushels per hour. He is one of the most progressive and energetic farmers of this section, and his farm buildings are neat, commodious and substantial. He has also two tenant houses. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his wife is a member of the Baptist Church.

S. W. Davis, planter, Cotton Plant, Ark. The subject of this sketch needs no introduction to the people of Monroe County, for a long residence here, and above all a career of usefulness and prominence, have given him an acquaintance which shall last for years. He was born in La Fayette County, Miss., in 1845, to the union of Chesley and Mary E. (Simpson) Davis, natives of South Carolina and Alabama, respectively. Eight children were the fruits of this union, two daughters and six sons, three of whom only are living: S. W., Mary E. (wife of Ben Glover) and R. S. Chesley Davis was reared to agricultural pursuits and this was his chief occupation during life. He immigrated from Mississippi to Arkansas in 1851, locating in St. Francis County, and there entered and traded for land until he had 380 acres. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M.; was justice of the peace for several years, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and died in Woodruff County in 1859. His wife died in 1865 and was a member of the Baptist Church. S. W. Davis began life upon his own resources in 1867 and hired to work in a gin-house. In 1868 he began farming on rented land, continued at this until 1872, when he fell heir to some land from his father's estate. He was married, in 1867, to Miss Mollie C. Harbour, a native of Tennessee, born in 1851, and the daughter of and Eliza B. Harbour, of Woodruff County, Tenn. The result of this union were eight children, six of whom are now living: E. B., Samuel T., John C., William A., Mattie and an infant not yet named. The parents of Mrs. Davis are originally from Kentucky, immigrating from that State to Tennessee, thence to Mississippi and finally settling in Arkansas, where they both died; E. B. died in 1861 and his wife in 1879. During the late war, or in 1864, Mr. Davis was in the Confederate cavalry, Company B, under Captain Wilson, and served until the surrender at Wittsburg, Ark., in 1865. After this he resumed farming and has followed this pursuit ever since. He is one of the prosperous and leading citizens of this township, has a fairly improved farm of 160 acres and has 109 acres under cultivation. He was justice of the peace for eight years and was appointed deputy sheriff in 1886. He erected a large gin in 1885 and this he has run ever since.

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J. H. Dial, merchant and planter, Holly Grove, Ark. In the business of merchandising Mr. Dial is second to none in Duncan Township, and in connection is also extensively engaged in agricultural pursuits. A native of Greene County, Ala., he was born June 28, 1821. His father, David M. Dial, was born in South Carolina in 1785, was married to Miss Jennette Spence in 1801, and successfully tilled the soil all his life. His wife was born in Newberry District, S. C., in 1783. To them were given thirteen children, only two now living: J. H. (the subject of this sketch) and his sister, Rebecca (the wife of George Rix, of Keokuk, Iowa). David M. Dial was an elder in the Old School Presbyterian Church. His wife was a member of the same church. They immigrated from South Carolina to Greene County, Ala., in 1818, where the father died in 1834, the mother in 1855. At the age of sixteen J. H. Dial started out for himself, and began farming on a tract of land he owned in Sumter County, Ala. In the year 1853 he moved to this State and purchased land in Monroe County. When the late war broke out he enlisted in the Confederate army, Company E, Thirty-first Regiment Infantry, under Capt. O. H. Oates, and was wounded in the battle of Stone River, Tenn., December 31, 1862. He was first taken to the field hospital and remained there ten days, then being removed to Nashville in a six-horse wagon, going as fast as it could over the rough roads. There he was put in the guard house and three days later in the penitentiary, where he was kept four or five [p.527] days and then taken to the hospital. It was found necessary to amputate his right arm, which operation was performed by Surgeon Massy, and he was then removed to Mr. Robinson's, a private house, where he was nursed and taken care of for three months by two noble ladies, Mrs. Cartright and Miss Mary Hadley. Being taken to Louisville (Ky.) as a prisoner, he and his companions were there robbed of all their clothes and money. Later, going to Baltimore, Md., and thence to Petersburg, he was finally released and from there went to Shelbyville, Tenn., where he received his discharge. Starting on a tramp for home he walked the entire distance from West Point, Miss. In 1864 he was again taken prisoner when at Clarendon on some business, had his wagon and mules taken from him and was put in prison at Devall's Bluff and kept for a week or ten days. Had it not been for the kindness of Mr. Steele and Mr. Phillip Trice he would have suffered, but they furnished him clothes and money and he fared sumptuously for a prisoner. Mr. Dial was married to Miss Letitia Caulfield, a daughter of Henry and Isabella (Watson) Caulfield, on November 2, 1858. She was born in Greene County, Ala., her parents being from Ireland. Her father came to this country in 1821. He was a successful and energetic farmer and died in Greene County October 16, 1867. The mother died March 15, 1870. They were the parents of six children, two daughters now being the only living members of the family: Bessie (the wife of Jere Horn, of San Marcos, Tex.) and the present Mrs. Dial. J. H. Dial and wife had a family of eight children, of whom six survive at this time: Belle (the wife of T. G. Trice, of Holly Grove, Ark.), Mary V. (widow of Dr. C. H. Boyd, of Holly Grove, Ark.), Margie (wife of W. M. Harrison of Pine Bluff, Ark.), their sons, David M., Thomas G. and Jere H., all live in Holly Grove, Ark. Mr. Dial owns a valuable farm and is a successful farmer. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church.

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Capt. Parker C. Ewan is a member of that substantial and successful law firm of Ewan & Thomas, of Clarendon. The senior member of the firm, Capt. Ewan, was born in New Jersey, in 1837, and is a son of John and Sylvia H. (Hankins) Ewan, who were also born in that State, the former in 1800, and the latter in 1804. After their marriage they moved to Clermont County, Ohio, in which place Mr. Ewan died of cholera, in 1849. His wife died in Cincinnati, Ohio, twenty-eight years later. He was a farmer, and was a son of Evan Ewan, a native of New Jersey, who died there, at about the age of eighty years, having been an iron manufacturer by trade. He was a captain in the Revolutionary War, and traced his ancestors back to Sir Raleigh Ewan, a Scotchman. Many of the family now in this country have changed the name to Ewing. Richard Hankins, the maternal grandfather, was of Irish extraction, a farmer by occupation, a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and spent his entire life in the State of New Jersey. The immediate subject of this biography is one of a family of ten children, all of whom are living, with the exception of one, who was killed by a train in Texas, in January, 1888, and in youth he became familiar with farm life by assisting his father. Until twelve years of age he attended the common country schools, then entered the Bantam (Ohio) High School, and two years later the College Hill Academy, near Cincinnati, but in 1854 left school and went South, and for a short time was engaged in flat-boating on the Mississippi River. In 1855 he began teaching school, in Phillips County, Ark., at which time the country was in a very wild and unsettled condition, the timber being full of wild animals, and at one time he stood in his school-house door and shot a panther. In 1857 he came to Monroe County, and taught school until the opening of the Civil War, then dropped the ferrule to take up the musket, and joined Company E, First Arkansas Infantry, afterward the Fifteenth Arkansas, commanded by Col. (afterward Gen.) Cleburne. His first experience in warfare was in the battle of Shiloh, and still later he was made captain of his company, and participated in the battles of Richmond and Perryville (Ky.) and Murfreesboro, (Tenn.), when he was again severely wounded, and was compelled to give up his command. After recovering he was placed in command of the post at [p.528] West Point, Ga., was made provost marshal, and when the news of the final surrender reached him he was on post duty at Macon, Ga. After his return to Monroe County he farmed one year, then began filling the duties of county clerk, to which position he had been elected in 1866, serving with ability for two years. His first experience in the practice of law was with Jeremiah Marston, and in 1872 the firm became Marston, Ewan & Bobo, which continued until the death of Mr. Marston, about ten years later. From that time until 1886 Mr. Ewan continued alone, and was then associated with Mr. Palmer for two years, after which Mr. Thomas became a member of the firm. Mr. Palmer withdrew in 1888, and the firm is now Ewan & Thomas, one of the strongest and most thorough law firms in Eastern Arkansas. Mr. Ewan was county attorney from 1868 to 1872, and is one of the leading members of the Democratic party in his county and State. He has been a delegate from Monroe County to nearly every Democratic State convention, and has never voted outside of Monroe County. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M. since 1862, Cache Lodge No. 235, and he also belongs to the K. of P., Cowan Lodge No. 39. By his own indomitable energy and methodical business habits he has become one of the wealthiest men of the State, and is the owner of about 70,000 acres of land in Monroe, Phillips, Lee, Arkansas and Prairie Counties. He has thirty-five improved farms, ranging from eighty to 1,600 acres each, and also owns seven cotton-gins, two saw-mills, and one-half interest in a railroad, all of which he has earned since the war, and, unlike many wealthy men, he can truthfully say that he never intentionally wronged a man out of a dollar. That he is one of the honored and trusted men of the county can readily be seen. He owns the Monroe County Sun, a newspaper which he founded in 1876, and has since controlled. In 1865 he was united in marriage to Miss M. L. Rayston, who was born in Mississippi, and left her husband a widower in 1868, with a daughter to care for, named Carrie L., now the wife of W. N. Johnson. Mr. Ewan celebrated his second marriage in 1870, his wife being Maggie H., a sister of his first wife, also born in Mississippi. After bearing him one child, who is now deceased, he was again left a widower, January 4, 1872. September 21, 1874, he married his third wife, Julia C., a daughter of Prof. Frank S. Connor, of Abbeville, S. C. His wife is a Methodist, and has borne him four children, Parker C., Jr., aged eleven years, being the only one living.

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S. E. Fitzhugh, farmer, Brinkley, Ark. This comparatively young agriculturist is the son of a man who, during his residence here, was intimately and permanently associated with the county's interest, and whose memory is cherished by a host of those acquainted with him while living. S. H. Fitzhugh was a native of Dyer County, Tenn., born in 1815, was reared on a farm and followed tilling of the soil all his life. He was married to Miss Martha S. Christy, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Abisha Christy, of South Carolina, and became the father of ten children, two of whom are now living: S. E. and Susan M. (wife of G. W. Hullom, of Monroe County). Mr. Fitzhugh immigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1846 or 1847, locating in Monroe County, and there purchased 100 acres of land. He built a log-cabin and improved his farm. He died in this county on May 17, 1886, and his wife died on March 18, 1883. Both had been members of the Baptist Church for many years. S. E. Fitzhugh now lives on the farm where his father first settled on coming to Monroe County. He started out to earn a living for himself, and first engaged in agricultural pursuits when nineteen years of age on his father's land. Here he remained until after the death of his father, when the land was divided by will, and he received 120 acres, with about sixty acres under cultivation. He married, in 1869, Miss Sarah F. Capolenor, a native of Phillips County, Ark., born January 8, 1842, and the daughter of John and Martha Capolenor, of Monroe County. They are the parents of six children, four daughters and two sons: Rilda J., James H., Joseph N., Tennessee F., Laura E. and Lulu. Mr. and Mrs. Fitzhugh are members of the Baptist Church. As she was quite young when her parents died, Mrs. Fitzhugh [p.529] knows very little of the descent of her ancestors or of her parentage. She has a brother and sister living: T. C. (of Cotton Plant) and Martha (wife of John H. Tomlinson, also of this State). Mr. Fitzhugh is one of the leading planters of his township, and is a genial and clever gentleman.

J. M. and A. Flora. The business interests of this portion of the country are well represented by these gentlemen, who have been located in the town (since 1883) long enough to become thoroughly established. Their stock of goods is valued at some $6,500, the annual sales reach $20,000 and the establishment is conducted with ability and success. J. M. and A. Flora, the proprietors, were born in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1852 and 1861, respectively, and J. M. is a son of William and Elizabeth (Wood) Flora, the former a native of North Carolina, and the latter of Virginia. Their union was consummated in Shelby County, Tenn., and there Mrs. Flora died when her children were small. Mr. Flora afterward married Sallie E. White, by whom he became the father of A. Flora, one of the members of the above-named firm. Mr. Flora was a farmer by occupation, and died in 1864. J. M. Flora, the youngest of the four children born to his first union, was denied the privilege of more than a common-school education, but by contact with the world and close application to business he has added to his early schooling and has become thoroughly posted on the current topics of the day. In 1881 he began merchandising at Henning, Tenn., continuing until 1884, and he then became connected with his brother, A. Flora, who had established their present mercantile establishment in Brinkley in 1883. Their union has been very prosperous and their stock of goods is of excellent quality and is sold at reasonable prices. In 1888 they built a two-story brick business block, containing two store-rooms, which are well and conveniently fitted up. Both these gentlemen were reared to farm life and have acquired the greater portion of their property since 1881. J. M. Flora is a Democrat, a member of the Christian Church, and of the children born to his parents, one brother only is now living, John. A. Flora has one sister living, who is Mrs. Bettie Rogers, of Shelby County, Tenn. Micager Wood, the maternal grandfather of J. M. Flora, was a pioneer farmer of West Tennessee, and died there.

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J. M. Folkes is a successful real-estate and collecting agent at Brinkley, and no name is more prominently identified with this business than his. His judgment is thoroughly relied upon as to the value and nature of real estate, and he is an energetic and thorough-going man of business, and is strictly honest in all his transactions. He is a Kentuckian by birth, born in Pendleton County in 1851, his parents, Henry Harrison and Mary E. (Woodyard) Folkes, being also natives of that State and county, where they were reared, married and spent their lives. They were members of the Methodist Church of many years' standing, and the father was very successful in his farming operations, as he started in life with little or no capital and at the time of his death left an estate valued at $30,000. The grandfather, Jerome Folkes, was born in Harrison County, Ky., and there died, having been a life-long farmer. His parents were Virginians. J. M. Folkes, our immediate subject, was the third of nine children, and is the only one now living so far as he knows. His early life was spent in attending the common schools and following the plow, and upon attaining the age of fifteen years he went to Ohio, and began clerking in a store in Xenia, which occupation he continued to follow for four or five years. His education not being sufficient to satisfy him, he, during this time, attended night school and graduated therefrom. After clerking in Cincinnati, Ohio, for two years he began traveling for Frank Loeb & Block of that city, and continued thus for six years, after which he clerked for some time in different counties of Texas. He kept books for T. H. Jackson & Co., and managed a commission store for Black & Co. at Gray's Station. Mr. Folkes is quite an extensive traveler, and in 1871-72 made a trip around the world, his journey being varied by many interesting incidents. He is now settled down to hard work, and is doing a prosperous business, his home in the town of Brinkley being commodious and comfortable. He was married in Memphis November 30, 1886, to Miss [p.530] Libbie J., a daughter of John and Elizabeth Davis, of Brooklyn, N. Y., the father being a wholesale oyster dealer of that city, having succeeded his father, who was also in that business. He died in October, 1889, but his widow is still living. Mr. Folkes is a Democrat, and socially is a member of the K. of H., the K. & L. of H. and the K. of P., being Vice-Chancellor in the latter order. His wife is a finely educated and accomplished lady, and is a member of the Episcopalian Church of Brooklyn, N. Y.

Dr. J. W. Frazer is a physician of more than ordinary ability, located at Clarendon, Ark., and is engaged in farming and selling drugs at that place. From an early age he displayed an eagerness for study and desire for professional life, and after attending the common schools and laboring on a farm until eighteen years of age, he took a three years' course in the Jacksonville (Ill.) College, obtaining in this institution a thorough education. He then spent some time in farming, and during leisure moments pursued the study of medicine, beginning his practice in Union County, Ark., after having taken a course of lectures in the University of Louisville in 1848-49. In 1860 he graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Louisiana, at New Orleans, and from that time until 1887 was in the active practice of his profession at Tupelo, Miss., coming then to Clarendon, Ark., where he has since devoted his attention to the practice of medicine, selling drugs and farming. During about three years of the war he served as surgeon in Confederate hospitals in Mississippi and Alabama, and since the war has been conservative in his political views, although formerly a Whig. He is a member of the Masonic order, and since 1850 has been a member of the Presbyterian Church; his wife, whom he married in that year, and whose maiden name was Margaret A. Wiley, was also a member of the Presbyterian Church. She was born in Perry County, Ala., in 1830, and died in Tupelo, Miss., in 1887, childless. Dr. Frazer wedded his present wife in February, 1888, she being a Mrs. Lucy N. (Mullens) Youngblood, born near Clarendon in 1848, a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the mother of one child, about fourteen years of age, named Beulah M. Youngblood. The doctor was born in Autauga County, Ala., in 1826, and is a son of Walter and Nancy (Brann) Frazer, both of whom were born in Mecklenburg County, Va., and were there reared and married. About 1818 they removed to Alabama, where the father's death occurred in 1831, he having been a successful farmer. He was a lientenant in the War of 1812, and was a son of Rev. James Frazer, who was born in Scotland, and came to America when a young man, marrying and settling in Virginia, but returned to his native land about the commencement of the American Revolution. He was a minister of the Presbyterian Church, and died in **** His family remained in America.

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Alfred J. Gannon is a son of John Porter Gannon, who was born in North Carolina in 1813, and immigrated to Tennessee in 1823 with his father, George Gannon. He was married in 1837 to Miss Elizabeth Hayes, a native of Virginia, and of English descent. The family of Gannon is of Irish ancestry. Elizabeth died in 1858, leaving seven children, four sons and three daughters: Martha A. (wife of Nathan McBroon, now of Delta County, Tex.), Alfred J., William C., John Q., Joanna (wife of William A. Sullivan), Fannie T. (wife of N. J. Mason) and James B. He was married a second time in 1859 to Miss Travis. They were the parents of three children, two of whom are still living: Isaac and Samuel L. He was a captain in the Mexican War. Capt. John P. Gannon followed farming and stock raising all his life. He was a strict member of the Christian Church, and a strong temperance advocate never allowing whisky to enter his house only in the form of medicine. His life was an exemplary one, both as a Christian gentleman and as a member of society. He died in August, 1870. Alfred J. Gannon was born in Cannon County, Tenn., on April 19, 1842, and being raised on a farm was taught farming and stock raising until the war between the States in 1861. He was among the first to enlist in his State, and joined the company

known as the "Woodbury Guards," afterward called Company A, Eighteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers [p.531] (Joseph B, Palmer, colonel). Mr. Gannon was in the Kentucky campaign of 1861, and was captured at the fall of Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862. He was sent to Camp Butler, Springfield, Ill., and was there confined in close prison for seven months, and was then sent down the Mississippi River to Vicksburg for exchange in the transport steamer A. McDowell, Commodore Farragut's fleet. Here he was exchanged and went to Montgomery, Ala., and re-enlisted in the war. Mr. Gannon was in the battle of Murfreesboro and was one of the participants in the celebrated Breckenridge charge on the evening of January 2, 1863. He was also in the battle of Chickamauga, and here received a wound in his right arm, by reason of which he was honorably discharged from service. He had many narrow escapes during the war. He immigrated to this State in 1872, and was married to Miss Maggie L. Palmer on January 19, 1876. who was born in Phillips County on May 29, 1854. They have a family of five children: Katie L., John Hayes (who died on October 7, 1886, in the seventh year of his age), Maggie C., Alfred J., Jr., and Ellett Hewitt. His wife is the second daughter of John C. and Margret E. Palmer, of this State, and a granddaughter of Jesse J. Shell, one of the early settlers of the State. Mr. Gannon is a member of the Christian Church and his wife belongs to the Catholic Church. He owns a fine farm of 160 acres of land with good buildings, orchard, etc., and is also a breeder of fine cattle. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and a stanch Democrat, as his father and grandfather were before him.

William H. Govan is the son of Andrew R. Govan, who was born in Orangeburg District, S. C., in 1796. His parents, Daniel and Elizabeth (Roach) Govan, were of Scotch descent. Andrew was a large planter of that State, which he represented in Congress in 1824. He was married to the mother of our subject, Miss Mary P. Jones, a daughter of J. Morgan and Sallie (Davis) Jones, in 1824. They reared a family of eight children, six of whom are still living: D. C. (a brigadier-general in the Civil War, who is now a resident of Helena), John J. (a farmer of Lee County), George M. (now secretary of State of Mississippi), Sarah (the wife of John M. Billups, of Columbus, Miss.), Bettie and William H. (our subject, and the next to the oldest). Andrew R. Govan moved from North Carolina in 1831, and settled in Western Tennessee, near Summerville, going five years later to Mississippi, where he died in 1841. His wife was a native of New Berne, N. C., and was born in 1802, and died on July 12, 1888, in Mississippi. William H. Govan was born in Northampton County, N. C., in 1831. He was married in 1878 to Miss Jennie Jackson, daughter of John S. and Isabella R. (Rhodes) Jackson, natives of Tennessee and Mississippi, respectively. She was born in Louisiana, in 1834. Mr. Govan moved to Arkansas in 1858, and bought a farm in Phillips County, where he lived until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the Second Arkansas Infantry, serving as quartermaster and paymaster. At the close of the conflict he embarked in the mercantile business with Maj. W. E. Moore, and the following year sold out and entered into partnership with Hon. H. L. Hawley and Oliver H. Oates, in the practice of law at Helena. The next year he returned to Phillips County, and engaged in farming, but in 1874, resumed the practice of law with Hon. John H. Huett, at Mariana, where he remained until 1878. Moving to Monroe County, he purchased a farm of 500 acres, with over 300 acres under cultivation. The house he now occupies is one of the oldest in the county, having been built by Dr. Duncan in 1834. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and of the K. of H. Mrs. Govan is a member of the Presbyterian Church.

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Grant Green is a member of the law firm of Price & Green, of Clarendon, Ark. The profession of law is one of the most important of human callings, and he who takes upon himself the practice of it, assumes the weightiest responsibilities that his fellow-man can put upon his shoulders. As a copartnership, whose honor is above criticism, and whose ability places it among the leading law firms of the West, is the above named. Mr. Green, the junior member, was born in Monroe County, Ark., in 1850, and is the son of Dr. Henry D. and Martha H. (Lambert) Green, who were born in [p.532] Henderson County, Ky., in 1824 and 1832, respectively. In 1847 Dr. Green removed to Montgomery Point, Ark., but after a short time returned to his former home, and in 1848 came to Monroe County, Ark., where he was married in 1849, being among its early settlers, and one of its most prominent physicians for many years. He was an influential and public-spirited citizen, and did a great deal toward developing the country and improving the morality of the community in which he resided. His medical education was acquired in Louisville, and during the Rebellion he was assistant surgeon in the Confederate States army. He served as county judge of Monroe County, and filled the office of county treasurer two terms. He was a prominent Mason, a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and died in 1879. His father, John W. Green, was born in Kentucky, in all probability, and was killed while serving in the Mexican War. Dr. Green's wife bore him two sons and one daughter, and from a child she was reared in Monroe County, Ark., and left him a widower in 1857. She was a daughter of Rev. Jordan B. Lambert, who was a Kentuckian, but was one of the early settlers of Monroe County, having come here in 1839. He represented Monroe County in the State legislature, was at one time judge of the county, and was an influential citizen and a prosperous farmer. Dr. Green was married a second time, in 1859, to Miss Minnie I, Swift, in Fayette County, Tenn., who bore him four sons and two daughters, all of whom, including herself, are still living. Their eldest son is Henry D. Green, Jr., the present treasurer of Monroe County, and an energetic and successful young merchant

at Clarendon. Mr. Lambert was a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Grant Green, our immediate subject, was educated in the local schools of Monroe County and West Tennessee, and for one year was an attendant of the Jesuit School of St. Louis. At the age of nineteen years he entered the Law Department of the Cumberland University of Lebanon, Tenn., attending two terms, and after teaching school a few terms, and pursuing the study of law in the meantime, he was admitted to the bar in 1870, but did not enter actively upon his practice until two years later. Since then he has been actively engaged in practice; two years, 1875 and 1876, he was at Helena. He has been one of the leading members of the Monroe County bar for a number of years, and since 1882 has been associated with Mr. Price. He is one of the well-to-do men of the county, and is the owner of a fine farm comprising 1,000 acres, eight miles from Clarendon, of which 400 acres are under cultivation. Mr. Green voted first for Greeley in 1872, and has always been a Democrat in his political views. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., the Knights of Honor and the Knights of Pythias, and has been presiding officer in all these orders. June 1, 1875, he was married to Miss Loula M., a daughter of Dr. Henry G. Jackson, of Monroe County, Ark., but she left him a widower in 1876. Mr. Green's second marriage was celebrated at Somerville, Tenn., in 1883, his wife being Mrs. Willie Word, a daughter of Maj. W. E. Winfield, of Fayette County, Tenn., who obtained his title while serving in the Confederate army under Gen. Johnston. Mrs. Green was born in West Tennessee, and she and Mr. Green have two children, a son and a daughter. They are members of the church, Mr. Green being a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and Mrs. Green of the Old School Presbyterian Church.

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Henry D. Green, treasurer of Monroe County, Ark., is the son of Dr. H. D. Green, who was married twice, his last wife being the mother of our subject. His grandfather Swift, was a Tennesseean, who died in Fayette County. Henry D. Green was born in Monroe County, Ark., in 1863, the fifth of ten children, six sons and four daughters, and as he grew up he was daily instructed into the mysteries of farm life. Although he only attended school for about eighteen months he made the most of the advantages offered him and later by reading and contact with the business affairs of life, has become one of the well informed and intelligent young men of the county. Upon the death of his father he began the battle of life for imself, and until 1884 was engaged in tilling the soil. From that time until 1885 he clerked in a [p.533] store in Clarendon, then engaged in general merchandising on his own responsibility and has a stock of goods valued at $1,000, the firm being known as H. D. Green & Co. He was notary public for four years or until 1888, then was elected to the office of treasurer of Monroe County by the Democratic party, of which he has long been a member, and is now filling the duties of this position. He is a member of the K. of H., of Clarendon Lodge No. 2328, and he and wife, whom he married in 1888, and whose maiden name was Kate Blake, are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Green was born in Hendereon County, Ky., and she and Mr. Green are the parents of a daughter. Her parents, Augustus and Gertrude Blake, were born in Henderson County, Ky.

 

William Jasper Hall, planter and stockman, Holly Grove, Ark. This prominent agriculturist is the son of Thomas and Mournen (Stephens) Hall, the father of Scotch-Irish and English descent. The ancestors of the Hall family came to America prior to the Revolutionary War, and the grandfather Hall, who was probably a native of North Carolina, served in this war. The maternal ancestors were of French-Scotch descent, and the parents of Mrs. Hall, Willoughby and Margaret (Littleton) Stephens, were natives of North Carolina, their ancestors having emigrated to America previous to the War of 1776, William Jasper Hall was born on January 31, 1844, in Onslow County, N. C., and received the rudiments of an education in a private school at Mill Run, Onslow County, completing his education at Jacksonville, the same ounty. He was early initiated into the duties of farm life and remained at home until the early part of 1862, when he enlisted in Company C, Fourth Regiment North Carolina Cavalry. The command was called up after the battle of Gettysburg to cover the retreat of the Confederate army after their defeat in that battle, and the regiment dismounting at a bridge on the Hagerstown road, were surrounded by Federal forces and were cut off from their horses and lost nearly all of them. The command remained on the north side of the Potomac for about three weeks after the battle, in consequence of the high water. They finally forded the river at Williamsport, a number being drowned in the attempt, and joined their comrades. Mr. Hall was with his command nearly all the time, except when driven out of Culpeper, and was paroled at New Berne, N. C., in April, 1865. He walked from New Berne to his home the latter part of April, and engaged in tilling the soil, which occupation he continued until 1870, when he came to Arkansas, locating near Indian Bay, Monroe County, where he worked for Samuel Pointer, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. He returned to North Carolina about Christmas of the same year, and was united in marriage to Miss Sallie L. Stephens, the daughter of Enoch and Mary (Tatum) Stephens. Mr. and Mrs, Hall arrived in Arkansas on February 16, 1871, rented a farm on shares, and, after remaining there one year, moved on the John Walker farm, Jackson Township, Monroe County. He made his first purchase of land in 1879, a tract of 200 acres with no improvements, and has added to this until he now is the owner of 600 acres, 480 acres in one body and 275 acres under cultivation. He principally raises cotton, but also raises good corn, and has a good young orchard. He is quite a stockman and raises cattle and hogs. To Mr. and Mrs. Hall have been born eight children, seven now living: Florence Geraldine (born January 1, 1872), William Enoch, Samuel Norman, Beatrice Rosa, Paul Ransom (deceased), Paula E., Mary M. and Sallie Edith. Mrs. Hall died in Jackson Township, in November, 1887. Mr. Hall takes a deep interest in all educational matters, and is determined to give his children all the advantages possible in that direction. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Indian Bay Lodge No. 256, and also holds membership in the K. of H. Lodge No. 16, Indian Bay, and is a charter member of the L. of H. In 1886 he was elected to the office of county coroner, but never qualified, having been elected without being consulted.

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William Hooker. Among the many enterprises necessary to complete the commercial resources of a town or city, none is of more importance than that of the grocer, as he is one of the main factors [p.534] in the furnishing of our food supplies. Prominent in this trade is Mr. Hooker, who has been established here in business since October, 1889, his stock of goods being valued at about $1,500. He was born in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1856, and is a son of Joseph W. and Fannie A. (Jones) Hooker, the former a Tennesseean and the latter a native of South Carolina. Their marriage took place at Memphis, and prior to the war they came to Arkansas, and opened a farm on White River. During the struggle between the North and South they returned to Tennessee, coming again to Arkansas after the war had closed. From that time until his death he kept a hotel at Clarendon, and in the latter years of his life also an eating-house at Brinkley, and one at Black Fish for the Little Bock & Memphis Railroad. He met a violent death, being killed in a railroad accident in 1879. He was a soldier for three years in the Confederate army, being a member of an Arkansas regiment. His widow survives him, and is a member of the Methodist Church. William Hooker is the second of seven children, three now living, and received his early education in the city of Memphis, his higher education being acquired in Leddin Commercial College. After clerking for nine years for Walker Bros. & Co., of that city, then the largest mercantile house in the South, he became a bookkeeper for Saul Alinger, of Saulsbury, with whom he remained eighteen months, then clerked for Gunn & Black, until they sold out. During 1883 he associated himself with Louis Salinger, in the general mercantile business, continuing until 1887, then began trading in real estate. Mr. Hooker is a Democrat politically, and has shown his approval of secret organizations by joining the Knights of Honor and the Knights and Ladies of Honor. On March 12, 1887, he was married to Emma, a daughter of John A. McDonald. She was born in Jackson County, Ark.

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Wesley H. Hughen, farmer and stockman, Holly Grove, Ark. Mr. Hughen was born May 19, 1824, in Abbeville District, S. C., and received a limited education in Coweta County, Ga., whither his parents had moved in 1831. Later they moved to Rome, and there Wesley attended the male academy for about two years. He was early initiated into the duties of farm life, and on December 21, 1845, he was married in Floyd County, Ga., to Miss Elizabeth Mann, who was born November 14, 1825, and who was the daughter of Young and Mary A. (Garrison) Mann, natives of North Carolina and Georgia, respectively. After marrying Mr. Hughen engaged with his brother and father in farming, and the following year immigrated to Alabama. To his marriage were born these children: Martha A. (born August 6, 1847), Mary L. B. (born July 21, 1849), Sarah A. (born December 17, 1850), Robert A. (born August 22, 1853) and William R. (born August 22, 1855). The mother of these children died September 4, 1866, and was buried in Floyd County, Ga. While living in Alabama Mr. Hughen followed agricultural pursuits, and in 1855, he moved to Gordon County, Ga., where he engaged in the milling business with Mr. Mann (his father-in-law), and erected a flouring and saw mill. By a freshet, the property was badly damaged, but they rebuilt and had gotten fairly started again, when the Rebellion broke forth, and put nother stop to their operations. In May, 1863, Mr. Hughen enlisted as a soldier, and was assigned to duty in the First Georgia Regiment Infantry, serving from that time until December, 1865. He participated in two engagements: Stone River, and during the siege of Fort Sumter he frequently went into the fort to witness the manner of defense. On the 5th day of December, 1864, while on duty, he was captured by the Union soldiers and taken to New York, being confined for thirteen days. He then took the oath of allegiance to the United States, and afterward went to Edgewood, Ill., where he engaged in milling, following this until the close of the war. He then returned to his home in Georgia, where he was employed for some time in endeavoring to repair the damages done during the war, and working at various occupations, until the fll of 1869, when he came to Arkansas. He rented land for three or four years, and in 1873 bought the land upon which he now lives, and where he has since made his home. The tract contains sixty-six acres of wild, woody land, upon [p.535] which not an improvement had been made. At the present time Mr. Hughen has forty-seven acres under cultivation, and has good buildings, orchards, etc. On October 3, 1867, he took for his second wife Mrs. Eliza Moore, who bore him one child, Ida Lee, whose birth occurred July 9, 1868. At the present time, five of Mr. Hughen's children are living, and all are married: Martha A. (wife of Mr. Knowlis, who became the mother of four children. Her second marriage was to Mr. Bonner, of Texarkana), Mary L. B. (married Jasper Lampley. She died in 1883, and left children), Sarah (married twice, first to Zeke Meeks, by whom she had one child, and second to Mr. Fitzhugh, by whom she had four children, all deceased. She died in 1884), Robert A. (died at Little Rock, in 1885), William R. (died on December 9, 1887, and left four children, the result of his union with Miss Elizabeth Chrisp), Ida Lee (became the wife of Elihu Williams, and has one child). Mr. and Mrs. Hughen are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. Hughen has been a local preacher since 1883. He has been a member of that church for thirty-eight years. He is inclined to be Democratic in his political views. He is the son of James and Elizabeth (Anthony) Hughen, the father born and reared in South Carolina, and of Irish descent. His ancestors came to America, previous to the Revolutionary War, located in South Carolina, and the paternal grandfather, R. A. Hughen, was a commanding officer in the Revolutionary War. His uniform was seen by the subject of this sketch, in the clerk's office at Coweta, Ga., thirty years ago, at which time it was in a good state of preservation. Others of this family participated in the Florida War. James Hughen and Miss Elizabeth Anthony were married August 31, 1822, in Anderson District, S. C., and became the parents of seven children, all of whom grew to mature years. Mrs. Elizabeth (Anthony) Hughen was the daughter of Joel and Mary (Bratton) Anthony.

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James Benton Hughes, planter, Lamberton, Ark. On August 8, 1841, there was born to Joshua and Nancy (Bookout) Hughes, a son, James Benton Hughes, who was one of a family of thirteen children, the result of their union. The father was born in Tennessee in 1814, and was of English descent, his ancestors having emigrated to America previous to the Revolutionary War. The Grandfather Hughes participated in the struggle. James Benton Hughes' birth occurred in De Kalb County, Ala., and of the large family of which he was a member, only eight are now living. He was educated in the subscription schools of his native county, and subsequently attended Sulphur Springs Academy. He was reared to the arduous duties of the farm, and this has been his principal occupation during life, although for about three or four years he was engaged in rafting on the White River, between Indian Bay and New Orleans, their cargo being cypress logs. In 1859 Mr. Hughes went to Texas, where he was engaged in farming and herding for a year or two. He contracted with the Government to deliver supplies to the troops at Fort Colorado, and in March, 1862, he enlisted in Company C, Twenty-fourth Texas Cavalry, afterward the Twenty-fourth Texas Infantry, serving until the close of the war. He participated in the battle of Helena, was in the Missouri raid under Gen. Price, and at Pilot Knob, where he received a wound in the hand. He was also in a number of skirmishes previous to the Missouri raid. He went from his home to take the oath of allegiance at Jacksonport, but was not successful. In 1866 he worked on Dr. Washington's farm on shares, for one year, and then engaged in rafting as before mentioned. On March 5, 1871, he was united in marriage to Mrs. Sallie (Simmons) Stunson, the daughter of John and Jennie Simmons, who were among the first settlers of Eastern Arkansas. One child, Rosabell, was born to this union, her birth occurring on August 16, 1872, and her death on November 1, 1885. Mrs. Hughes died on April 14, 1876. Mr. Hughes made his first purchase of land, a tract comprising forty acres of wild land, in 1873, and has since added to this, until he now owns 380 acres, with about ninety acres under cultivation, his principal crops having been corn and cotton. He has a fine young apple and peach orchard, and raises as fine peaches as can be found anywhere. In his political views he coincides with [p.536] the Democratic party. He officiated in the capacity of deputy sheriff for eight years by appointment, and was a capable and efficient officer. He is a member of the K. of H., Indian Bay Lodge No. 2491, and is also a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

G. W. Hurst, at the early age of fifteen, was made overseer of an extensive plantation, and had the full management of the same, in Monroe County, Miss., for over three years. After this he took charge of a large gang of negroes for James Erwin, being thus engaged until the opening of the war, when he enlisted in the Eleventh Mississippi. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Gettysburg, and removed to Ohio, where he was held for seven months, when he escaped and went to Buffalo, and a number of other cities, but was unable to join his regiment. G. W. Hurst was born in Franklin County, Ala., in 1840, being a son of Henry and Mary (Austin) Hurst, natives of Georgia and Alabama, respectively. They were the parents of nine children, five of whom are still living: G. W., Richard, Henry, William and Elizabeth (the wife of David Hooker, of Mississippi). Mr. Hurst was a member of the A. F. & A M., and of the Baptist Church, as was also his wife. He died in 1853 or 1854, and his worthy companion in 1849. At the close of the war the principal of this sketch returned to Franklin County, Ala., where he was married to Miss Mary E. Askew, daughter of Josiah and Permelia Askew, natives of that county. The following year they removed to Arkansas and located in Monroe County, and engaged in farming. They had a family of eight children, five of whom are living: Mary J. (the wife of W. H. Odon, of Ellis County, Tex.), James F., Clara J., George A. and John H. Mr. Hurst is a member of the K. of P., and his wife of the Baptist Church.

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T. H. Jackson is the senior member of the general mercantile firm of T. H. Jackson & Co., of Brinkley, Ark., their stock of goods being valued at $35,000, and their annual sales reaching $120,000, and in addition to successfully disposing of the manifold duties connected with this establishment, he is connected with the Brinkley Car Works and the Monroe County Bank and director of the Louisiana, Arkansas & Missouri Railroad. Being a native-born citizen of the State, he has ever had the interests of his State and county at heart, and has manifested his desire to witness their advancement by taking an active interest in all worthy enterprises, such as schools, churches, and the erection of public buildings of all kinds. In every walk of life he has proven himself to be a man of strict integrity and moral worth, and his influence in all public affairs has always been on the side of right. His birth occurred in Helena, Ark., in 1855, and he is a son of Jesse A. and Eliza L. (Hicks) Jackson, the former of whom is supposed to have been born in North Carolina, and the latter in Tennessee, their marriage taking place in Helena at an early day. During the war Jesse A. Jackson was a recruiting officer for Company A, but he afterward settled in Helena, Ark., of which place he was several times mayor, and councilman for some years, and was also in the United States land office, being there for some time, and afterward becoming interested in banking and mercantile business. He moved to Shreveport, La., where he died of yellow fever, in 1873. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. His wife is still living and is sixty-two years of age. T. H. Jackson is the fourth of ten children, and received his education in the city of Helena, and spent three years in the Cumberland University of Lebanon, Tenn. Upon leaing that institution he was about sixteen years of age, and although his knowledge of the world was at that time very limited he was compelled to begin the battle of life for himself and his first work was in the capacity of clerking. He remained with one firm at Helena for seven or eight years, then became traveling salesman for William R. Moore & Co., of Memphis, but after remaining with them for a period of five years he settled at Brinkley (in 1886) and is now classed among the leading men of the county. He is a conservative Democrat in his political views, and socially is a member of Brinkley Lodge No. 3127, of the Knights of Honor, the Knights and Ladies of Honor and Knights of Pythias, being Chancellor Commander of the latter order. January 6, 1886, witnessed [p.537] the celebration of his marriage to Lena A., daughter of Maj. William and Bena Black, prominent residents of the county. Mrs. Jackson was born in Memphis, Tenn., is a member of the Catholic Church, and her union with Mr. Jackson has been blessed in the birth of two bright little sons.

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Capt. Benjamin F. Johnson is a member of the general mercantile firm of B. F. & G. F. Johnson, they being also engaged in cotton dealing at Clarendon. This firm is one of the most successful and enterprising in Eastern Arkansas, and the senior member of the firm, our subject, was born in La Fayette County, Miss., in 1839, being a son of Benjamin J. and Harriet T. (Owen) Johnson, the former a Georgian, born in 1802, and the latter a Virginian, born in 1818. The nuptials of their marriage were celebrated in Maury County, Tenn., and soon after they removed to La Fayette County, Miss., coming to Monroe County, Ark., in 1848, and settling near Cotton Plant. Here they improved a good farm, but becoming a little dissatisfied with his location, he, in 1859, went to Texas. He soon returned, however, to Monroe County, and here spent the rest of his days, dying in 1869, a successful planter and one of the leading pioneers of the county. For some years he was a leading commissioner of what was then St. Francis County, and, as he was enterprising in his views and honest and upright in character, he had many warm admirers and friends. He and wife were Baptists, and he was a son of Henry Johnson, a native of Ireland who, when but sixteen years of age, came with a brother to the United States. He served in the Revolutionary War and afterward made his home and was married in Virginia, moving thence to Georgia, but his death occurred in Alabama, he having settled where Decatur is now situated. The maternal grandfather, John W. Owen, was born in Scotland and being of an enterprising and adventurous disposition he emigrated to America when a young man and also participated in the American Revolution. He spent many years of his life in the Old Dominion. but his declining years were spent on a farm in Fayette County, Tenn. Capt. Benjamin F. Johnson lost his mother in 1854, and in 1858 his father married again, having one daughter by his last wife, and three sons and two daughters by his first. Benjamin F. is the only child living born to his parents, and many of the important years of his life were spent on a farm, but although engaged in the monotonous duties of farm work he obtained a fair education in the schools near his home. September 13, 1859, witnessed his marriage to Miss Jane E., a daughter of William A. and Mary Pickens, who were born, reared and married in Tennessee, and moved from there to Mississippi, thence to Monroe County, Ark., in 1858, both parents dying here in 1860, having been farmers and worthy citizens of the county. Mrs. Johnson is a native of Tennessee, and two years after her marriage her husband left her to join Company B, First Arkansas Infantry, and during a service of about three years he was in the fights of Pea Ridge, Big Black, Richmond, Murfreesboro and many others. On account of failing health he was furloughed and remained at home about three months, but soon recovered his wonted energies, and in 1862 returned to the army, becoming one of Price's men, and was with him while on his raid through Missouri. He was paroled at Wittsburg and returned to farm life, but in 1869 also engaged in merchandising at Crockett's Bluff. Owing to the dullness of trade he moved to Clarendon in April, 1869, and began business after settling in Clarendon, continuing until 1874, when misfortunes

overtook him and all his accumulations of years were swept away. He then went to Helena, Ark., where he worked for wages a few years, and by dint of economy and many self-denials he had accumulated sufficient proerty by 1878 to permit him to again embark in mercantile pursuits on a small scale. Owing to the many warm friends he had previously made in Clarendon and to his honesty, industry and strict attention to the details of his business, his patronage has steadily increased and he now does an annual business of about $90,000 in Clarendon, besides a business of $25,000 in Indian Bay. His nephew, G. F. Johnson, whom he has reared from a lad of thirteen years, is his partner and is an intelligent and wide-awake young business man. Mr. Johnson owns about 3,000 acres of land, with [p.538] about 1,700 acres under cultivation, all of which he has earned since 1878. He is a Democrat, a member of the A. F. & A. M., the K. of H. and the I. O. O. F. He and wife are worthy members of the Presbyterian Church. They have no offspring, but have raised and educated seven orphan children, one girl and six boys, all of them steady and of good habits. One of the boys will study law, another medicine, one civil engineering and still another one will embark in stock raising out west. G. F. Johnson is his partner, and the sixth and last one, died just as he was in his eighteenth year. The names of these children are James B. Benson, Jasper W. Benson, Frank Miller, G. F. Johnson, William H. Johnson, E. B. Montgomery and Miss Mattie Lee Benson.

Capt. William J. F. Jones is a farmer and mechanic of Pine Ridge Township, Monroe County, Ark., but his birth occurred in Maury County, Tenn., in 1831, his parents being William and Penny (Skipper) Jones, natives respectively of North Carolina and Virginia. They were both taken to Maury County, Tenn., when small and were reared, educated and married in that State. Mr. Jones died when our subject was about twelve years of age, and his wife afterward married again and removed to Texas, where she died in 1883, both she and Mr. Jones having been earnest members of the Methodist Church. Mr. Jones was a farmer, as were his father and father-in-law, Joseph Skipper, and all were early settlers of the State of Tennessee. Capt. William J. F. Jones was the second of five children, and he and his elder brother, John W., were reared to a farm life and after their father's death assisted in the support of the family until they attained manhood, William J. F. being so occupied until he was twenty-four years of age. He was married in 1854 to Nancy A., a daughter of William and Louisa Malone, by whom he became the father of ten children, three sons and two daughters being now alive: William C., James T., Maggie I. (wife of John L. Barnett), Viola J. and Theodore T. After his marriage Mr. Jones resided in De Soto County, Miss. (which was Mrs. Jones' native birthplace), until 1856, since which date he has been a resident of Monroe County, Ark. His first home here was a little log-cabin among the woods, twelve miles east of Clarendon, and here, after many years of slow and disheartening labor he finds himself the owner of 680 acres of as fine land as there is in the county, and by his own efforts he has put 125 acres under the plow. At the breaking out of the war he owed $500 on his homestead of 120 acres, but during this time he paid off the debt in full, and although suit was afterward brought against him for the amount, the case was decided in his favor. The rest of his property has been made since then. In 1861 he joined Company A, Fifteenth Arkansas Infantry, as a private and became a member of the Army of the Tennessee, participating in the battle of Shiloh. On May 15, 1862, he was detailed home for recruits, and had no difficulty in raising sufficient men to form Company E, which was attached to the Sixth Arkansas Infantry, and he became its captain. He was in the engagements of Prairie Grove and Helena, but was taken captive at the latter place on July 4, 1863, and was taken to Alton, Ill., where he spent one month, and from that time until January 9, 1865, he was kept a prisoner at Johnson's Island. After being paroled he returned to his farm. His first presidential vote was cast for Pierce in 1852, but since 1874 he has been a member of the Union Labor party. He belongs to the Agricultural Wheel. His wife is a member of the Christian Church.

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Benjamin F. Kerr is one of the early residents of Monroe County, and is a retired merchant and planter of Clarendon. He was born in what is now Hale County, Ala., in 1830, his parents, John W. and Margaret (Dial) Kerr, having been born in Lincoln County, Ky. and Newberry District, S. C., respectively, the former's birth occurring in 1798.Their nuptials were celebrated in Greene County, Ala., and in 1852 they came to Monroe County, but the father did not long live to enjoy his new home, as he was taken sick while en route to St. Louis, and died in that city in 1855. He was a very successful man of business, having been a planter and merchant, and at the time of his death was quite wealthy. His father, James Kerr, was born in Scotland, and when a young man came to the [p.539] United States and settled in Kentucky, where he made his home until his death. David M. Dial, the maternal grandfather, was born in the "Emerald Isle," and died in Sumter County, Ala., in 1834, having been a wealthy farmer. Benjamin F. Kerr is the second of six children, and although his youth was spent at hard labor on the farm he succeeded in acquiring a good education, and after attaining his twelfth year attended school at Bridgeport, Conn., for two years, then Middletown, Conn., two years, and spent the three following years at Danville, Ky., graduating from a school at that place in 1849. He spent the following eight years with a wholesale house of St. Louis, and in 1855 came to Monroe County, Ark., and settled at Holly Grove, where he farmed until 1875. Since then he has resided in Clarendon, and, until March, 1877, he was engaged in the mercantile business, but since that time he has been retired from the active duties of life. He is quite well off as far as worldly goods are concerned, and has a fine farm of 300 acres and a good house in town. His wife, whose maiden name was Kate May and whom he married in Sumter County, Ala., in 1851, was born in Marengo County of that State, and by Mr. Kerr is the mother of four sons and two daughters. She is a daughter of Asel and Charlotte May, natives, respectively, of Alabama and Kentucky. The former died in his native State in 1835, and the latter's death occurred in Rankin County, Miss. Mr. Kerr was a Whig prior to the war, but has since been a Democrat. He served the Confederate cause in the commissary department until 1863, and afterward went to Little Rock, where he was made recruiting officer. He was captured near Helena, in 1864, and was imprisoned at Camp Chase, Ohio, until just before the close of the war, when he was exchanged. He is a Knight Templar in the Masonic fraternity.

W. D. Kerr, manager of the firm of Isaac Halpin, was born in Jackson County, Ala, in 1832, and is the son of James Kerr, whose birth occurred in Pulaski County, Ky., in 1804. The father was a mechanic by trade, and this occupation carried on until late in life, when he began farming, continuing at this until his death. He was married to Miss Cynthia Taylor, of Alabama, in about 1829, and they became the parents of fourteen children, seven sons and seven daughters, seven of whom are now living: Eliza J. (wife of J. T. Simms, of Texas), W. D., John M., James A., Rufus L., Emma A. (wife of W. H. Sperry, of Holly Grove), Martha E. (widow of Mr. Beever) and Charles G. James Kerr was a member of the A. F. & A. M., and was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for over forty years, being class leader and steward in the same. He immigrated from Alabama to Arkansas in 1853, located in this county, and was the founder of the town of Holly Grove, owning part of the ground the town now stands on. He bought land when he came here and built a log-cabin, having previously lived in a tent. He died in 1881, and his wife died in this county in 1888. She was also a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. W. D. Kerr began life for himself in 1852, as a clerk in a book and music store of Gainesville, Ala., and there remained for a year, when he began clerking in a drug and dry goods store for J. H. & J. G. Webb, of Sumterville, Sumter County, Ala. He moved from that State to Arkansas in 1858, and located in or near Holly Grove, where he has remained ever since. He was married to Miss Elizabeth D. Nicholson, of Alabama, in 1854, and by her became the father of three children: Lillian (wife of W. B. Wellborn), Gertrude E. and Hattie N. Mr. Kerr was elected justice of the peace in 1860, and held the office two terms; was also county judge a number of years. Mrs. Kerr was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and died in 1884. Mr. Kerr took for his second wife Mrs. Emma Metcalfe, a native of Union County, Ky., born in 1840, and the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Martin Berry, of Union County, Ky. Mrs. Kerr is a member of the Presbyterian Church, but Mr. Kerr has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, since he was sixteen years of age.

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L. W. Kizer, farmer, Cypress Ridge, Ark. Mr. Kizer is a man who can appreciate the comforts of a desirable home and surroundings, and his well-improved farm and attractive residence prove an [p.540] ornament to the community. His father, David Kizer, was born in Tennessee in 1810, was reared on a farm and followed agricultural pursuits as a livelihood all his life. He was married to Miss Susan Ferguson, of Tennessee, and they became the parents of seventeen children, only five of whom are now living: Thomas D., James M., Joseph F., William and L. W. Mr. Kizer died in Mississippi in 1877, and his wife died in 1835. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. L. W. Kizer was married, in 1883, to Miss Sallie Ferguson, a native of De Soto, Miss., born in 1855 and the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Ferguson. Four children have been the result of this marriage, three now living: Georgia E., Katie and Grover C. Mr. Kizer is the owner of 320 acres of excellent land, with 175 acres under cultivation, and he also owns and operates a large cotton-gin. He moved from Mississippi to Arkansas in 1883 and has since made his home in this county. He is one of the leading farmers and citizens in this section. Mrs. Kizer is a member of the Presbyterian Church.

 

Charles B. La Belle is the capable cashier of the Monroe County Bank, and is also a member of the general mercantile firm of T. H. Jackson & Co., of Brinkley. He was born in Little Rock, Ark., in 1860, and is a son of Charles and Margaret (Crudgington) La Belle, the former a Canadian, who, after traveling in different States, finally settled in Pulaski County, Ark., becoming one of its pioneer settlers. Here he was married and spent the rest of his life, dying June 26, 1888, a contractor and brick-mason and a large real-estate owner. He was a well-known citizen of Little Rock, a Democrat in his political views, and at the time of his death was in full communion with the Catholic Church. His wife died October 4, 1877, having borne two children, a son and a daughter, the latter now being Mrs. J. H. Laster, of Little Rock. Charles B. La Belle attended the public schools of his native town, and later graduated from the Little Rock Commercial College, after which he became book-keeper for T. S. Diffey & Co., of that city until 1883, when he came to Brinkley and spent the first three years as a clerk for M. Kelley. He also filled the position of clerk and book-keeper for T. H. Jackson & Co., and in the month of May, 1888, was made a member of that well-known and enterprising firm. Although young in years he ranks among the leading business men of the place and in every respect deserves success, which has attended his career. In politics he is a Democrat and his first presidential vote was cast for Cleveland in 1884. He has served one year as alderman of Brinkley, and socially is a member of Brinkley Lodge of the Knights of Pythias, and also belongs to the Knights of Honor. October 3, 1888, he was married to Miss Anna, a daughter of the late Maj. William Black, whose history is given in this work. Mr. La Belle and his wife have one son, whom they expect to rear in the Catholic faith.

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B. J. Lambert, merchant and farmer, Lamberton, Ark. Among the most important industries of any community are those which deal in the necessaries of life, and nothing is more necessary than bread and meat. Lamberton at least has one first-class establishment doing business in this line, which is successfully conducted by Mr. Lambert and son, who handle nothing but the best and freshest goods. This gentleman owes his nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in Madison County, in 1838, and is the son of Jordan B. and Judith W. (Key) Lambert, the father a native of the Old Dominion, born in 1797, and the mother of North Carolina, born in 1799. They were married in Henderson County, Ky., and later moved from there to Madison County, Tenn., where they resided for seventeen years. In 1839 they came to Monroe County, located near Indian Bay, among a wild and immoral class of people, who were opposed to culture or refinement, and rather disposed to riot and turmoil. Such a class of people was very obnoxious to the cultured and refined taste of Mr. Lambert, who put forth every effort to effect a change in that direction, and his exertions were eventually crowned with success. Here he passed the closing scenes of his life, his death occurring in January, 1860. He was a prominent Cumberland Presbyterian minister for many years, and was one of seven brothers, six of whom were ministers [p.541] in that church. He was the only one to reside in Monroe County, where he was one of the prominent pioneers. In 1844 he served in the Arkansas legislature, and afterward was judge of the county and probate court. He probably did more toward moralizing the people and advancing the general interest of the country than any other one man. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. His father, Joel Lambert, was a native Virginian, of English descent, and died in Kentucky, Mrs. Lambert (mother of the subject of this sketch) died in 1868. She was the daughter of Chesley Key, who was a native of North Carolina and who died in Kentucky. B. J. Lambert was next to the youngest of ten children, eight sons and two daughters, seven of whom lived to be

grown, but only two of whom are now living: B. J. and S. T. The former received his education in the common schools and attended two and a half years at Princeton, Ky., and one year at McLemoresville, Tenn. He then engaged in agricultural pursuits and continued at this until the opening of the war. He served two and a half years in the Confederate army, in different companies, and was first with his brother, Capt. Robert Lambert, who was killed at the battle of Shiloh. Afterward he was in McCrea's brigade and operated in Arkansas. He was captured in Monroe County, April 10, 1864, and was imprisoned at Camp Chase, Ohio, until the close of hostilities, and then returned home. He was married March 20, 1861, to Miss Fannie A. Beasley, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of Maj. John P. and Evaline T. Beasley, who came from West Tennessee to Monroe County, Ark., in 1859. There Mrs. Beasley still resides, but Mr. Beasley was murdered in Texas, December 14, 1865, whither he had gone after stock. He and wife were natives of Alabama, and both were church members, he of the Methodist and she of the Baptist. To Mr. and Mrs. Lambert were born eleven children, three sons and two daughters now living, and since 1871 Mr. Lambert and family have resided at Lamberton, where he purchased 1,500 acres of land, and has about 500 acres under cultivation. Since 1883 he has conducted the plantation store. He has been postmaster at Lamberton since the establishment of that office, and in 1872 was elected sheriff of Monroe County, but was counted out and the matter was not settled for three years. In politics he was formerly a Whig, but is now a Democrat, and his first presidential vote was cast for Bell in 1860. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Indian Bay Lodge No. 256, and Forest Home Chapter No. 16, at Clarendon. He and wife are members in good standing in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Henry A. McGill began life for himself at the early age of twelve years, by learning the painter's trade. Six years later he went to Mason County, Ill., where he worked at his trade until the breaking out of the war, then enlisting in the Twenty-eighth Illinois Infantry, and participating in all the principal engagements of his division. He received his discharge in April, 1865, when he returned to Illinois, and engaged in farming until 1867, the time of his removal to Arkansas. Then he located in Monroe County, where he again took up his trade of painting. Four years later he bought a farm of 180 acres, with 130 acres under cultivation, and now owns a cotton-gin and grist-mill, built in 1883, which he operates in addition to his farm. Mr. McGill was born in Madison County, Tenn., in 1845, and is a son of William McGill, a native of the same county. The latter was born in 1824, and was married, in 1849, to Miss Adaline Gustin. They were the parents of three sons: Henry A. (our subject), John and William, deceased. He immigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1849; and there died, having been a planter and overseer all of his life. Mr. Henry McGill was married in 1877 to Miss Annie S. Hallum, who was born in Poinsett County, in 1855. They were the parents of seven children, three of whom only are living: Volency H., Harrold and Julins. Mr. McGill is a member of the K. of H., and he and wife belong to the Baptist Church. He is a strong Democrat, and a well-known and respected citizen.

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M. J. Manning is a member of one of the leading law firms of the State of Arkansas, that of Roberts & Manning. He was born in De Soto County, Miss., in 1861, and is a son of Hon. T. P. [p.542] and K. A. (Barbee) Manning, natives, respectively, of North Carolina and Tennessee, who were married in De Soto County, Miss., where the mother died in 1882. Mr. Manning was a very successful lawyer of that State for twenty years and made his home in the above-named county until 1884, since which time he has resided in Paris, Ark., and the reputation he has acquired as a lawyer has been gained through his own efforts and at the expense of diligent study and hard practical experience. He is of Scotch-Irish descent, and during the late Civil War commanded a company of men from Mississippi, Confederate States army, and on many occasions showed marked ability as a commander and achieved considerable distinction. In 1874 the people of De Soto County showed their appreciation of his ability, by electing him to the State legislature of Mississippi, and he served in that body with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of all concerned. M. J. Manning, whose name heads this sketch, was the second of nine children and after acquiring an excellent education in the schools of his native county he entered the Law Department of the Mississippi University at Oxford and upon gradusting, in 1883, came immediately to Clarendon, and in

September of the same year was admitted to the Monroe County bar and has already risen to distinction in his profession, and notwithstanding the fact that he is young in years he has already attained prominence in his calling. He is a Democrat in his political views, an active member of the K. of P. and the K. of H., also the American Legion of Honor. In 1885, Miss Jessie, a daughter of Major William E. Winfield, of Tennessee, who was a soldier in the Confederate army, a farmer by occupation and who died in 1878, became his wife. She was born in Tennessee and by Mr. Manning is the mother of two daughters. She belongs to the Episcopal Church and he to the Baptist.

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M. D. Martin is a member of the general mercantile firm of Martin, Black & Co., of Indian Bay, Ark., the business being established on February 1, 1877, the average value of the stock being about $10,000, and their annual sales amounting from $40,000 to $80,000. In connection with their dry-goods establishment they own and operate a good steam cotton-gin and saw-mill. Mr. Martin was born in Atlanta. Ga., in 1840, and was a son of Joseph J. and Jane (Thurmond) Martin, who were born in South Carolina and Atlanta, Ga., in 1811 and 1820, respectively. They were married in the mother's native birthplace, but in the year 1852 removed to Tilton, at which place the mother's death occurred in 1867, and the father's in 1886. He was an extensive planter, and a prominent man, and both he and his wife were members of the Baptist Church. The paternal grandfather, William G. Martin, was born in Virginia, and died in Atlanta, Ga., but a number of the years of his life were spent in Abbeville District, S. C. He was colonel of a regiment of militia during the War of 1812, but did not see much service. His father was a Virginian, the first one of the family born in America, as his father was a native-born Englishman. M. D. Martin, our immediate biographical subject, is the eldest of a family of eleven children, eight now living, and his early education was acquired in the high school of Atlanta, Ga., and in the schools of Dalton. He next studied under a private tutor, and afterward read law with Judge John G. Stewart, and was admitted to the bar just at the breaking out of the late Civil War. He immediately joined the Second Georgia Battalion, and served in the Army of Virginia, until after the battle of Gettysburg, at which time he was captured. From that time until April, 1864, he was kept a prisoner at Fort Delaware and Point Lookout, and was then paroled. After spending a short time in New York City he came to Memphis, and was engaged in the timber business in that city until 1869. Since that time he has resided in Indian Bay, and after following the same business here for a few years he began keeping books, and a year later in connection with this work engaged in farming. From 1877 to 1882, he was engaged in merchandising for himself, but at the latter date he formed a partnership with Maj. S. L. Black, who sold his interest to his son, John L. Black and J. W. Martin, a brother of our subject and they now constitute the present firm. In 1872 M. D. Martin was married to Sarah E., a daughter of William Radman, [p.543] formerly of Indiana, who died in Monroe County, Ark. Mrs. Martin was born in Indiana, and she and Mr. Martin have become the parents of six children, two sons and one daughter living. By push and energy Mr. Martin has become a well-to-do man, and his farm of 332 acres, near Indian Bay, is the result of his own industry. He is a Democrat, his first presidential vote being cast for Greeley in 1868, and he belongs to Indian Bay Lodge No. 256, A. F. & A. M., and has filled nearly all the chairs of this order. He also belongs to Advance Lodge No. 2491, K. of H., at Indian Bay, and the American Legion of Honor, Warsaw Lodge, at Indian Bay. He and wife are Methodists.

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William Montgomery Mayo, planter and stockman, Indian Bay, Ark. There are many incidents of peculiar interest presented in the career of Mr. Mayo, which can not be given in the space allotted to this article. Known over a large region of country tributary to Indian Bay, his reputation is that of a man honorable and reliable in every walk of life. He is the son of James and Sarah Eliza (Cokely) Mayo. [For family history see sketches of John W. and Laurence S. Mayo, elsewhere in this volume.] Capt. William M. Mayo was born September 26, 1822, in Martin County, N. C. He was early initiated into the details of farm life, and received a liberal education in an academy established by his father, the latter being the prime mover in securing its establishment. William moved with his parents to Tennessee, in 1837, and finished his education in the public academy in Fayette County, taught by Hartwell Rollins, near La Grange, Tenn. Afterward this school was taught by him for one year, but his principal occupation during life has been filling the soil. On Christmas eve of the year 1844 he was united in marriage to Miss Jane Elizabeth Anderson, daughter of Major Joel and Sallie (Younger) Anderson, both natives of Virginia, and whose ancestors on both sides probably came to America about 1765. Jane E. Anderson was born April 27, 1829, and is one of three children born to her parents: John Anthony, Lucinda Thomas and Mrs. Mayo. The latter was educated at the same school in Tennessee with her husband, was almost reared with him, their parents living on adjoining farms, and was a pupil of her husband during the year he taught school near La Grange. To Mr. and Mrs. Mayo have been born eleven children: Frederick Anthony (born March 31, 1846, now resides in Somerville, and an attorney at law at Somerville, Tenn. He married Mias Laura Cocke and became the father of seven children), Leauna Melvina (was born June 10, 1848, and died August, 19, 1849), Richard Dale (was born November 5, 1850, married Miss Willie Pointer, and has one daughter and four sons), Laura Montgomery (was born December 29, 1851, and became the wife of W. H. Boyce, a native of Tennessee, who is now residing near her parents; they had ten children, three now living), William Thomas (was born December 20, 1853, and died August 5, 1854), Nannie Jane (was born July 28, 1859, and married Sidney S. Bond, of Jackson, Tenn., January 14, 1879; has one child now living), William James (was born June 23, 1861, graduated in B. A. course and B. L., at the University of Mississippi in class of 1884, now an attorney at Clarendon, Ark.), Gaston Baldwin (was born September 26, 1863, and died November 28, 1865), Fannie Lula (born June 4, 1866), Lillie Lina (born August 11, 1868) and Walter Lee (born June 28, 1871, and died April 30, 1877). Fannie Lula married Samuel W. Hargia, on February 11, 1885. Her husband died on September 10, 1886, and in 1888 she was married to Major S. L. Black, Indian Bay, Ark. William James married Miss. Annie C. Lake, of Oxford, Miss.; she died at Clarendon, Ark., October 10, 1886. Lillian L. Mayo married John S. Black and resides at Indian Bay; they have one child. Capt. Mayo came to Arkansas in 1853, bought a tract of 2,400 acres, with a few acres cultivated, and he now has 1,200 acres under cultivation. In 1859 the Captain completed a story and a half log-house, 18x52 feet, and the same year added to that a two-story frame, 20x52, the two constituting the house in which he has since made his home, and in which his children received the principal part of their schooling. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate army as a private in the company known as the [p.544] Monroe Rebels of the Twenty-fifth Arkansas Infantry. In August of the same year he received a commission as captain with orders to return and report to the command of the Trans-Mississippi Department. He then raised what is known as Partisan Company to operate in the Eastern portion of Arkansas. The company afterward became Company O of the Forty-fifth Arkansas Cavalry, operating under Gen. Shelby, at Clarendon, Ark. At or near the last-named place, in 1864, he commanded two companies in a battle near Clarendon, Ark., with a detachment of the Eighth Missouri Cavalry, which hè defeated; was then in a battle at Miller's Creek under Gen. Thomas McRae, was then at Brownsville under Gen. Shelby, Ironton Mountain under Gen. Price, and at the last named place received a wound in the shoulder and was left on the field for dead. He was afterward assisted from the field by members of his company, and although his wound rendered him unfit for duty he remained with the command through the Missouri raid and until the end of the war, being in the recruiting service near his home at that time. In politics Capt. Mayo is a Democrat, and his first presidential vote was for Henry Clay. He was a member of the convention when Arkansas seceded from the Union. He holds membership in Indian Bay Lodge, No. 256, F. & A. M., and also holds membership in the Chapter and Council at Clarendon. He and wife and all their family are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Lawrence Sherod Mayo, planter and stockman, Lamberton, Ark. This much-esteemed citizen is the son of James and Sarah (Cokely) Mayo, of Irish and English descant, respectively. The parents were married in Edgecomb County, N. C., and the father was a successful agriculturist. His ancestors came to America previous to the Revolutionary War. To Mr. and Mrs. James Mayo were born a family of twelve children as follows, the years representing their births: Catharine, 1816; John W., 1818; Mary Eliza, 1820; William Montgomery, 1822; Harriet Ann, 1824; Benjamin Cokely, 1826; Sarah Louisa, 1828; Lawrence Sherod, March 13, 1830; Nancy Jane, 1832; Nathan, 1834; Olivia, who died in childhood, and James M., who was born in 1838. The children were all natives of Martin County, with the exception of James, whose birth occurred in Fayette County, Tenn. Lawrence Sherod Mayo, with his brothers and sisters (excepting the two youngest), received his education at home under an instructor employed by the father, and never attended any other school. He commenced life as a farmer at the age of twenty-one years, and on December 18, 1850, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Elizabeth Terrell, a native of Edgecomb County, N. C. The same year he bought a farm in Fayette County, Tenn., and tilled the soil for three years. In 1852 he sold his farm and came to Arkansas, locating in Jackson Township, then Lawrence County, and there he bought land. There he remained until 1857, when he sold out and moved to his present property. He at one time owned 1,000 acres of land, but now has about 600 acres, with about 200 acres under cultivation. He owned at one time about thirty slaves. His wife, Mrs. Mayo, was the daughter of Nathan and Alice (Bedmond) Terrill, both natives of North Carolina, and of English descent. The father was a farmer and carriage dealer by occupation. To Mr. and Mrs. Mayo were born these children: Daniel Redmond (born September 28, 1854), Sherod Dale (born May 28, 1856, and died February 16, 1875), Lawrence Montgomery (born September 20, 1859, and died February 16, 1875), James (born July 26, 1861), Nannie (born April 11, 1865), Alice (born January 10, 1867, and died September 10, 1870),

Patrick C. (born June 7, 1879), Henry Jackson (born March 24, 1871, and died April 24, 1881), and Mary Lawrence (born October 24, 1877). Daniel Redmond was married to Miss Annie Swift, and became the father of two children. He is now merchandising at Knoxville, Tenn. Nannie became the wife of Martin C. Bond, a farmer of Phillips County, Ark. They have three children. Mr. and Mrs. Mayo are members in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, as are also their children, Daniel R., Nannie and Mary L. Mr. Mayo is a Democrat, and his first presidential vote was cast for James K. Polk.

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John William Mayo, a farmer and stockman of [p.545] Monroe County, now residing with Wiley T. Washington, his son-in-law, on Section 24 of Jackson Township, is a son of James and Sarah Eliza (Cokely) Mayo. The founder of this branch of the Mayo family came o America in 1730, as far as is known, and the Cokely family also emigrated from England, probably before the Bevolutionary War. Benjamin Cokely, John W.'s maternal grandfather, married a sister of Com. Dale. Sarah E. (Cokely) Mayo had two brothers: Benjamin and William. The subject of this sketch was married to Miss Emma Ann Winston, on February 8, 1842, at the home of the bride's parents near La Grange, Fayette County, Tenn. She was a daughter of Thomas J. and Elvira (Jones) Winston, of Fayette County. In 1850 Mr. Mayo removed to Arkansas, and located in Monroe County, where he bought a farm of 160 acres, engaging in the occupation to which he had been reared. He located on Section 30, Jackson Township, in 1859, and now owns 355 acres, with 140 acres under cultivation, upon which are five tenant houses, and his land is in a high state of improvement. Mrs. Mayo died December 2, 1888, having borne a family of children as follows: Laura C. (born February 22, 1843, married Wiley F. Washington, October 16, 1860, and died January 18, 1887, leaving eight children, three living), Winston (born March 5, 1846), Sarah Olivia (born March 27, 1848, married Oran Washington February 18, 1874, who died January 2, 1875; their only child, Oran, Jr., was born January 3, 1875. She became the wife of W. F. Washington, December 25, 1887, and has one child by this union, Lawrence, born August 4, 1889), John J. (born December 19, 1849, married Miss Lou Walker, who bore one child, John W., January 1, 1876; after her death Miss Elam became his wife in 1878, and they have four children: Alice Vivian, Sarah Olivia, Emily and Bettie), William Jones (born January 24, 1852), Mary Louisa (born October 13, 1854, died October 10, 1859), Henry (died in infancy), Harriett Ann (born October 20, 1856, died September 27, 1871), Nathan (born February 12, 1862 (deceased), and Lucy. Mr. Mayo is a prominent Democrat, though he cast his first presidential vote for William H. Harrison. He is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, as are also all of the grown children, and some of his grandchildren, he having belonged since 1865. He had a fairly good education in youth, and is a popular man and a good citizen.

James M. Miles is a native of this county, and a son of Charles J. and Mary A. (Montgomery) Miles, originally from Tennessee, who were born in 1811 and 1816, and of Irish and English descent, respectively. They were the parents of nine children, two of whom are now living: James M. (our subject) and Richard. Mr. Miles removed to Arkansas in 1830, and settled in what is now Monroe County, where he entered three quarter sections of land, and engaged in farming and in rafting on the Mississippi. His land lay in the woods, where he erected a log-house, living in it for a number of years. He died in 1863, preceded by his wife some nine years. He was a soldier in the Indian Wars of 1836. James M. was born

April 6, 1843, and lived on his father's farm, helping clear it up, until his death. He was arried August 4, 1864, to Sallinda A. Spardlin, who died in 1874, leaving four children, one of whom, Richard, is now living. He was married to his second wife, Miss Louisa Crisp, June 5, 1876, who died in 1884, having been the mother of four children, one of whom, Emma, is now living. He was married February 18, 1886, to his present wife, Annie I. Olison, of this county. They have a family of two sons: Bart and Grover M. Mr. Miles enlisted in the late war in 1861, and served until he was captured in 1864, and taken to Louisville (Ky.), where he was held for over a month, when he escaped and returned home. He owns a fine farm of 280 acres, over half of which is under cultivation. He is a strong Democrat and a prominent citizen of Monroe County. Mrs. Miles is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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Charles B. Mills is the efficient circuit court clerk of Monroe County, Ark., and was born in Ralls County, Mo., in 1839, being the eldest of five children born to James M. and Mary (Kelly) Mills, who were born in the State of Tennessee about 1816. They were married in Missouri and [p.546] made that State their home until 1866, when they came to Monroe County, Ark., where Mr. Mills died in 1878 and Mrs. Mills in 1872, both being consistent members of the Cumberland Presbyterian. Church. Mr. Mills was a cabinet maker by trade, but at the time of his death he was engaged in farming and stock raising. He served a short time in the Confederate States army, and socially was a member of the A. F.&A. M. His father, James Lee Mills, was born in Maryland and died in Ralls County, Mo., a farmer and of Welsh descent. Charles B. Mills, the immediate subject of this sketch, was educated in the schools of Hannibal, Mo. In 1861 he left the school-room to join Grimshaw's command of Missouri State Troops, and operated with him until the winter of 1861-62, when he joined the First Missouri Regiment, Confederate States army, afterward designated as the Second Missouri Infantry, and served until he lost his left arm at the battle of Corinth. He was soon after placed in the commissary department under Maj. John S. Mellon, and remained thus employed until the close of the war, when he returned home. In 1866 he came to Monroe County, Ark., and was engaged in merchandising and stock dealing at Aberdeen, which place, having been cut off by change in county lines, is now in Prairie County. From 1874 to 1882 he served as circuit clerk of that county. In 1883 he was again cut off into Monroe County, of which he has since been a resident, and here he was engaged in farming and stock raising until 1886, when he was elected clerk of the county and re-elected in 1888, being chosen by the Democrat party, of which he has been a member since the death of the Whig party. He is Treasurer of Clarendon Lodge of the K. of H. and was a charter member of Des Arc Lodge, of which he was Dictator two terms. In 1870 he was united in marriage to Miss T. W. Gean, a daughter of John and Nancy Gean, who were born, reared and married in Chatham County, N. C., and in an early day removed to Hardeman County, Tenn., where their daughter, Mrs. Mills, was born. In 1859 they came to Arkansas, the father dying in Monroe County and the mother in Prairie County. Mrs. Mills belongs to he Methodist Church, and she and Mr. Mills are the parents of one son and four daughters. Mr. Mills is a Cumberland Presbyterian in his religious preferences.

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L. B. Mitchell, M. D., a practicing physician and druggist, of Brinkley, Ark., although born in Monroe County, Ky., in 1828, has been a resident of Arkansas since 1858, at which time his parents, James S. and Sarah (Scott) Mitchell, came to this State. They were born in Ohio and Tennessee, in 1793 and 1798, respectively, but were married in the Blue Grass State, and in 1836 removed to Tennessee, thence to Arkansas. They settled in what is now known as Lonoke County, and here the father died in 1862, followed to his long home by his wife in 1875, both being members of the Christian Church at the time of their deaths. Mr. Mitchell was an Irishman by descent, a farmer by occupation, and during the early history of Indiana he was a participant in a number of her Indian wars. The maternal grandfather, John Scott, was of Scotch lineage, and died in Macon County, Tenn. Dr. L. B. Mitchell is one of the three surviving members of a family of six children, and was reared on a farm, receiving his education in the common schools. Upon reaching manhood he clerked for four years, then during 1854-55 he attended college at McLemoresville, Tenn., and after making up his mind to become a physician, he entered the University of Louisville, Ky., attending during the winter of 1855-56, but did not graduate from any college until 1858, at which time he left the Nashville University as an M.D. He came immediately to Arkansas, and has successfully practiced his profession ever since, but during the war served the Confederate cause as assistant-surgeon of the Fourth Arkansas Battalion for some two and a-half years, and the two following years was with the Second Arkansas Dismounted Riflemen. Owing to his personal popularity and the respect and esteem in which he is held, he was elected in 1870 to represent Pulaski County in the State legislature, and was re-elected in 1872, being the candidate of the Democratic party, with which he has long affiliated. He was State treasurer of the Grange for about three years, and since 1855 has been a Mason, and was Master of Mount Pleasant Lodge [p.547] a great many years. He resided in Austin for about thirty years, but has been a resident of Brinkley since 1888, where he has acquired a lucrative practice and trade in the drug business, this calling having previously received his attention in Austin also. He was married in 1865 to Sarah J., a daughter of Peter St. Clair, a Tennesseean, who died at Austin in 1860, a farmer and mechanic by trade. Mrs. Mitchell was born in West Tennessee, and by Dr. Mitchell became the mother of six sons and three daughters, all of whom are living. Lewis E., the eldest of the family, is now treasurer of the Famous Life Association of Little Rock. The Dr. has been a member of the Christian Church for a great many years, but his wife belongs to the Methodist Church.

Polk Montgomery is a prosperous planter of Duncan Township, and is well known to the people of Monroe County. A native of Tennessee, he was born to the union of A. H. and Hannah (Robinson) Montgomery, natives of South Carolina and Tennessee, respectively. A. H. Montgomery first saw the light of day in 1796, and was reared in his native State. In 1820 he came to Tennessee, where he was married in 1841, to Mrs. Hannah (Lady) Robinson. Mr. Montgomery was in the War of 1812, and died in 1865, and his wife in the same year. Both members of the Campbellite Church. Polk Montgomery, the only child born to their marriage, owes his nativity to Shelby County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1845. He was married in 1865 to Miss Anna Nicks, who was born in Cherokee County, Ga., in 1846, a daughter of Elijah and Charlotte Nicks. Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery removed from Tennessee to Arkansas, in 1868, and settled in this county, where he purchased 240 acres of land, of which 175 acres are under cultivation, lying one-half mile south of Holly Grove. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. His wife is a member of the Presbyterian Church. During the war between the States, he served in Company C, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, Confederate States army.

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Harry H. Myers is the present secretary, treasurer and director of the Brinkley Car Works & Manufacturing Co., which is one of the foremost industries of the county, and was established in 1882, the present company being the successors of Gunn & Black, who were actively engaged in the manufacture of lumber at Brinkley for about sixteen years. The present company is one of the most enterprising and extensive in Eastern Arkansas, and they have a pay role of some 260 persons, 120 of whom are employed at the saw-mill in the woods, and cut down 68,000 feet of timber per day, the rest being employed in constructing railroads and in the general car repair shop. Every facility incident to this particular industry is embraced within the works, the tools and machinery being of the most modern and improved kind, and only skillful and experienced workmen are employed. This company ships about 220 carloads of lumber, consisting of flooring, shingles, moldings, lath, pickets, doors and window sashes, per mouth, to Memphis, Tenn., where they have one of the leading lumber establishments in the city, it having been established through the efforts of the late Maj. Black. Prior to Mr. Black's decease, which occurred in September, 1889, he was president and director of the company, with O. M. Norman, manager, and H. H. Myers, secretary and treasurer, but after his death Mr. Norman was made president, director and manager, and Mr. Myers became secretary, treasurer and director. This company also owns the Brinkley, Helena & Indian Bay Railroad, and about 36,000 acres of land in Monroe County. Mr. Myers, a member of this company, was born in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1865, and until he was thirteen years of age, attended the schools of his native town, after which he became an employe of the Wabash Railroad Company, and for five years was telegraph operator and traveling auditor for that company. In 1883 he came to Brinkley, and was made cashier of the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Railroad Company, but shortly after became agent for the company at Brinkley, continuing until 1886, when he entered upon his present duties. He is also president of the Myers & Sapp Drug Company, and is prominently connected with other enterprises in Brinkley, among them as proprietor of a wholesale and retail grain produce and feed store, carrying [p.548] about $5,000 to $6,000 in the business continually. All in all he is one of the foremost business men of the county, although young in years. He is also postmaster here. In April, 1887, he was married to Miss Katie R., a daughter of Maj. William Black. He is a member of the K. of P., and is Prelate of his lodge. His parents, Theodore H. and E. R. (Worster) Myers, resided in Keokuk, Iowa, before the war, but have recently moved to Kearney, Neb. The father was born in Anderson, Ind., and for many years has been a merchant. He belongs to the I. O. O. F., and the A. F. & A. M., and during the war he was captain of a company, in the Third Iowa Regiment, United States Army. His wife is a daughter of Col. Robert Worster (deceased), who was formerly one of the leading wholesale merchants of Keokuk, he being one of the founders of the Huskamp Boot & Shoe Company. He was a prominent Mason, and at one time ranked third among the Masons of the West.

Alfred Owens, planter and ginner, Cypress Ridge, Ark. This representative citizen was born in Gwinnett County, Ga., in 1826, and was the son of William Owen, who was a native of South Carolina and a farmer by occupation. The latter moved from South Carolina to Georgia, at an early day, and there resided until his death, in 1816. He had married Miss Mary Fisher and by her became the father of ten children, five of whom are now living: Tempey (wife of John Westmoreland), John, Wiley, James and Alfred. Both parents were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the mother died in 1857. lfred Owens was married to Miss Elizabeth J. Stone, in 1847, and to them were born nine children, three daughters and six sons, four only of whom are now living: W. F., Alfred L., Bryant T. and Joel M. Mr. Owens took an active part in the late war, enlisted in the infantry in 1861, under Capt. Joel Roper, and was captured in 1863, being kept a prisoner for two months. He was then paroled and after returning home was engaged in agricultural pursuits. He immigrated from Georgia to Arkansas in 1870, located in Monroe County, and is now the owner of 250 acres of land, with 160 acres under improvement. In 1883 he embarked in mercantile pursuits, and the year following erected a gin. In 1873 he lost his wife, who was a worthy and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1874 he met and afterward married Miss Harriet F. Breakefield. Both are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Owens raises an abundance of fine fruit: Apples, peaches, pears, etc., and is one of the wide-awake planters of the county. Mrs. Owens was born in Shelby County, Ala., in 1837, and her parents were both natives of South Carolina. The mother died in 1848, but the father is still living and is eighty-nine years of age. He has followed the occupation of a farmer all his life.

James C. Palmer, one of the leading planters of this county, was born in Phillips County, Ark., in 1860, and is a son of John C. Palmer, who came upon the stage of action in Lexington, Ky., in 1823. A lawyer by profession, he is now practicing in Helena, Ark., with substantial success. He was married in 1852 to Miss Margaret Shell, of that city, and they became the parents of seven children, six of whom are living: James C. (the principal of this sketch), Maggie (the wife of A. J. Gannon), Mamie, Sallie (widow of Capt. T. C. Hicks, of Hicksville, Ark.). Hattie (the wife of Horace Myrick) and Robert E. Mr. Palmer took part in the War with Mexico, and also in the Civil War. James C. Palmer was married in 1885 to Miss Lenora Mitchell, who was born in Phillips County, in 1862, a daughter of John and Jane Mitchell, natives of South Carolina and Arkansas, respectively. To this union were born two children: John C. and Wellman T. Mr. Palmer now lives in the old homestead, near the town of Palmer, consisting of 350 acres, with 125 acres under cultivation. This is a well-improved farm, having upon it a fine brick house that contains all of the modern improvements. He is a Democrat in politics, and is a prominent citizen of this community.

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Robert W. Park was born in Lawrence District, S. C., in 1824, but since 1861 has been a resident and farmer of Monroe County, Ark. His parents, William and Jane (Word) Park, were born in the same county as himself, and there the father spent his life, his death occurring in 1828 or 1829. [p.549] He was a well-to-do farmer, and was in full communion with the Presbyterian Church at the time of his demise. His father, Andrew Park, was born in the Emerald Isle, but at an early day came to the United States, and settled in Lawrence District, S. C., where he reared a large family of sons and daughters. Thomas Word, the maternal grandfather, spent nearly all his life in the same county, but died near Gunter's Landing, Tenn., having been a carpenter by trade. Robert W. Park came with his mother to Arkansas, and her death occurred on the farm, where he now lives in 1861, she, like her husband, being a member of the Presbyterian Church. He was the youngest of five sons and one daughter, and is the only one now living; his school days were confined to about five years. In March, 1855, he was married to Charlotte, a daughter of Randall and Dorcas Ann Ramsey, who were born in Anderson County, S. C., and spent their clining years in Georgia, and they have reared, during their married life, a family of live sons and five daughters; three children died in infancy. In this State Mr. Park met his first wife, he and his mother, and her family having removed there in 1836. In 1860, as above stated, he came to Arkansas and purchased a farm of 240 acres, seven miles east of Clarendon, and by his own efforts soon had 130 acres under the plow and covered with waving grain. The country was very wild when he first came to this region, and bear, panthers and deer were very plentiful. He served all through the Civil War, being a member of Hawthorn's regiment of Arkansas Cavalry, and since that time has been a Democrat, politically. He and wife have been members of the Christian Church for many years.

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James Park is one of the foremost and progressive farmers of this region and a sketch of his life is essential in this work in giving a history of its prominent men. His birth occurred in Lawrence County, S. C., November 24, 1824, and he is a son of Andrew and Isabella H. (Park) Park, both born in that county in 1797 and 1808, respectively, and were first cousins. They lived in that county until 1844, when they removed to the State of Mississippi, and soon after settled in what is now Calhoun County, but came to Monroe County, Ark., in 1856. Mr. Park was a practical and scientific planter, and owing to his progressive views and his energy he became quite wealthy. He died in 1868, and his wife in 1880, both having been members of the Presbyterian Church from early youth. The paternal grandfather, who also bore the name of Andrew, came with his only brother, James, also the grandfather of our subject on his mother's side, to America, and both were private soldiers of the American side throughout the Revolution. They settled in Lawrence County, S. C., and became extensive planters of that region, and were well known for their unimpeachable honesty and uprightness of character. They were men of exemplary habits in every respect, of religious natures, and were leaders in whatever enterprise they took an interest in. They left many descendants, who have followed in their footsteps, and all are upright and honorable citizens, some of whom became eminent in South Carolina in different professions and offices. They did much toward molding the moral and religious sentiment in the county where they lived, and were stanch members of the Presbyterian Church. Their native birthplace was County Tyrone, Ireland. Their grandson, James Park, the subject of this sketch, like the rest of their descendants, has followed their precepts and examples, and has won the respect and esteem of all with whom he has come in contact. He was the eldest of six sons and three daughters, three sons and three daughters being now alive. He received excellent educational advantages in his youth, and at the age of twenty-nine years was married at Okolona, Miss., to Catherine, a daughter of Uridge and Sarah (Smith) Whiffen, who were born, reared and married in England. After becoming the parents of two children, previous to 1832, they came to the United States, and after living in different localities in New York, they settled at Utica, where Mr. Whiffen died in 1837, at the untimely age of thirty-six years. His wife's death occurred on her farm near Carmi in the State of Illinois in 1887. Mr. Whiffin was a professor of languages and mathematics, and filled that position in both Buffalo and Utica. His wife [p.550] was a teacher of music and French, and followed this occupation many years after the death of her husband in North Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana and Illinois. Mrs. Park was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1835. Mr. Park came to Monroe County, Ark., in 1856, and settled on a woodland farm, and now owns 320 acres, and has 180 acres under cultivation. During 1868-69 he was engaged in merchandising in Clarendon, but since that time he has given his attention to farming. Prior to the late Civil War he was a Whig, but since that time has affiliated with the Democrat party. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and he and wife belong to the Christian Church.

Dr. William Park is one of Monroe County's most eminent physicians and surgeons, and was born in Lawrence District, S. C., in 1829, and is a son of Andrew and Isabella H. (Park) Park, who were first cousins. In 1844 they removed to Mississippi, and in 1856 came to Monroe County, Ark., and settled on a woodland farm six miles east of Clarendon, and here the father met with a violent death, being thrown from a buggy and killed, in 1868. His wife's death followed his in twelve years, both having been earnest members of the Presbyterian Church for many years. Andrew Park, the paternal grandfather, and James Park, the maternal grandfather, were brothers, born in Ireland, and came to America during the Revolutionary War and settled in South Carolina, James marrying an English lady and Andrew an Irish lady. Both were farmers and died in the State of their adoption. Dr. William Park is the third of six sons and three daughters, and his knowledge of the world up to manhood was only such as could be obtained on the home farm. After acquiring a good education in the common schools he concluded to engage in teaching in order to obtain means to carry on his medical education, and after two and a half years of this work, during which time he pursued his medical studies under his brother-in-law, Dr. T. F. Robinson, he entered the Medical Department of the University of Nashville (Tenn.), and at the end of two years, in 1856, graduated therefrom. He came immediately to Monroe County, Ark., whither his parents had just moved, and entered upon his practice, and has acquired no inferior reputation as a physician and surgeon, being now the oldest resident practitioner of the county. For five years he has made his home in Clarendon, and in addition to the pleasant home which he now owns in the town, he is the owner of 320 acres of land in different farms, with 130 acres under cultivation. Although formerly a Whig in politics, casting his first presidential vote for Gen. Scott, since the late Civil War he has been a Democrat. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and he and his wife, whom he married in 1866, and whose maiden name was Sarah A. Brown, have long been members of the Old School Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Park was born in Fayette County, Tenn., and is the mother of two sons and one daughter. Her parents are Thomas J. and Fannie Brown, a sketch of whom appears in another part of this work.

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J. T. Parker, planter, Cotton Plant, Ark. Mr. Parker is a typical Arkansas citizen, substantial, enterprising and progressive, and such a man as wields no small influence in the community where he makes his home. He came originally from St. Francis County, where his birth occurred in 1838. His parents, Archie and Mary (Adair) Parker, were natives respectively of Alabama and Kentucky and were married in St. Francis County, Ark., in 1835. Of the five children born to this marriage, only two are now living: J. T. and Prudy A., who is one of a pair of twins and who is now the wife of William Moore, of Kerr County, Teras. Archie Parker came to this State from Alabama with his parents at an early day, and became a very enterprising and substantial farmer. He was justice of the peace for a number of years and was deacon in the Baptist Church. He died in St. Francis County in 1843 and his widow afterward married William Dobkins in 1848, by whom she had three children: Samuel L., William A. and Robert P. Mrs. Dobkins died in St. Francis County in 1861 and had been a member of the Baptist Church for at least thirty years. Mr. Dobkins died in 1863. He was in the Confederate army during the late war. J. T. Parker passed his youthful days in assisting on the farm and in attending the common schools, [p.551] where he received a fair education. He was married in 1861 to Miss Elizabeth Jones, a native of St. Francis County, born in 1843, and the daughter of Mrs. Richard Jones of Arkansas. Twelve children have been the result of this union, five daughters and seven sons, six of whom are still living: Nellie J., Margaret A., Sarah R., George T., Richard and Benjamin. In 1861 Mr. Parker enlisted in the infantry and served until 1864, when he was released on account of ill health. Politically he is a Democrat. After the war he bought a steam saw and grist mill in Woodruff County, Ark., and this he ran for three years, after which he resumed farming on 160 acres of land which he had purchased. He now owns 800 acres of good land, with 350 acres under cultivation and is one of the most practical and progressive farmers in the county. At the close of the war, Mr. Parker was, like many of his comrades, left without any of this world's goods, and what he has accumulated since is owing to his hard labor and good management. The parents of Mrs. Parker were natives of Tennessee and immigrated to Arkansas in 1820. Her father, Richard Jones, died in 1853 and her mother in 1884.

W. H. Peterson is the general manager of the Brinkley Argus, having successfully filled this position since December, 1888. He was born in the "Blue Grass" State in 1827, but the most of his early life was spent in the city of Philadelphia, but, notwithstanding the fact that he was in a city of schools," his early advantages for acquiring an education were very limited. At the age of fifteen years he began learning the printer's trade, which work continued to receive his attention until 1852; then, after a short residence in Illinois, he removed to Missouri, and in 1881 came to Beebe, Ark., and, as above stated, came to Brinkley in 1888. He has been in the newspaper business the greater part of his life, following his calling in different towns and cities of Missouri, and during his long career at this work he has acquired a thorough knowledge of journalism. He has always affiliated with the Democratic party, and has shown his approval of secret organizations by becoming a member of the Knights of Labor. During the Rebellion he served for over three years in the Confederate army, being most of the time under Gen. Marmaduke. He has been married twice; first, in 1850, to Miss Ellen W. Lloyd, of Penn's Grove, N. J., who died in Missouri in 1868. His second union was consummated in 1870, his wife being a Miss Sarah Underwood, who died about 1879, leaving besides her husband two children to mourn her loss. Three children were born to the first union.

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Samuel R. Pointer, a planter of Montgomery Township, Monroe County, Ark., is of English descent, and traces his ancestry back to his great-grandfather, who came with a brother to the United States, and settled in Virginia, where his son, Samuel (the grandfather of our subject), was born, his birth occurring in Halifax County. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Dr. David Pointer (his son), was born and reared in Halifax County, Va., the former event taking place in 1802. After his marriage to Miss Obedience Torian, who was also born in Halifax County, her birth occurring in 1807, he removed to North Carolina, and in 1844 emigrated westward, settling in Marshall County, Miss., his death occurring at Como of that State, in 1871. He was a successful physician for a number of years, then turned planter, and in this occupation became wealthy. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. The maternal grandfather, Torian, was born, and spent all his life in Halifax County, Va., and was also of English descent. Samuel R. Pointer was born in Caswell County, N. C., in 1828, and was the second in a family of eight children, and received his education, or the principal part of it, in the College of La Grange, Ala. In 1849, Eliza, a daughter of James and Esther (Hicks) Mooring, became his wife, she being a native of Marshall County, Miss., her parents coming to that county from their native State of North Carolina, and there dying in 1857 and 1856 respectively, both members of the Methodist Church, and the former a planter by occupation. Mrs. Pointer died at her parent's home in Mississippi, in 1856, having borne one son, who is also deceased. In 1858 Mr. Pointer espoused Susan E., a sister of his first wife, she having also been born in Marshall County, but he was called [p.552] upon to mourn her death in July, 1884. Their family consisted of ten children, one son and five daughters only being alive: Willie (wife of R. D. Mayo), Susan E. (wife of L. Hall), Edwin M., Hallie, Ethel and Pearl. In 1853 Mr. Pointer came to Arkansas, and in 1856 to Monroe County, settling on a woodland farm six miles northeast of Indian Bay. His farm now comprises 800 acres, and he had about 500 acres under cultivation, all of which property he has earned by his own efforts and the help of his worthy wife. Politically he is a Democrat, and socially is a member of the A. F. & A. M., Indian Bay Lodge No. 259. He comes of a long-lived race of people, and although he has reached the age of sixty-one years, he shows but very little the ravages of time. His brothers and sisters are all living, the eldest sixty-four years of age, and the youngest forty-four. He has always been interested in the cause of education, and he has endeavored to give his children the advantages of a good education, three of whom are now attending an excellent school in Tennessee. During the war he served three years under Capt. Weatherly, who operated in Eastern Arkansas to protect the homes of the citizens, and although he furnished his own horse and ammunition he has never received any compensation.

Dr. W. D. Powell, planter and physician, Cotton Plant, Ark. Dr. W. D. Powell, the third living child born to Benjamin and Eliza (Fowler) Powell, owes his nativity to Henry County, Tenn., where his birth occurred in 1833. His father was a native of North Carolina, and was a mechanic and architect by occupation. He left his native State in 1820, journeyed to Tennessee, purchased land and followed farming for about twelve years. In 1831 he married Miss Fowler, who bore him eleven children, four sons and seven daughters, seven of whom are now living: Thomas A., Joseph D., W. D., Helen (now Mrs. John Kibble), Gurpana (wife of Allen Hill), Mollie (wife of George Bell), and Jennie A. Mrs. Powell was also a native of North Carolina and immigrated to Tennessee with her father in 1818. She was a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. Powell and family moved to Mississippi in 1854, and here he died in Marshall County of that State, on September 15, 1889. He was a member of the Baptist Church and was a soldier in the Creek War. Dr. W. D. Powell began the practice of medicine in 1856 and the same year was united in marriage to Miss Almoins Sophner, a native of Tennessee, who bore him three children, only one, Georgiana, now living. Mrs. Powell died in 1869, and Mr. Powell was married the second time in 1881 to Miss Maria A. Hill. The fruits of this union were three children, only one of whom is now living: William Oscar. Dr. Powell was in the late war, enlisting in the cavalry, Monroe Regiment, Parson's brigade, in 1862. He served until after the surrender at Fort Smith, and then returned home, where he has since been engaged in agricultural pursuits. He immigrated from Mississippi to Arkansas in 1869, purchased 160 acres of land, and has about eighty acres under cultivation. He is progressive in his ideas, and is one of the leading farmers of this section. As above stated he began the practice of medicine in 1856, and this he has since continued in connection with farming. He is a clever, genial gentleman, and in his political views affiliates with the Democratic party.

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D. B. Renfro, conceded to be among the prosperous merchants of Holly Grove, is a Tennesseean by birth, which occurred in 1843, and is a son of T. A. and Tizzie (Harrison) Renfro, natives of Kentucky and Tennessee. The senior Renfro was a prominent farmer of his county, and died in 1860, his wife dying within two hours after him. They were the parents of thirteen children, four of whom are still living: John H., T. A., Mary T. (the widow of S. H. Baulch) and D. B. (our subject). D. B. Renfro enlisted in the Confederate army, in 1861, in the Thirty-second Tennessee Infantry, and while in service was captured at Fort Donelson, and carried to Indianapolis, Ind., in February, 1862, and held until the following October, when he was exchanged. After his exchange he was again captured at Atlanta, in July, 1864, and taken to Indianapolis, where he was kept until April, 1865. At the close of hostilities he returned to Maury County, Tenn., and in 1866 immigrated to Arkansas, locating in Phillips County, where he made farming [p.553] a means of gaining a livelihood. In 1871 he was married to Susan E. Smith, who was born in Monroe County, in 1849. Five children were born to this union: John W., Leroy G., D. B., Laura V. and Lizzie S. In 1872 Mr. Renfro moved to Holly Grove, and engaged in the mercantile business, and is now doing a large and lucrative trade, and carries a stock of goods which invoices about $2,000. He is the owner of a fine farm of 200 acres, with over 100 under cultivation, and also owns some real estate in the town of Holly Grove. He is numbered as a member of the A. F. & A. M., while he and his wife worship in the Presbyterian Church, to which they belong.

George A. Rich, chief engineer of the Brinkley, Helena & Indian Bay Railroad, was born in Wayne County, N. Y., in 1843, and like the majority of the native citizens of the "Empire State," he is energetic, intelligent and enterprisng. He is the youngest of three sons and three daughters, and was reared on a farm in Hillsdale County, Mich., from the time he was four years old till he reached manhood, but his educational advantages were not of the best. After becoming his own man he remedied this defect by considerable self-application. In 1865 he was married to Caroline Nickerson, a native of Hillsdale County, Mich., and his second marriage was consummated in December, 1885, his wife, Jane Hanna, being a daughter of John and Ann Hanna, natives of Ireland, where they were reared and married. They afterward moved to Canada, where Mrs. Hanna died, her husband's death occurring in Michigan. Mrs. Rich was born in Canada. In 1874 Mr. Rich came to Brinkley, and was in the employ of Gunn & Black until that company was dissolved, serving them in various capacities, and cut the first ties and laid the first iron on what is now the Brinkley, Batesville Railroad. In 1881-82-83 he was in Mexico in the interests of the Mexican Central Railroad, and after a short stay in Arkansas he went to the Isthmus of Panama, where he spent one year having charge of a number of employée on the construction of the Panama Canal. Since then he has resided in Brinkley, and is connected with the Brinkley Car Works & Manufacturing Company. Some years prior to coming West he was engaged in civil engineering in Michigan, and is a thorough master of that science. He is a conservative Republican in his political views, and is a member of the A. F. & A. M., K. of H., K. & L. of H., K. of P., and the I. O. O. F. His parents, Butler J. and Clarissa (Redfield) Rich, were born in Connecticut and Massachusetts, respectively, but their marriage took place in the State of New York. In 1847 they moved to Michigan, and here the father was engaged in farming until his death in 1865, his wife's death occurring in 1880. The paternal grandfather came from England to America with four brothers, and all were active participants in the Revolutionary War, taking part with the colonists. He died in the State of New York.

J. P. Ridout, whose prosperity and enterprise as a planter of Monroe County is well known, is a native of Tennessee, and a son of John and Lucy (Williams) Ridout, who came originally from Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. They removed to Arkansas in 1858, settling in Monroe County, Mr. Ridout being the owner, at the time of his death, in 1866, of 640 acres of land. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. Of a family of eight children, four are still living: J. P., Martha G., Eliza (now Mrs. Hambrick) and Amanda (the wife of W. A. Roads). J. P. Ridout, the subject of this sketch, began farming for himself in 1866, after his father's demise, on rented land. In 1880 he moved to this county, and bought 240 acres of land, with seventy-five acres under cultivation. He was married in 1869 to Miss Sena Williams, whose birth occurred in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1852. They became the parents of eight children, four of whom are still living: Jennie, Luther, Joel R. and James P. Mr. and Mrs. Ridout are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He is a member of the Knights of Honor, and is a prominent factor in the Democracy of Cache Township. He owes his nativity to Fayette County, Tenn., where he was born in 1852.

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James P. Roberts is a member of that wellknown legal firm of Roberts & Manning, they being also abstractors and dealers in real estate. They command a large practice, and in the management [p.554] of their cases show great ability and sagacity. Mr. Roberts, the senior member of the firm, is a native of Hamilton County, Tenn., born in 1851, and is a son of John and Louisa (Vaughn) Roberts, the former a native of Maryland and the latter of Tennessee. They were married in the latter State and in 1866 came to Phillips County, the father's death occurring here in 1869 and the mother's in 1870, They were prosperous tillers of the soil and Mr. Roberts was collecting officer of Hamilton County for a number of years, and during the war served as Government agent for the Confederate States. His father, James Roberts, was of English descent, born in Virginia. The maternal grandfather was Jesse Vaughn. James P. Roberts is the first of four sons and four daughters, and was reared to a farm life, receiving the advantages of the common schools, which he improved to the utmost, also making the most of his advantages while an attendant at the Savannah (Tenn.) Academy. He farmed in Phillips County, Ark., until 1875, then began the practice of law, and the same progress which marked his advancement at school has attended him in his professional career. He is a close student, well versed in law, and possesses in more than an ordinary degree the natural attributes essential to a successful career at the bar and in public. His worth and ability received a just recognition, and in 1880 he was elected to represent Phillips County in the State legislature, and was re-elected in 1884. He has been a member of several important committees, especially those pertaining to courts, and has always taken a deep interest in the political affairs of his county and State. Although his first presidential vote was cast for Grant, in 1872, he is now a Democrat in his political views. He is a member of the K. of H., the K. & L. of H., the K. of P. at Clarendon and the American Legion of Honor. His wife, whose maiden name was Lulu Boardman and whom he married in September, 1872, was born in the State of Kentucky, and is a daughter of Edward T. and Elizabeth Boardman, natives, respectively, of New York and Kentucky. They were married in Henderson, Ky., and after living some years in Indiana, came, in 1869, to Phillips County, Ark., where Mr. Boardman died, in 1886. His wife is living, a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts are the parents of four children, one son and three daughters.

F. J. Robinson's career in life, as far as its connection with industrial affairs is concerned, might be divided into two periods, that during which he was occupied in merchandising, and his more recent experience in the capacity of a farmer. In each of these callings he has had the energy and push to attain success, and he seems admirably fitted for the business in which he is now engaged. He was born in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1853, and is a son of F. M. and E. A. (Erwin) Robinson, the father being also a native of that State, born in 1828. In 1859 he came with his wife and family to Monroe County, Ark., and settled at Holly Grove, where he spent his declining years, and died in 1882, having been engaged in merchandising and farming. He and his wife (who died in 1880) were members of the Baptist Church, and he was quite a politician, and besides holding the office of justice of the peace, he represented Monroe County in the State legislature from 1874 to 1876. The maternal grandfather, John Erwin, was a farmer of Tennessee. F. J. Robinson is the eldest of six children, and in his youth received but meager educational advantages as he was obliged to assist his father in improving the home place. In 1876 he was united in marriage to Lois, daughter of D. A. L. and Anna Wilson, who were formerly from North Carolina, but died in Monroe County, Ark., and their union was blessed by the birth of four children. Mr. Robinson lived at Indian Bay from 1868 to 1882, engaged in merchandising and farming, but since the latter date has given his time and attention solely to farming, at which he has been remarkably successful. He has a fine farm of 800 acres, and has about 300 acres under cultivation, all of which he has gained since 1882. Politically he is a Democrat, and his first vote was cast for Tilden, in 1876. His wife is in communion with the Cumberland Preebyterian Church.

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J. W. B. Robinson is the efficient sheriff and tax collector of Monroe County. Ark., and was [p.555] born in Serepta, Miss., in 1856, being a son of Dr. Thomas F. and Nancy S. (Park) Robinson, natives of the "Palmetto" State. They were married in Mississippi in 1849, and in 1856 came to Monroe County and settled eight miles east of Clarendon, taking up their abode on a woodland farm, on which the father died the same year. On this farm his family resided until 1886, when they removed to Clarendon. Mrs. Robinson is a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church, of which the father was an elder during his lifetime. He was a very successful medical practitioner, and owing to his early death but little is known of his parents or other relatives. He left his home in South Carolina when quite young and went first to Alabama, and thence to Mississippi, where he was married. Our subject is the youngest of his four children and is now the only one living. Like so many of the substantial citizens of this county at the present time, he was initiated into the mysteries of farm life from the very first, and this continued to be his calling up to within a few years of 1886, when he was elected to the office of sheriff and county collector, and has made an efficient officer. He first voted for Hancock for the presidency in 1880, and has always affiliated with the Democratic party. The old homestead, of which he is the owner, comprises 240 acres, with about 125 acres under cultivation, and he also owns a good house and lot in Clarendon. The history of Mrs. Robinson's family will be found in a sketch of Dr. William Park, who is her brother.

W. F. Sain, a prominent planter of this township, was born in Gibson County, Tenn., in 1841, and is a son of William Sain, decessed, who was a native of North Carolina, and whose first wife was Virginia Ann Goward, of North Carolina; she being the mother of two children: Henry and Mary. He removed to Gibson County, Tenn., after his wife died, and was there married to Frances Lathan, originally of North Carolina, and who died in 1886. She was the mother of four children: Nancy J. (the wife of Josiah Cooper, of Tennessee), W. F. (the principal of this sketch), John A. and James A. Mr. Sain belonged to the Masonic lodge, and to the Presbyterian Church. He died in 1848. W. F. Sain was a soldier in the late war,

enlisting in the Thirty-fourth Mississippi Infantry, and served until his capture at Lookout Mountain, and as taken to Rock Island, Ill., where he was held until about the close of the war. He then returned to Byhalia, Miss., in 1877, and then removed to Germantown, Penn., where he remained until 1881, thence to Arkansas and located within five miles of Forrest City. In 1883 he moved to this county and bought his present farm of 160 acres. Mr. Sain was married in 1861 to Mildred Alexander, a daughter of Moses and Margaret Alexander. They were the parents of nine children, all of whom are still living: William C., J. A. S., E. A. S., Ollie B., Robert E., T. C. S., V. L. S., Mamie A. and Lelia L. S. They belong to the Presbyterian Church, of which Mr. Sain is one of the elders and an influential member.

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Louis Salinger. Well directed energy and honorable dealings always tell in business, as indeed in everything else. Mr. Salinger has conducted a very prosperous business since 1871 and during the whole time that has elapsed his trade has advanced by rapid strides, until to-day he is enjoying one of the best retail trades in Brinkley. His stock of goods is well selected and will invoice at about $10,000, the sales of which will amount to $35,000 annually. Mr. Salinger was born is Prussia in 1840, and like all natives of the Fatherland, he acquired a good education. When about fourteen years of age he and an elder brother determined to seek their fortune in the New World, and after spending five years in the States of Indiana and Illinois they came to Arkansas and made their home in Woodruff and Monroe Counties. Two years later Louis Salinger joined the Fifth Arkansas Infantry and was under Gens. Hardy, Johnston and Beauregard. While on duty in Kentucky he was captured just before the fight at Perryville, but was soon after released on bond and returned North and resumed his farming operations in Arkansas. In 1866 he engaged in the mercantile business at Augusta, continuing until 1870, and in 1871 he returned to his native land and brought his mother, whose maiden name was Rebecra Cohn, with him [p.556] to America, her death occurring in the city of St. Louis in 1881. The father, Saul Salinger, died during our subject's youth, having been a farmer in the old country. In 1872 Mr. Salinger was united in marriage to Miss Lena Fillman. He is one of the wealthy men of the county and, besides owning about 2,000 acres of land in Monroe County, he has a splendid brick residence in Brinkley, which was erected in 1887, and a substantial and commodious brick business block which was built in 1888. In 1882 he gave up merchandising and turned his attention to the real-estate business, but sines 1887 has been following his old calling. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., the K. of P. and the K. & L. of H.

James S. Seale. An important branch of industry is that represented by Mr. Seale, carpenter, blacksmith and general wood workman of Clarendon, and his superior work has entitled him to the distinction of a representative business man. He was born in Shelby County, Ala., in 1850, a son of Willoughby and Sarah (Ford) Seale, who were born in South Carolina and Georgia, in 1818 and 1829, respectively. They were married in Shelby County, Ala., and are still living there, the father being a prominent farmer and wagon maker. He served in the Confederate army the last year of the war. His father, Herod Seale, served in the War of 1812, was a mechanic by trade, and died in Calhoun County, Miss., in 1875. Rev. John Ford, the maternal grandfather, was a Methodist minister and died in Macon, Ga. James S. Seale is the second in a family of four sons and one daughter, and was brought up and educated in the State of Alabama, but his advantages, as far as his schooling was concerned, were very limited indeed. He learned the trade of wagon maker of his father in his youth, and in 1873 came to Monroe County, Ark., and until 1887 lived on a farm four miles north of Clarendon, since which time he has been a resident of the town, and has worked at his trade the greater part of the time and is considered an excellent carpenter and blacksmith. Besides his fertile farm of 250 acres, of which 100 acres are under cultivation, he owns an excellent house and lot in town, all of which is the result of earnest and consistent endeavor on his part. He has always been a Democrat in his political views, and his first presidential vote was cast for Greeley, in 1872. He belongs to the Knights of Honor, and his wife, whom he married in 1875 and whose maiden name was Mattie Arnold, is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. She was born in Calhoun County, Miss., is the mother of five children, three daughters living, and is a daughter of Warren Arnold.

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Miles A. Simmons, Jr., a merchant and planter of Palmer Station, is a son of Miles A. Simmons, Sr., a resident of Mississippi, who was born in Georgia in 1820, of English ancestry. He was married in 1842 to Miss Elizabeth Revel, born in the State of North Carolina in 1825. They were the parents of ten children, four of whom are still living: Charles F., Miles A., Jr. (the principal of this sketch), Virginia W. (the wife of John E. Done) and Eazer P. Mr. Simmons is the patentee and manufacturer of the famous "Simmons Liver Regulator," and has been engaged in the manufacture and sale of that medicine for thirty-nine years, now, however, being retired from business. He and his wife are living in the State of Mississippi, where they moved in 1844. He is a member of the Masonic order and of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His wife belongs to the Baptist Church. Miles A. Simmons, Jr., was born in Mississippi in 1866, and was married at the age of twenty to Miss Inez L. Smith, daughter of Capt. W. F. and Electa Smith. She was born in Springfield, Ill., in 1866. They have one son, William F. Mr. Simmons commenced clerking in his brother's drug store at the age of eighteen, and two years later bought his brother's interest, a short time after selling out to his father and removing to St. Louis, where he was engaged as book-keeper. In 1887 he came to Palmer, and was occupied in getting out railroad ties until 1889, when he started in the ercantile business, his present calling. He is also postmaster of Palmer, and is the railroad agent at that place. Besides his other interests he owns a large steam cotton-gin and cornmill, and a farm of 640 acres with some eighty acres under cultivation. Mr. Simmons is a member [p.557] of the K. of H., and of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, as is also his wife.

Stephen Simons, a progressive and successful farmer of Monroe County, is a native of Alabama, his father, William Simons, having come originally from Massachusetts. He was a bridge builder and carpenter by trade, which occupation he followed up to the late war. He then erected a steam gristmill in Alabama, and operated it until his death in 1877. He married Susan D. Wheelock, a native of Alabama and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who died in 1861. They were the parents of ten children, four still living: Stephen (our subject), Cornelia (the wife of A. S. Neeley, of Kentucky), Martin E. and John. Stephen Simons was born in 1848, and remained in his native State until 1874, when he removed to Arkansas, settling in this county. He worked at the carpenter's trade the first two years, and for three years following was engaged in the saloon business, after which he began farming on his present farm of 168 acres, with sixty acres under cultivation. He was married in 1878 to Miss Nancy A. Brown, daughter of Jesse and Mary Brown. She was born in this county in 1854. Her parents are now dead, her father having been killed in the late war, and her mother dying in 1877. Mr. Simons is an influential Democrat in political circles and a leading man in his township.

Washington Simpson, planter, Cotton Plant, Ark. Of that sturdy and independent class, the farmers of Arkansas, none are possessed of more genuine merit and a stronger character than he whose name stands at the head of this sketch. Mr. Simpson first saw the light in Morgan County, Ala., January 21, 1823, and was one of eleven children, eight sons and three daughters, born to the union of Samuel and Elizabeth (Owen) Simpson. The father was born in the Old Dominion, was a farmer by occupation, and, in connection, carried on the tanner's trade for many years. He immigrated from Alabama to La Fayette County, Miss., in 1837, and there carried on both his former occupations, until 1852, when he moved to Arkansas, locating in St. Francis County. He took up land, built a cabin, and there remained until his death, which occurred in 1860. His wife died in Monroe County, in about 1857. She was a member of the Baptist Church for many years. Of the large family born to his parents, Washington Simpson is the only one now living, although all were reared to maturity. He was married in 1847 to Miss Martha Davis, and they became the parents of seven children, of whom only three are now living: Josiah A., Allice M. and Mary E. (the widow of John C. Madox). The mother of these children died in 1860; she was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Two years later Mr. Simpson took for his second wife Miss Frances Henderson, who died in 1869. In 1871 he married Miss Mary A. Anderson, who bore him nine children, six daughters and three sons, seven of whom are living: Alexander A., John W., Anna P., Mittie E., Mary O., Margaret A. and Hassie P. Mr. Simpson owns 207 acres of land, has about 120 acres under cultivation, and is a very successful farmer. In 1863 he enlisted in the infantry under Capt. Wilson, and served until the surrender at Wittsburg, in 1865. He filled the position of constable for eight years in this county, and he and Mrs. Simpson are members of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Simpson was born in La Fayette County, Miss., in 1853, and came to Arkansas with her father in 1859. He was a farmer, and died in 1862. Her mother died in 1885. Both were members of the Baptist Church.

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William K. Sims is a dealer in drugs and medicines at Brinkley, Ark., and has been established in business at this point since February, 1883, his stock of goods amounting to about $2,500. He was born near Helena, Ark., in 1860, and is a son of Dr. William K. and Mary (Scaife) Sims, who were born, reared and married in the "Palmetto State," and there made their home until some years prior to the late Civil War, when they came west and settled in Phillips County, Ark. About the time of the opening of hostilities Mr. Sims died, and his family returned to South Carolins, but liking the West best, and thinking the prospects for becoming rich much better here than at their old home, they returned to Arkansas in 1868. From that time until 1883 they made their [p.558] home in Phillips County, then came to Brinkley where the mother's demise occurred on November 9, 1885, she having been an earnest member of the Baptist Church for many years, as was her husband. The latter was a successful physician for many years, a graduate of his profession, and was a son of William Sims, who was a Virginian, but died in South Carolina, a well-to-do farmer. The maternal grandfather, Vida Scaipe, was of Welsh descent, and is supposed to have been born in South Carolina, but came to Phillips County, Ark., in 1868. William K. Sims is the youngest of three children born to his parents, and spent his youth in tilling the soil and acquiring a common-school education. He began for himself at the age of fourteen years as a farm hand, continuing until he was about twenty-three years old, in the meantime clerking in Helena part of the time, and previous to coming to Brinkley he clerked in a drug store in Trenton, Ark., for one year. Since establishing himself in business at Brinkley, he has become one of the leading druggists of the town, and by his thorough knowledge of drugs, his accuracy, intelligence and honesty, he has established a large and

lucrative trade. From October, 1885, to October, 1889, he was postmaster of the town, being appointed to the position by President Cleveland. Mr. Sims is a Democrat, and is quite well-to-do for a young man, being the owner of an excellent business lot on Main Street.

William E. Spencer is the efficient editor of the Monroe County Sun, published at Clarendon, and owing to the admirable manner in which it is conducted it has had a most flattering increase in its circulation. It has been in existence since 1876, and has already become one of the leading newspapers in the State. Mr. Spencer was born in Minneapolis, Minn., in 1865, and is a son of Abraham and Agnes (McMurray) Spencer, who were born in Liverpool, England, and Glasgow, Scotland, respectively. They were married in the mother's native land, and in 1863 removed to Quebec, Canada, and the following year to the State of Minnesota, where their son, William E., was born. In the year 1871 they removed to Indian Bay, Ark., and in 1881 to Clarendon. Mrs. Spencer died three years previous, having been an earnest member of the Presbyterian Church for many years. Mr. Spencer was a machinist by trade, and a member of the Baptist Church. William E. Spencer is the fourth of their five children, two sons and three daughters, and in his youth received a common-school education in Winchester, Tenn. At the early age of eight years he began learning the printer's trade in an office of his own, and after reaching a suitable age began clerking in his father's hardware store, continuing until 1886, when he began editing the Monroe County Sun, which has already become one of the well-established journals of the State, and is published in the interests of the Democrat party, of which Mr. Spencer has always been a member, his first presidential vote being cast for Cleveland. He belongs to the Arkansas Press Association and is a member of the K. of H. and K. of P. In November, 1888, he was married at Malta Bend, Mo., by the Rev. W. B. Palmore, to Miss Ella Bonner, who was born in Clarendon, is a member of the Methodist Church, a daughter of W. H. Bonner, who was a prominent farmer and resided in Monroe from 1854 until his death in 1887. He was assessor of the county from 1882 till 1886.

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William Grant Sutton has been a resident of this State since 1853. He was born in Fayette County, Tenn., in 1853, but his parents came to Arkansas that year, and located in this county, where they purchased land. His parents were Thomas and Sarah (Weeks) Sutton. Thomas Sutton was born in Perquimans County, N. C., in 1804, and was a son of Thomas and Helena (Raper) Sutton, both of English descent. On coming to this county he purchased 240 acres of land, almost all in timber, which he improved and made a good farm, living upon it until his death, August 28, 1854. Mrs. Sutton was born in 1815, and was married to the father of our subject in 1831, and died in March, 1860. Thomas Sutton was the father of fourteen children, this being his second marriage; there were eleven children, three of whom are living: Susan F. (the wife of J. M. Kerr), Anna (the wife of Rev. R. B. Cavett) and William G. (our subject). The latter, the youngest [p.559] of the family, was an infant at the death of his father. He now owns a fine farm of 174 acres, with sixty acres under cultivation. He is a wellknown Democrat of Duncan Township, and highly spoken of by all who have become acquainted with him.

Judge James S. Thomas is an attorney at law, of Clarendon, and is a member of the legal firm of Ewan & Thomas. He was born in Anson County, N. C., in 1844, and is a son of A. J. and Eliza C. (Smith) Thomas, of South Carolina and North Carolina, respectively, the former's birth occurring in 1813. They were married in North Carolina, in 1844, and moved soon after to Weakley County, Tenn., and in 1858 to Prairie County, Ark., where his wife died in October, 1867. Mr. Thomas is still living, and is a planter by trade, and a member of the Methodist Church and the A. F. & A. M. John Thomas, the grandfather, was of Welsh descent, a native of South Carolina, who died in Weakley County, Tenn. Our subject's father has been married three times, his second wife bearing him seven children, of whom James S. is the eldest. He was reared to the duties of a farm life and acquired a limited education in the country schools. In 1861 he joined Company E, First Arkansas Infantry, and was discharged at Fort Pillow on account of ill health, but soon recovered and rejoined the army, becoming a member of the Fourth Arkansas Battalion. He was captured at Island No. 10, and was confined at Camp Chase for some time, after which he was removed to Johnson's Island, and was exchanged in 1862. He was then given a position in the commissary department, and in 1863 was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Department, and served in the quartermaster's department until the close of the war. He held all the ranks, from that of a private to captain, being made the latter in December, 1862. He surrendered at Gilmore, Tex., in June, 1865, ad returned to his some and friends, and took up the study of law. After becoming thoroughly prepared to enter upon his practice, he located in Des Are, where he was a successful practitioner until 1888, since which time he has been in Clarendon. In 1870 he was elected to represent Prairie County in the State legislature, and in 1874 was choson tax collector, filling this position until again elected to the legislature in 1876, which position he held by re-election until 1880. In 1882 he was elected county and probate judge, and served by re-election six years, continuing during this time the practice of law. He spent five or six years in the newspaper business, being editor of the Prairie County Appeal, and afterward edited the Des Are Citizen until his removal to Clarendon, and during his editorial career served for some time as president and vice-president of the Arkansas Press Association. He edited his papers in the interest of the Democrat party, with which he has always affiliated, and by his pen did much to away the politics, of not only his county, but the State also. He has shown his brotherly spirit by joining the Masons and the Knights of Honor, and is a member of White River Lodge No. 37, of Des Are in the former order and Clarendon Lodge in the latter. In 1867 he was married to Anna, a daughter of E. B. and N. N. Powell, who were born, reared and married in Tennessee. They removed to Prairie County, Ark., in 1861, and are there still living. Mrs. Thomas was born in Tennessee, and by Mr. Thomas is the mother of one son and two daughters. She has been a member of the Methodist Church for many years. Mr. Thomas is a large real-estate holder, and owns 1,500 acres of land in Prairie County. The first of the family to come to America, was shipped from Wales in a box to avoid punishment, as he had participated in a rebellion, and one of his descendants was afterward a general in the Revolutionary War.

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Frank B. Toms is a planter residing near Clarendon, Ark., and was born in Perquimans County, N. C., in 1847, being the eldest of six children born to Henry C. and Susan M. (Lynch) Toms, also of that State, born February 6, 1825, and in December, 1829, respectively. They were married in their native State, in 1846, and there resided until 1851, then came to Monroe County, Ark., and settled on a woodland farm, about five miles southeast of Clarendon. Mr. Toms was a man of very limited means at that time, and [p.560] came west in order to make a home for his family, and in this succeeded, for at the time of his death he was the owner of a good farm. He was a man possessing high moral principles, temperate, industrious and of exemplary habits, and his death, which occurred in 1859, while he was representing his lodge in the Masonic Grand Lodge at Little Rock, was deeply lamented, not only by his immediate family, but by all who knew him as well, His wife was a consistent member of the Methodist Church, and died in 1868. The paternal grandparents, Francis B. and Sarah Toms, were probably born and married in England, and were early emigrants to and farmers of the "Old North State." Richard and Nancy Lynch, the maternal grandparents, were also early settlers of North Carolina, from Ireland, in which country they were born, reared and married. They came to this country on account of persecution, the father having participated in a rebellion in his native land. Both died in North Carolina. Frank B. Toms and his sister Sarah, widow of A. W. Harris, are the only ones of their father's family now living. The former spent his early days on a farm, and after his father's untimely death, the principal care of the family devolved on him. This left him with but little chance of acquiring an education, but he remained faithful to his trust until his marriage, in 1877, to Fannie, a daughter of Reuben and Rebecca Harrod, natives respectively of Louisiana and Mississippi, and very early settlers of Monroe County, Ark. The father was a soldier in the Confederate States army, a farmer by occupation, and died in 1872, followed by his wife two years later. Mrs. Toms was born in Monroe County, and she and Mr. Toms are the parents of one daughter. Mr. Tos lived on the old farm, on which his father settled, until 1888, when he removed to Clarendon, where he now owns a comfortable and commodious home. His farm of 160 acres comprises some of the best land in the county, and he has eighty acres under cultivation, all being acquired by his own good management and industry. He is a Democrat, his first presidential vote being cast for Greeley, in 1872, and he is a Royal Arch Mason. He also belongs to the K. of H., and in his religious views is a Methodist, his wife being a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

B. P. Vanderford, by reason of his association with the affairs of this county as a planter, deserves prominent mention. He is the only one living of a family of twelve children born to W. H. and Rhoda A. (Harris) Vanderford, natives of North Carolina. They removed from that State to Tennessee, and from there to Arkansas, locating in Jackson County, where he died in 1867, and his wife three years later. B. P. Vanderford was born in Buncombe County, N. C., in 1842. He was married in 1866 to Miss Mary E. Foster, a daughter of Josiah and Mary Foster, of this State. They are the parents of seven children, five still living: W. H., L. O., Jennie (the wife of J. H. Simson), B. H. and B. C. Mr. Vanderford enlisted in the Confederate army in 1861, and served until the battle of Chickamauga, in which he was wounded, being unable to again participate in active service. After the war he returned to Jackson County, and resumed farming, in 1871 removing to this county. He now owns a fine farm of 180 acres, with sixty acres under cultivation, and good buildings, etc. He is a prominent Democrat, and has served as justice of the peace since 1874, also belonging to the Knights of Honor. His wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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Capt. Milton H. Vaughan, notary public, jeweler and photographer, of Brinkley, Ark., was born in Tipton County, Tenn., in 1839, and is a son of Edwin and Susan (Owen) Vaughan, both of whom were born near Halifax, Va. They removed to Tennessee in their youth and there became acquainted and married, the mother's death occurring about 1854, after having borne a family of eleven children, four sons and seven daughters. Mr. Vaughan afterward removed to Arkansas, where he took a second wife, and here spent the rest of his days, his death occurring in 1857 or 1858, at about the age of fifty-five years. He was a farmer by occupation and a man who possessed sterling traits of character, which won him the respect and confidence of his fellow-men. Capt. [p.561] Milton H. Vaughan was the youngest of his father's family, and in his youth received such education as usually falls to the lot of the farmer's boy. When about fifteen years of age he began learning photography in Memphis, but upon the breaking out of the Rebellion he gave up this work and assisted in organizing Company E of the Tenth Arkansas Infantry, of Springfield, Conway County, Ark., and was elected first lieutenant, being promoted to captain soon after. His brother, E. L., was lieutenant of the regiment. The first engagement in which he participated was Shiloh, but he soon after went to Louisiana and was soon after taken prisoner at the fall of Port Hudson. He was taken to Johnson's Island and kept a prisoner until June 9, 1865, when he was released and returned home. Two years were spent in active duty and two in prison. After his return to West Point, Ark., he was married in September, 1865, to Susan Oliphant, a native of Tennessee, who died in 1870, having borne four children, one son only being now alive: Thomas L. His second marriage took place in 1875, his wife, Sallie Lynch, being a daughter of William B. and Eliza J. Lynch, whose sketch will be found elsewhere in this volume. Mrs. Vaughan was born in Mississippi and by Mr. Vaughan is the mother of a daughter named Mabel. After being engaged in the jewelry business in West Point for a few years Mr. Vaughan removed to Searcy, where he made his home until after his second marriage, since which time he has been a resident of Brinkley. He has been a successful jeweler and photographer, and as far as his finances are concerned he is in independent circumstances. He has a pleasant home on New York Avenue, and his business hoe is commodious and substantial. He has been a notary public for the past thirteen years and has filled the position of mayor of the town several terms, has been justice of the peace one term, and has been an alderman and recorder of the city. He is an A. F. & A. M., a K. of H., and belongs to the K. & L. of H. and the K. of L. He was formerly a member of the I. O. O. F. He is a Democrat, and he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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Capt. J. W. Walker is one of the leading planters of the county and enjoys the reputation of being, not only a substantial and progressive farmer, but an intelligent and thoroughly posted man in all public affairs. He is a native Tennesseean, born in White County, in 1837, and is a son of David and Polly (Stulls) Walker, both of whom were Virginians, and were probably married there. At an early date they removed to Hawkins County, East Tenn., thence to White County, Middle Tenn., and when the subject of this sketch was a lad, went to Van Buren County, where they resided for several years, his mother dying in February and his father in April of the same year. The father was a farmer, of Irish descent and a son of Micager Walker, who was born in Ireland and came to the United States prior to the American Revolution, and took part in that war. After living some years in Virginia he removed to Tennessee and died in Van Buren County, at the age of one hundred and seven years, his demise occurring since the close of the Civil War. Capt. J. W. Walker, the fifth of eleven children, is the only one living in Monroe County. He acquired only a moderate education in the common schools, and upon the death of his parents, began doing for himself and made his home with one man for nine years, working for wages four years and being a partner five years, becoming thoroughly familiar with stock trading. In 1860 he married Bettie Rankins, who was born in Bledsoe County, Tenn., and died in 1863, leaving one son, who died in 1885, at the untimely age of twenty-five years. Mr. Walker's second marriage took place in 1882, his wife being Mrs. Sallie Walls, a daughter of James H. and Eleanor D. Branch, natives of Wilson County, Tenn. They were married in 1840, and removed to West Tennessee, in 1851, living there eight years and going thence to Monroe County, in 1859, where Mr. Branch died, in 1867, and his wife in 1885. She was a member of the Christian Church. Mr. Branch was a well-to-do farmer. Mrs. Walker was born in Wilson County, Tenn., in 1847, and married Allen V. Walls in 1868. By her first husband she became the mother of three children, only one of whom is living. She and Mr. Walker had one child that is now deceased. [p.562] Mr. Walker lacked one day of serving four years in the Confederate army, and during his term of service, while participating in different battles, was wounded four times and had five horses shot from under him. The first year he was a member of Branhan's battalion of East Tennessee Cavalry, and operated in East and Middle Tennessee and Kentucky. His battalion was afterward consolidated with Company I, Eighth Tennessee, under Gen. G. D. Dibrell, with whom he remained, operating in nearly all the Southern States east of the Mississippi River, until the close of the war. During this time he served as captain and was a gallant and faithful officer. He was in many severe engagements, among which may be mentioned Fishing Creek, Camp Goggins (Ky.), Murfreesboro, Neely's Bend, Lexington, Humboldt, Union City, Trenton, Parker's Cross Roads, Fort Donelson, Thompson's Station, Franklin, Shelbyville, Wild Cat Bridge, Chickamanga, Dalton, Resaca, Missionary Ridge,New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Wainesboro, (S. C.), Landersville and Marietta, (Ga.). He was wounded at Camp Goggins, Wild Cat Bridge, Parker's Cross Roads and Landersville, and was captured at Wild Cat Bridge (Tenn.), August 9, 1863; being wounded severely he was at once paroled. He surrendered near Washington, Ga., May 11, 1865, and in 1866 came to Clarendon and was engaged in farming and rafting logs until in 1873, when he found employment in the sheriff's office, continuing as deputy seven years. He was elected sheriff of the county in 1884, but at the end of two years resumed farming on his land, comprising 176 acres near the town. He has in all, some 1,200 acres, about 600 under cultivation, nearly one-half of which has been acquired by his own efforts since coming to Arkansas. He raises some fine stock. He is a Democrat, though formerly a Whig, and during Cleveland's administration served one year as deputy United. States marshal. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M. for twenty years, and is now residing on the farm formerly owned by ex-Gov. Hughes. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His wife is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

William B. Wellborn, a merchant and an extensive land owner of Monroe County, commenced work for himself in 1871 as superintendent of a large plantation, at $50 per month. The following year he rented land and was engaged in farming one year, in 1873 embarking in the mercantile business in what is known as Duncan Station, where he has been in business ever since. He was born in Knoxville County, Miss., in 1851, the son of Jones D. and Lucy (Tate) Wellborn. The father was born in Madison County, Ala., in 1824, and was a son of Isaac S. Wellborn, of English and Irish origin. He was a planter and stockman, also owning a stage line in Monroe County, Ark., in 1855, before there were any railroads in that part of the State. He was married to Miss Lucy Tate, in Madison County, Ala., in 1848, she having been born in that county in 1827. They had a family of four children, three of whom are still living: Elizabeth I. (wife of W. W. Capps, of Memphis, Tenn.), Lucy C. (the wife of E. F. Maberry, of Prairie County, Ark.) and William B. (the principal of this article). J. D. Wellborn on leaving Alabama went to Tennessee, and from there to Mississippi in 1850, coming thence to Arkansas in 1853. He bought a farm in this county, where he made his home until his death in 1857, one year after the final summons of his wife. In addition to his business at Duncan Mr. Wellborn owns and conducts a large plantation, consisting of 1,900 acres of fine land, with 700 acres under cultivation. He was married in January, 1875, to Miss Lillian E. Kerr, daughter of W. D. and Lizzie D. Kerr; she was born in Alabama in 1856. They are the parents of five children, four of whom survive: Henry, Jennie E., Lucy A. and Barton G. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., of the K. of P., and of the K. of G. R. Mrs. Wellborn belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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Dr. Robert M. West has, by his assiduous attention to all his patients, acquired a large and steadily increasing practice, and has gained the confidence of all-as a clever and scientific practitioner. He is a member of the firm of West & Thomas, of Clarendon, and was born in Henderson County, W. Tenn., July 6, 1832, being the youngest [p.563] of seven sons and five daughters born to Easton and Mary E. (Simmons) West, born in North Carolina in 1775 and 1782, respectively. After their marriage, which took place in their native State, they removed to Virginia, and a few years later to West Tennessee, where they were among the early settlers. He was very active in clearing the forests, and settled on twenty-two different farms in as many years, being a resident of different counties. Both he and wife died in Humboldt, Tenn., in 1866, members of many years' standing in the Baptist Church, of which Mr. West was a deacon for seventy-two years. His father was an Irishman, and served in the Revolutionary War from North Carolina. A. L. Simmons, the maternal grandfather, was of Irish-Scotch descent, a Virginian, and also a Revolutionary soldier. Dr. Robert M. West is the only one of his father's family who is now living, to his knowledge. After remaining at home and assisting his father until he was fourteen years of age, he began working for himself as a farm hand, but at the end of two years, seeing the need of a better education, he attended a five-months' term of school, working seven months for a farmer of the region to pay for his schooling. He then concluded to try how teaching the young idea suited him, and finding that his first term was a success, and liking the work, he followed it three years in West Tennessee, in the meantime devoting his spare time to the study of medicine. In 1860 he graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Louisville. Ky., but had previously begun practicing in Tennessee, in 1858. He returned there after graduating, but in April, 1862, he joined Company H, Tenth Tennessee Cavalry, of Gen. Forrest's army, but at the end of seven months was made assistant-surgeon of the Fifteenth Tennessee Regiment, and in 1864 was transferred to the examining board of conscripts, in which capacity he served until the cessation of hostilities. He resumed his practice in Tennessee, but in 1871 came to Clarendon, where he has since practiced his profession with much success. He has been president of the Monroe County Examining Board since its organization; is Senior Warden of Cache Lodge No. 235, A. F. & A. M.; is Past-Chancellor in the K. of P., Cowan Lodge No. 39, and is Examiner in the K. of H. and K. of P. Politically he is a Democrat, his first presidential vote being cast for James Buchanan. He is accounted one of the substantial men of Monroe County, and is the owner of 240 acres of land three miles from Clarendon, and 320 acres seven miles from the town, and also owns an elegant house in the town. He was married in October, 1860, to Mary F. Conner, who was born in Tennessee, and died in 1872, having borne two children, both now deceased. Dr. West's second marriage was consummated January 10, 1874, his wife being Miss Celena, a daughter of Lewis Wahl, a German by birth, now a resident of Milan, Tenn., aged seventy-four years. Mrs. West was born in New Albany, Ind., was reared in Kentucky, and received her education in Columbia, Tenn., being a graduate of a female college of that place. She and the Doctor have two children: Nora C. and Julius M.

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Capt. J. W. Whitfield, a general merchant of Roc Roe Township, was born in Davidson County, Tenn., in 1839, and is a son of Capt. Thomas J. and Sallie L. (Dillyhunt) Whitfield, the former a Virginian, and the latter born in Davidson County, Tenn. Their marriage took place in this county, and here they made their home, with the exception of about one year spent in Texas, the father's death occurring in 1873 and the mother's in 1882, she being a member of the Baptist Church at the time of her death. Mr. Whitfield was brigadier-general of the Tennessee militia in early days, and was all through the Rebellion, being a member of the Forty-second Tennessee Infantry, Confederate States army, and was captain of Company H. He was captured at the battle of Fort Donelson and was kept a prisoner at Johnson's Island for seven months. He was then taken on a gunboat to Fortress Monroe, thence to Richmond, where he was liberated or released at the close of the war. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. and was of English descent. The maternal grandfather, Dillyhunt, was a German and died in Davidson County, Tenn., having been a soldier in the War of 1812. [p.564] Capt. J. W. Whitfield was the fourth of nine children, five sons and four daughters, and received but little schooling in his youth. Upon the opening of the war he joined the Confederate army as captain of Company I, Forty-second Tennessee Infantry, and he and his brother, Capt. Silas D. H. Whitfield, and two younger brothers, were all in the same regiment with their father, the latter and his two eldest sons, each commanding a company. They were all captured at Fort Donelson and taken to Johnson's Island, and our subject was exchanged at Vicksburg, and soon after assisted in organizing Company G, becoming a member of Wheeler's cavalry, and operated with his regiment in Tennessee and Mississippi. In the fall of 1863 he was captured on the Tennessee River, but a few hours afterward made his escape and rejoined his command and captured the Federal who had a short time before captured him; this was in Humphreys County. From that time until the final surrender he operated in West Tennessee, and surrendered at Brownsville of that State. The most important engagements in which he participated were Fort Donelson, Fort Hudson, Johnsonville, and some spirited skirmishes. After the war he began farming in Madison County, Tenn., then returned to Middle Tennessee and was engaged in merchandising for five years, and in 1873 removed to Texas, where he followed the same occupation and also managed a cotton plantation for three years. After returning to Tennessee and residing there until 1880 he came to Lonoke County, Ark., and at the end of one year settled in Aberdeen. Since October, 1888, he has resided in Roc Roe Township, and is carrying on the mercantile business with success and also managing a farm of 100 acres. He has a good plantation in Madison County. Tenn., and a store which nets him a comfortable annual income. He is one of the prominent business men of the county, and is a man who commands the respect and esteem of all who know him. He is very fond of hunting, and much of his spare time is spent in the woods with his gun. Mr. Whitfield has always been a Democrat and voted for Jefferson Davis in 1860. He is a member in good standing of the Christian Church, and his wife, whose maiden name was Delia Scott, and whom he married in 1862, was a member of the Methodist Church. She was born in Fayette County, Tenn., and died in June, 1887, being a daughter of George R. and Heater A. Scott, natives, respectively, of Davidson and Madison Counties, Tenn. The father was a wealthy farmer, and both he and wife died in Madison County, his death occurring in November, 1887, and hers in the winter of 1865.

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Capt. Lewis N. Williams is a stock trader and farmer of Roc Roe Township, and was born in Bedford County, Tenn., in 1836, being the youngest of six sons born to William D. and Mary A. (Phillips) Williams, the former born in North Carolina, and the latter in Tennessee. They were married in the mother's native State, and here the father was engaged in farming and stock trading. His death occurred while serving in the Confederate army. His wife followed him to the grave a few years later, her death occurring in Texas while on a visit to a son. She was a member of the Presbyterian Church. Lewis N. Williams received very limited early educational advantages, and at the early age of thirteen years, left home and went to Texas, where he spent some years working on a farm and in the stock business on the frontier. In 1862 he joined Company C of a Texas Battalion, and after the fight at Elk Horn, his company was reorganized at Des Arc, and became the First Texas Legion, afterward operating east of the Mississippi River. He was made orderly-sergeant of his company, was promoted to lieutenant, and finally for meritorious conduct was raised to the rank of captain. At the evacuation of Corinth, he lost his right arm, but remained with the army about a year longer, although not on active duty. He returned to Texas after this, and ran a wagon train of about twenty or teams in Western Texas, being engaged in hauling cotton for the Government, and at the time of the final surrender was at Brownsville, Texas. He has spent many years of his life on the frontier, and has endured many hardships and privations, and has had many hairbreadth escapes from death, having been robbed several times. His life has been an eventful and interesting one, full of excitement and romance, and in all the difficulties he has encountered [p.565] in his walk through life,he has met and surmounted them all. He first came to Monroe County, Ark., in 1867, but in 1870-71 was in the stock commission business in Memphis, and while there lost all his accumulations of years, and was left $1,000 in debt. He then returned to Monroe County, engaged extensively in stock dealing, and is now one of the wealthiest men of Monroe County, being the owner of about 4,000 acres of land. He has been interested in the development of the county; morally, intellectually and socially, and has the reputation of being a man of progressive views, thoroughly posted in all public matters. He is a Democrat politically, a member of the Famous Life Association, and in 1872 was united in marriage to Miss Dora Miller, a native of Mississippi, who died in 1883. His second marriage was consummated in 1884, his wife being Miss Josie Cannon, a native of Arkansas County, and a member of the Methodist Church.