Logan County Arkansas

 

Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Western Arkansas

LOOAN COUNTY – LOCATION – AREA – LANDS – TOPOGRAPHY – MOUNTAINS – STREAMS – DERIVATION OF NAMES–TIMBER–MINERALS–AGRICULTURE–HORTICULTURE–GRAPES AND NATIVE WINES–PARIS NURSERY–RAISING OF LIVE STOCK–TRANSPORTATION LINES–SETTLEMENT–DE SOTO'S EXPEDITION–MOUNDS CONTAINING HUMAN HONES–SUPPOSED

FIGHT WITH INDIANS–EARLY SRTTLERS MENTIONRD – AN ANCIENT GRAVE–COUNTY ORGANIZATION – BOUNDARY LINES–FIRST COUNTY SEAT–SROOND AND FINAL COUNTY SEAT–BURNING OF COURT-HOUSES–COUNTY BUILDINGS–CHANGE OF NAME OF COUNTY FROM SARBER TO LOGAN–COUNTY OFFICERS – POLITIOAL ASPRCT – ELECTION RETURNS – CIRCUIT COURT – LOGAN COUNTY LEOAL BAR–CRIMINAL EXECUTIONS–CIVIL WAR–HAOUEWOOD FIGHT–ATTACK ON ROSEVILLE–TOWNS, VILIAGES AND POST-OFFICES–PRESS–EDUCATION–CHRISTIANITY–VIEWS FROM SHORT MOUNTAIN.

M. M. Wyatt needs no special introduction to the inhabitants of Johnson County, Ark., for he is the well-known proprietor of an excellent saw-mill at Silex. He was born in the Hoosier State, being one of five children, two of whom are living–himself and William T. –born to James A. and Malinda (Shien) Wyatt, they being also born in that State. The subject of this sketch came to Arkansas with his parents when about nine years of age, and after the father had been engaged in cutting timber in Clay County, Ark., for about one year he removed to Pope County and homesteaded 160 acres of land, on which he remained about five years, clearing, during this time, about twenty acres, upon which he built a good residence

and other necessary buildings. He then purchased eighty acres adjoining his home tract and eighty acres in Hickory Township, Johnson County, and at the time of his death on November 22, 1887, he was the possessor of a good patrimony. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity. When about nineteen years of age M. M. Wyatt began farming for himself in Kansas, where he remained one year, returning to Johnson County, Ark., at the end of that time and engaging in operating a sawmill, being a joint owner with J. J. Colwell. This mill is an excellent one, and has a capacity of 8,000 feet of lumber per day, for which they find a ready sale. Mr. Wyatt is polite in his manners to all, is devoted to his friends, and is one of those gentlemen who is seldom duplicated in any community. He belongs to Silex Lodge No. 474, of the A. F. & A. M. He is a man on whom one can rely at all times, and his friends are many and his enemies few, for he is warm-hearted and true as a magnet to the pole.

"Build yet, the end is not, build on; Build for the ages unafraid. The past is but a base whereon These ashlcrs, well hewn, may be laid. Lo, 1 declare I deem him blest Whose foot, here pausing, findeth restl"

 

THE county of Logan in the west-central part of Arkansas, is bounded by Franklin, Johnson, Pope, Yell, Scott and Sobastian Counties, and along the northern boundary flows the Arkansas River. It lies in latitude 36° north, and in longitude 94° west from Greenwich, England. The area of the county is 672 square miles or 430,080 acres. Of this originally about 12,800 acres were prairie, and 417,280 were timber-lands; 341,100 acres constitute the assessed acreage of the county on deeded lands, as shown by the tax books; there are over 100,000 acres of Government and State lands subject to pre-emption and homestead entry, of which about one-half is covered with inchoate homestead and pre-emption claims, leaving the balance still subject to entry.

The following table indicates the natural divisions and distributions of the Logan County lands in a topographical view: Acres.

: Arkansas River, bottom : 25,000

: Six Mile Creek, bottom : 10,000

: Short Mountain Creek, bottom : 9,200

: Cane Creek, bottom : 6,400

: Shoal Creek, bottom : 10,000

: Delaware Creek, bottom : 4,500

: Pelit Jean River, bottom : 22,400

: Sugar Creek, bottom : 3,840

: Uplands : 200,000

: Hill lands : 108,740

: Mountainous and unfit for cultivation : 30,000

: Total area of Logan County : 430,080

The county is somewhat mountainous, but the greater portion of its area is bottom, table and hill lands, as shown above. Short Mountain, a magnificent [p.323] and nearly round mountain, covering about two sections of land, lies northwest of Paris, its base being one mile distant from the court-house. Its summit is about 500 feet above the surrounding country, or 800 feet above sea level. The top is nearly level, and contains some very productive farms. West of this, with only a narrow valley intervening, lies Upper Short Mountain, similar in size and formation. These are frequently called Twin Mountains. Pine Ridge, a range of dignified hills or low mountains, extends east and west clear through the county in Township 7 north. It averages from one to two miles in width, and its base is about a mile south of Paris. Flattop and Calico Mountains lie south of Pine Ridge in the central part of the county. These are benches of the Magazine Mountain, lying still farther south, its western extremity being about two miles west of the line dividing Ranges 25 and 26 west. A spur of this mountain, sometimes called Blue Mountain, extends in a northeasterly direction east of Flattop Mountain. The dividing Ridge between Yell and Logan Counties in Ranges 23 and 24 west, is commonly called Spring Mountain. Along the southern boundary of the county south of the Petit Jean, is another mountain range. Of all these mountains the Magazine is the largest and most important.

Footnote

There is some controversy about the highest point in the State, it being claimed for Rich Mountain in Polk County, but the writer is of opinion that Magazine has the highest elevation.

Its highest point, which is in Sections 22 and 23, in Township 6 north, Range 25 west, is 3,275 feet above sea level. This is claimed to be the highest point in the State.* From this point, it is said, upon good authority, that the most extended and most picturesque view of the surrounding country of the State is obtained.

The Arkansas River, on the northern boundary, gives to the county forty-two miles of river frontage, and the advantage of a navigable stream for small vessels the year round, and for larger vessels from six to nine months in the year. The tributaries of this river, flowing from Logan County, are Short Mountain, Cane, Shoal, Delaware, and some smaller creeks. Short Mountain Creek rises from springs on Magazine Mountain, in Township 6 north, Range 25 west, being in the south-central part of the county, and flows thence in a northwesterly direction, between Flattop and Calico Mountains, and by way of Paris and Short Mountain to the north side of the latter, where it turns to the eastward and northeastward, and empties into the Arkansas near the middle of Range 25. There are several important tributaries of this creek, the principal one being Six Mile Creek, which rises near the southwest corner of Township 7 north, Range 27 west, and flows thence in a northeasterly direction to its junction with the main stream, on the north side of Short Mountain. Cane Creek rises in the northeast part of Township 7 north, Range 25 west, and flows thence in a general northeasterly direction to the Arkansas, in the southwest part of Township 9 north, Range 23 west. Shoal Creek rises from springs on Magazine Mountain, near the southern boundary of the county in Range 24, and runs thence in a northeasterly direction between Blue and Spring Mountains, and through a gap in Pine Ridge, and finally empties into the Arkansas in the eastern part of Township 8 north, in Range 23 west. Delaware Creek drains the extreme eastern portion of the county, and empties into the Arkansas near the northeast corner of the county.

The Petit Jean River enters the county about four miles north of its southwest corner, and flows easterly through the southern tier of townships. Its principal tributary is Sugar Creek, which flows into it from the south. The Magazine Mountain, with the territory west of it in Township 6 north, forms the dividing ridge, or watershed, between the Arkansas and Petit Jean Rivers.

According to tradition this river derived its name from the following circumstances: When the Territory was under the dominion of the French, a party of explorers or hunters visited the head of the stream, having with them a small man whose name was Jean in French, or John in English. Petit means little, in French, and being a small man they called him Petit Jean (Little John). While there they had a fight with the Indians, and Petit Jean was wounded, and afterward died [p.324] from the effects of the wound as the party was returning down the river, hence the name Petit Jean River. Cane Creek took its name from the bundance of cane along its route, and Shoal Creek took its name from the many shoals in its course.

One of the most valuable resources of Logan County, when developed, will be its timber. At least one-half its ares is yet covered with virgin forests, containing vast quantities of the most valuable woods. In the bottoms are walnut, white oak, the red and black oaks, gum, mulberry, hickory, white ash, cottonwood, box elder, and a variety of others. On the uplands are post oak, hickory, cherry, pine, red and black oak, etc. On the north side of Magazine Mountain are found immense quantities of wild cherry and black walnut, of immense size, from three to five feet in diameter, and straight as an arrow for many feet without limbs. There is perhaps a larger quantity of oak than of any other timber; the pine is not abundant. The demand for lumber is only local yet, very little being cut for shipment. Pine and oak lumber can be bought for building purposes almost anywhere in the county at $10 to $12.50 per thousand feet.

The mineral wealth of Logan County is very great, though as yet undeveloped. The whole northern side of the county is underlaid with coal of the finest quality, and coal has also been discovered on Canthron Prairie, in the southwestern part of the county. In the immediate vicinity of Paris, coal to supply the local demand is mined. The veins vary in thickness from twenty-eight inches to four feet, and lie near the surface. A much thicker deposit has been reached at a depth of about eighty feet, but it has never been developed. The area of the coal fields is estimated at 75,000 acres.

Iron ore is found in large quantities in several localities. Near Paris are extensive deposits of brown hematite, and the same ore is found in the ridges south of the Petit Jean River. Some lands on which deposits of iron are found have recently been purchased by eastern parties for the purpose of developing the iron.

Building stone of the finest quality, and in inexhaustible quantity, is found in the ridges all over the county. It is chiefly a gray sandstone, easily dressed and very durable. Granite of fine quality is abundant in the southern range of mountains.

Fire clay and brick clay are found in great abundance, and of excellent quality.

Gold has been found at Golden City, near the southern line of the county, and a mining camp has been established there. Considerable work has been done there in the way of sinking shafts etc., but at this writing it has not been disclosed whether or not the "find" will prove a profitable one. Copper and galena have also been found in the same locality, but they are yet undeveloped.

The alluvial soils along the rivers and creeks are as fertile as any in the world. The uplands are of various grades in different sections of the county, but consist mainly of hematitic clay, with a substratum ranging in depth from two or three to fifteen feet. The new grounds are overlaid with a mold from a few inches to a foot in thickness. Most of the upland is highly productive in its natural state. A remarkable feature of the mountain lands is that on many of them, particularly on the Magazine Mountain, the vegetation and the soil present the same characteristics as the alluvial river bottoms.

As to the agricultural products of the county, cotton holds the first place. The average yield per acre of the fleecy staple is higher in Arkansas than in any of the other cotton-producing States, and Logan County will compare favorably with any section of the State. The yield may be counted with reasonable certainty to average about a half bale per acre on uplands, and a bale on bottom lands. It is not uncommon to see a bale per acre from the uplands in many sections of the county.

Corn is the next crop in point of acreage, and, of course, first in importance. The yield is from twenty-five to seventy-five bushels per acre. Since corn is the life of the farmer and of the farm, it will be a source of gratification to those in search of homes to know that with early planting and good cultivation, the corn crop never fails in this [p.325] section. In the two protracted drouths that have visited this region in the last fifteen years, all who had planted early crops and cultivated them well, had corn to spare to their less fortunate neighbors.

Wheat is another crop which yields reasonably well. More attention has been paid to the growth of wheat of late years than formerly, and the yield has been materially augmented by the introduction of better methods of cultivtion. The yield of wheat is from seven to thirty bushels per acre;

Oats, rye and barley are all cultivated, and make good crops. Oats is an important crop, and recently the acreage has been largely increased.

The great abundance and variety of native grasses, which the "public range" furnished while the country was sparsely settled and but little fenced, obviated to a very large degree the necessity for cultivating the tame grasses; but where tried many of them have done well. Clover, timothy, red top, orchard grass and millet, all yield large returns, while some native grasses yield fine pasturage and good hay. Clover will yield two crops of hay per year, but as yet only a little has been raised. It ought to be extensively raised, both for pasturage and for fertilizing the soil and killing out the weeds which grow so luxuriantly here. Farmers would find their milk and butter of much better quality if they would keep their milch cows off the wild range and pasture them on clover fields. This will be an excellent grazing county when the tame grasses are generally introduced and raised to the proper extent. A valuable addition to the range of late years is the wide distribution over the county of the Lespidesa, or "Japan clover," which now covers a large percentage of the open land.

The attention of the whole country has been attracted by the wonderful display of fruits made by Arkansas at New Orleans, Boston and other places. Logan is not behind her sister counties in the production of fruit, though she has as yet no very extensive orchards. Peaches, apples and all the small fruits grow to the greatest perfection, the uplands being the best for their production. Grape culture, while yet in its infancy, has been tried sufficiently to demonstrate its success. The hills and mountains abound with wild grapes of several valuable kinds, many of them being equal in size and flavor to favorite varieties of cultivated grapes. One variety is about the size of the well-known Concord, and equally as good. Another variety is a large and excellent white grape, and another is larger than either of these, but it has a tough skin and is not so good in quality. The native grapes, being very abundant, are extensively gathered by the citizen and manufactured into wine of excellent quality.

One of the enterprises to which the people of Logan County can point with pride is the Paris Nursery, located on Short Mountain, two miles northwest of Paris. It was established in 1879, by J. W. Ayers, who was its principal manager until his death, which occurred but recently. Mr. E. G. Butler purchased an interest in the business some years ago, and it now belongs to him and the Ayers estate. Mr. Butler a practical nurseryman, lives upon the farm and superintends the business together with the administrator of the Ayers estate, the Hon. J. H. Wilkins. Commencing with a small stock, and a business confined almost entirely to Logan County, this nursery has steadily grown until it is now one of the largest in the State, employing canvasers in Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas and the Indian Territory. Mr. Butler devotes his whole time to the business and understands it thoroughly, and will continue the business. Every bill of trees sent out from this nursery is just as represented, a fact to which the many customers willingly testify. The elevation, and the character of the soil on Short Mountain, make it one of the best locations in the State for a nursery. There are now in the Paris Nursery a fine stock of healthy young trees, many of the one year old apple trees being from four to six feet in height.

The compiler of this work has had experience in the fruit-tree nursery business in another State, and sincerely recommends the patronage of the home nursery, not alone for the purpose of fostering a home institution, but for self protection, for the purpose of getting acclimated trees and plants, that will succeed in growing and be [p.326] true in name of variety. Buy trees of kinds of fruit the success of which has been proven in your latitude.

The Logan County Bureau of Immigration, in a pamphlet published recently, speaks as follows concerning the raising of live stock:

"In the old ante bellum days the energies of the South were entirely concentrated on cotton, and every other enterprise sank into insignificance before the one absorbing idea that "cotton is king." So it was, that until a very late day no attention has been paid to stock-raising. Our mountain sides are covered with deer, and hogs unclaimed fattened in our forests: our prairie lands furnished a pasture in summer, and the canebrakes in the bottoms were a never-failing winter pasture for cattle. But the march of immigration has caused cities to spring up in our midst, and the demand for beef and meats of all kinds has greatly augumented, and there can be no doubt that stock raising can be made very profitable here, especially by those who understand how to handle stock. We have only a few citizens who have turned their attention to graded cattle, and they find the business very profitable. Our meats are at this time to a great extent furnished us from the north, and in the towns of much consequence they buy from the north large amounts. After a glance at our list of grasses and never-failing supply of the purest water, we see no reason why stock-raising could nut be made largely profitable here. The northern markets would have their freight to pay in order to compete with the home producer, and there is no question about the local demand here. People who understand stock-raising are especially invited to come and he with us, they will receive a special welcome; they would be useful to us, and we will encourage their enterprise. We would rather spend our money at home.

"Horse and mule raising would also be a good business here. As large farms are being opened an animal is in demand here that can pull a heavy plow. The mustang pony must go. As yet there have been very few good general-purpose horses raised here; they are purchased from the north, and are now in great demand. Money invested in a stock farm in one of the fertile valleys, watered by a mountain stream, in Logan County, would be a paying investment. In this we are sure no mistake can be made, no money lost; and he who embarks first will get the cream of the enterprise; though this business is bound to last and prosper in this country while water runs and grass grows.

"Until the last few years the wolves and other wild animals have kept the sheep pretty well thinned out, but now, as our country is filling up very fast, these destructive animals, like the buffalo, are seeking a more congenial clime. Sheep can be raised here now with certainty, and from under the eye of the shepherd, with very little expense to the farmer, and would yield a large profit. Our mountain sides could be especially utilized in this enterprise, and a pleasanter or more profitable business could not he embarked in. It is an established fact that sheep are not so susceptible to destructive diseases here as in many localities where their culture is an acknowledged success. The wool fiber is finer and longer and the yield greater than in less healthy localities; hence, inducements, from every point of view, preponderate in favor of this locality, with its short, mild winters, early springs, temperate summers, and late falls, for this particular industry."

The following statistics will show what has actually been done in the county–numerically at least–in the way of live-stock raising in the last few years. In 1886 there were 4,710 horses, 1,900 mules and asses, 19,212 head of cattle, 4,070 sheep, and 24,784 hogs, listed for taxation in Logan County, and the number of these animals listed for taxation in 1889 was as follows: Horses, 4,357; mules and asses, 1,988; cattle, 23,331; sheep, 5,934; hogs, 31,611. This shows a decrease in the number of horses during the three years of 353, and a gain of 88 mules and asses, 4,112 cattle, 1,864 sheep, and 6,827 hogs. These figures are taken from the county records and are therefore reliable. There was a fair gain in the number of mules and asses, and large gains in the number of cattle, sheep and hogs, but it seems strange that there should be such a falling off in the number of horses as shown by the figures.

The territory composing Logan County was formerly dependent upon the Arkansas River, and latterly upon the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad for transportation facilities. But little is now transported by way of the river. The line of the proposed Fort Smith & Dardanelle Railroad passes east and west through the county by way of Paris. This road has been chartered, the route surveyed and the right of way secured, and some work on the west end at Fort Smith has been done. Nothing is being done at present, but the prospects for business along this line will probably cause the road to be constructed at no distant day. This line, eighty miles in length, passes through the richest coal fields in the southwest, and as fine an agricultural region as can be found in the country. There is talk of building a branch railroad from Coal Hill in Johnson County, on the Little Rock & Fort Smith line, to Paris. In all probability it will not be long before the county will have a railroad.

It is most probable that the first white men who ever visited the territory now composing Logan County belonged to the exploring expedition of Heruando De Soto, who, in 1541, crossed the Arkansas River, going southward, at some point between the present cities of Dardanelle and Forth Smith. The following facts are circumstances in evidence of his having stopped here with his men for a time. At the crossing of Six Mile Creek on the Fort Smith road, eight miles west of Paris, are five mounds supposed to have been constructed by Indians. The mounds stand on the west bank of the creek. Three have been opened, and in two of them the bones of individuals belonging to a giant race of Indians, probably the Big Osages, and in the other the bones of white men of ordinary size have been found. Evidently a fight has occurred here some time between the Indians and a band of white men, and it is believed that the latter belonged to De Soto's expedition, though historians do not place his line of march quite so far to the west. The evidences of a fight are, that in one place near the mounds flattened bullets, and in another place numerous flint arrow heads have been found, which circumstances lead to the conclusion that the Indians fought from the place where the flattened balls were found, and the whites from the point where the arrowheads were found. Many of the bones and skulls found in the mounds were broken, indicating that the contending parties finally closed in and had a hand-to-hand encounter. In another place, not far from the mounds, round bullets have been found, and here it is supposed that the whites had their camp. Bars of lead and pieces of iron bars, probably cudgels and other warlike implements have also been found. Hemispherical iron balls, about a dozen in number, that would fit a three-pound-ball cannon, were also found here. The bones of the Indians would indicate that they were from six to seven feet in height.

Subsequent to De Soto's explorations, and prior to 1800, the Arkansas River and the territory adjacent thereto were frequently explored by the subjects of France and Spain in their search for valuable metals. Many marks made by them still remain upon the rocks in Logan County. The permanent white settlement, however, did not begin here until about the beginning of the present century. It seems to have begun here earlier than at many points farther down the river.

A man named Noaks settled as early, perhaps, as 1806, at a point one mile southeast of Roseville, and Noaks Creek was named after him. Soon thereafter a Polish Count Don Stein, an exile from his country, settled just north of Short Mountain, and led a wild and reckless life, hunting and sporting with the Indians, fighting duels, etc. After the lands were surveyed in 1825, he entered the tract on which his cabin stood, and soon thereafter sold out and left. Col. John Tittsworth settled near Short Mountain about the year 1814, his sons, David and Gabriel, having settled here some time earlier. John Fort came from Missouri in 1826, and settled in McClain's bottom. His mother came the next year with the balance of her large family including her son William, who still survives and resides about three miles west of Paris. Among other prominent citizens who located here in the twenties, some of them perhaps a little later, were George Hicklin, who settled on or near the present [p.328] site of Paris; a Mr. Davis and Mr. McClain (or McLean) who settled on McClain's bottom; Mr. Hixson, Anthony Brown, James Carpenter, Samuel Rose, John Drennon (who afterward owned a steamboat on the river), and George Gill, all of whom settled at and in the vicinity of Roseville; William Raney, Mr. McClain and a Mr. Scott, all of whom settled on McClain's bottom; the Nesbits who settled in the lower end of the county; Mark Cravens, who settled near Morrison's Bluff, also Lorenzo Clark, a very noted and wealthy man and politician. Thomas Cochran settled and named Cochran's Prairie south of Booneville as early and not later, perhaps, than 1810. About 1830 Col. James Logan settled on Sugar Creek south of the Petit Jean River, and about the same time a Mr. Scott settled on the river. A number of persons came from the New Madrid country soon after the earthquakes of 1811 and 1812, and settled in what is now Logan County.

The persons named in the foregoing were among the most noted early settlers. There was a class of settlers here before them, some of whom remained but a short time, and none of whom gained notoriety. There were rough times here in the"early days." Fighting duels was a common practice, and the notorious John A. Murrell, with his gang of counterfeiters and robbers, made this county one of his places of rendezvous.

The first steamboat that ascended the Arkansas River as high as this county is said to have been the "Cotton Plant," which came up in 1847. The items pertaining to the permanent settlement of the county have been furnished the writer by Judge Theodore Potts, who in some instances gave only approximate dates. For further particulars and more definite dates pertaining to individual settlers the reader is referred to the biographical sketches of the leading citizens.

While a number of citizens were cleaning up the Raney graveyard in Clark Township in August, 1890, an old grave was discovered that attracted unusual attention. On examination the grave was found to be nine feet long with head and footstones of hard sandstone. The head stone was taken down and closely examined, and upon it was the following inscription, which was covered over with moss: "John McDaniel, Ju. 4. 1817." The oldest inhabitants have no tradition about the grave, save that some of them remember having seen the grave when they were boys. It is supposed that his death occurred in June or July of that year.

Logan County, originally call Sarber, was organized in accordance with the provisions of an act of the General Assembly of the State, approved March 22, 1871, and was called Sarber in honor of Gen. J. N. Sarber. The first three sections of the act reads as follows:

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, That all that portion of the counties of Yell, Johnson, Franklin and Scott included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at a point in the channel of the Arkansas River where the line dividing Ranges 21 and 22 crosses said river; thence running south on said line to the line dividing Townships 6 and 7; thence running west on said line to the boundary between Yell and Johnson Counties; thence west and south with said boundary line to the line dividing Townships 24 and 25; thence south on said line to the line dividing 5 and 6; thence west on said line to the boundary line between Yell and Scott Counties: thence south on said boundary line to the line dividing Townships 4 and 5; thence west on said line dividing 4 and 5 to the boundary line between Scott and Sebastian Counties; thence north on the line dividing Ranges 28 and 29, to northwest corner of Township 6, Range 28; thence east on said line dividing 6 and 7, to the line dividing Ranges 28 and 27; thence north on said line dividing Ranges 28 and 27, to the line dividing Townships 7 and 8; thence east on said line dividing Townships 7 and 8, to the line dividing Ranges 25 and 26; thence north on said line dividing Ranges 25 and 26, to the channel of the Arkansas River, thence with the channel of said river to the place of beginning.

SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, That the temporary seat of justice of said county shall be at Reveille.

SEC. 3. Be it further enacted, That the Governor shall appoint all county and township officers in said county of Sarber hereby established, who shall hold their respective offices until their successors are elected and qualified, as provided for by the constitution, at the next general election for the same class of officers in other counties.

Section 4 appoints C. P. Anderson, James M. White and James L. Garner as a board of commissioners to locate the seat of justice for the county, purchase the site thereof and perform certain other duties. Then follow sixteen other sections] pertaining to the organization of the courts, the duties of officers, etc.

It will be observed that the first section of the act bounds a certain tract of territory, but fails to say that it shall be formed into a separate county, and fails also to name the county. Section 3 speaks of "said County of Sarber" the same as though it had been named. Thus it is seen that the county was not really named at all, but was called Sarber by implication. However, it was organized under the act, imperfect as it was. As soon as the commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice were informed of their duties, they met and selected a site on Red Bench*, of Flattop Mountain, about six miles southeast of the present town of Paris, and here the county seat was first located. The place was named Anderson, and a small frame court-house and a small log jail were erected there. The temporary seat of justice remained at Reveille but a short time.

The county seat remained at Anderson until after the passage of the following act entitled, "An act to amend an act to establish and organize the County of Sarber, and for other purposes," approved February 27, 1873. Section 1 of this amendatory act reads as follows:

"That all that portion of the counties of Yell, Johnson, Franklin and Scott included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at a point in the channel of the Arkansas River, where the line dividing Ranges twenty-one (21) and twenty-two (22) west, crosses said river; thence running south on said line to the line dividing Townships six (6) and seven (7) north; thence west on said line to the boundary line between Yell and Johnson Counties;thence west and south on said boundary line to the range line dividing Ranges twenty-four (24) and twenty-five (25) west; thence south on said line to the line dividing Townships five (5) and six (6) north; thence west on said line to the line dividing Ranges twenty-five (25) and twenty-six (26) west; thence south on said line to the dividing line between Townships four (4) and five (5) north; thence west on said line to the line dividing Ranges twenty-eight (28) and twenty-nine (29) west; thence north on said line to the line dividing Townships six (6) and seven (7) north; thence east on said line to the line between Ranges twenty-seven (27) and twenty-eight (28) west; thence north on said line to the line between Townships seven (7) and eight (8) north; thence east on said line to the line dividing Ranges twenty-six (26) and twenty-seven (27) west; thence north on said line to the channel of the Arkansas River; thence with the channel of said river to the place of beginning, be and the same is hereby formed into a separate and distinct county, to be known and designated the county of Sarber, to have, enjoy and exercise, as a body politic and corporate, all the rights, priviliges and immunities of a separate county."

By the second section of this act James R. Laffery, Daniel R. Lee and James A. Shrigley were appointed commissioners to locate the se****t of justice for the county, to purchase lands for the same and lay it out into town lots, to sell the lots to secure funds to be applied toward the erection of public buildings, and to perform other specific duties.

This act gave a more definite description of the boundary lines of the county, named it Sarber (as it was originally intended to be named), and enlarged its area by adding thereto all that part of Townships 8 and 9 north, in Range 26 west, which lies south of the Arkansas River. The new commissioners appointed by this act to locate or relocate the seat of justice, met and selected Ellsworth, a place on the old Little Rock & Fort Smith military road, about ten miles east of the present county seat. Here a small, frame court-house, or clerk's office, was erected, to which the county records were removed in 1873, and for the time being Ellsworth became the county seat. The people were not satisfied, however, and much contention now arose about another location for the county seat, and strenuous efforts were made by the party in power to locate it at a point three miles west of where Paris now stands. The new site was selected and a contract for the building of a new court-house was let and the county court was about to issue bonds for a large [p.330] sum of money to secure funds for the improvements at the proposed new county seat, but was prevented from so doing by the armed uprising of the citizens opposed to such measure.

Early in 1874 an investigation of the county records was ordered, and on the night of February 17 the court-house and all the public records excepting the register of county scrip and the county seal were consumed by fire. It is claimed by the parties favoring the investigation that the court-house and records were burned to prevent such investigation. To settle the contention about the permanent location of the county, the Legislature of 1874 passed an act authorizing an election to be held whereby the electors of the county might, by a majority vote, select a site for the seat of justice. An election was accordingly held, and the site of Paris was selected by a majority of the electors. A one-story frame court-house, containing four offices and a court-room was erected, and in September, 1874, it was occupied by the county officers, and Paris be came the permanent seat of justice, and as such it still remains. This first court-house at Paris stood on the public square, directly southwest of the present court-house. It was consumed by fire in October, 1877, having been fired by one Biggs, who at the time was resting under an indictment for larceny. Biggs was afterward indicted for the new offense, was tried, found guilty, and sent to the penitentiary for a term of years. In the burning of the court-house at this time the newly accumulated records were also destroyed. The present court-house, which stands in the center of the public square, was erected in 1879-80, at a cost of about $8,000. It is a plain and substantial two-story brick structure, 50×50 feet in size, with the ****all and county offices on the first floor and the court-room on the second.

The first jail at Paris was built of logs. In about 1886 it was replaced with a two-story stone jail which is still standing.

The county was organized in reconstruction times, and as many citizens were not satisfied with the name, a pressure was afterward brought to bear upon the Legislature, which resulted in the passage of an act approved December 14, 1875, which changed the name from that of Sarber to Logan – the latter name being selected in honor of James Logan, one of the pioneer settlers of this part of the State. The boundary lines of the county remained the same as described in the act of 1873, aforesaid, until an act was passed and approved March 21, 1881, the first section of which reads as follows:

"That the boundary line between the counties of Scott and Logan, in the State of Arkansas, be, and it is hereby changed, and all that portion of Scott County comprised within the following limits, to wit: Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, Township 4 north, Range 26 west; and Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, Township 4 north, Range 27, west; and Section 1, Township 4 north, Range 28 west, be, and the same is hereby detached from the county of Scott, and attached and added to the county of Logan."

No other changes have been made, consequently the territory included within the boundaries described in the act of 1873, together with the sections attached by the act of 1881, constitute the whole area of the county, amounting to 672 square miles.

The following is a list of the names of the county officers of Logan County with dates of their terms of service annexed, from the organization of the county to the year 1890:

Judges.–Nathan Ellington, 1871-72; board of supervisors, 1872-74; Theodore Potts, 1874-78; J. H. Luman, 1878-80; T. C. Humphrey, 1880-82; M. P. Blair, 1882-86; E. B. Casey, 1886-88; C. R. Sadler, 1888-90.

Clerks.–J. A. Shrigley, 1871-72; W. E. Griffith, 1872-74; Thomas Cauthron, 1874-76; C. B. Harley, 1876-78; H. G. Sadler, 1878-86; J. W. Poyner, 1886-88; W. R. Cherry, 1888-90.

Sheriffs.– J. S. Garner, 1871-74; A. S. Cabell, 1874-80; W. C. McCubbin, 1880-82; J. P. Grady, 1882-84; A. S. Cabell, 1884-86; Richard Garner, 1886-88; O. C. Wood, 1888-90.

Treasurers.–D. R. Lee, 1871-72; W. C. McCaslin, 1872-74; Silas Shirley, 1874-78; T. L. Fuller, 1878-86; W. H. Pearson, 1886-88; T. L. Fuller, 1888-90.

Coroners.–Henry Wilson, 1872-74; G. Humphrey, 1874-76; W. H. Fort, 1876-78; – Lowery, 1878-80; P. M. Clark, 1880-82; W. R. Lee, 1882-84; J. L. Moffit, 1884-86; W. A. Heartsill, 1886-88; John Carr, 1888-90.

Surveyors.– W. E. Griffith, 1871-72; L. Wear, 1872-76; H. M. Youegblood, 1876-78; G. R. Brown, 1878-84; G. J. Harvey, 1884-86; J. F. Billingsly, 1886-88; G. R. Brown, 1888-90.

Assessors.–R. B. Chitwood, 1871-74; S. R. Low, 1874-78; F. J. Plunkett, 1878-80; T. R. Low, 1880-82; E. J. Plunkett, 1882-84; H. T. Hampston, 1884-88; E. Schneider, 1888-90.

State Senators.–District composed of Newton, Johnson, Yell and Sarber, Thomas A. Hanks, 1873-74; district composed of Yell and Sarber Counties, J. W. Toomer, 1874-76; district composed of Yell and Logan, B. B. Chism, 1876-80; same district, J. T. Harrison, 1880-84; Theodore F. Potts, 1884-88; Dr. W. A. Clement, 1888-92.

 

Representatives in Legislature.–District composed of Newton, Johnson, Yell and Sarber Counties, John N. Sarber, P. H. Spears and James A. Shrigley, 1872-73; same district, A. D. King and M. Hixson, 1873-74; the county alone after 1874–Seth Spangler, 1874-76; B. Priddy, 1876-80; J. J. Boles, 1880-82; B. Priddy, 1882-84; M. C. Scott, 1884-86; E. C. Burchett****, 1886-88; H. Stronp, 1888-90.

The county was represented in the Constitutional Convention held July 14 to October 31, 1874, by Ben B. Chism,

delegate.

The political aspect of the county is shown by the following: At the September election in 1888, James P. Eagle, Democratic candidate for governor, received 1,945 votes, and his opponent, C. M. Norwood, candidate of the Union Labor party and combined opposition, received 1,553 votes, the whole number of votes cast being 3,498, and Gov. Eagle's majority being 392. At the presidential election in 1888 the several candidates for the presidency received votes as follows: Cleveland (D.) 1,799, Harrison (R.) 1,034, Streeter (U. L.) 120, Fisk (Pro.) 7–whole number of votes cast, 2,960; Cleveland's majority over all, 638. This shows that a light vote was cast at this election. At the September election in 1890 James P. Eagle, Democratic candidate for re-election to the office of governor, received 2,055, and his opponent, N. B. Fizer, received 1,468 votes – whole number of votes cast, 3,523; Eagle's majority, 587. This shows a gain in the Democratic majority over that of 1888 of 195, while the gain in the whole number of votes cast amounted only to 25.

The following gives the number of the votes cast in each municipal township of the county for the candidates for the office of county judge.

TOWNSHIPS.: Delaware

G. J. Harvey.: 63

W. H. H. Harley.: 72

TOWNSHIPS.: Shoal Creek

G. J. Harvey.: 124

W. H. H. Harley.: 81

TOWNSHIPS.: Cane Creek

G. J. Harvey.: 103

W. H. H. Harley.: 80

TOWNSHIPS.: River

G. J. Harvey.: 107

W. H. H. Harley.: 19

TOWNSHIPS.: Logan

G. J. Harvey.: 67

W. H. H. Harley.: 6****

TOWNSHIPS.: Ellsworth

G. J. Harvey.: 46

W. H. H. Harley.: 87

TOWNSHIPS.: Clark

G. J. Harvey.: 106

W. H. H. Harley.: 92

TOWNSHIPS.: Roseville

G. J. Harvey.: 127

W. H. H. Harley.: 92

TOWNSHIPS.: Bix Mile

G. J. Harvey.: 142

W. H. H. Harley.: 54

TOWNSHIPS.: Washburn

G. J. Harvey.: 98

W. H. H. Harley.: 94

TOWNSHIPS.: Boone

G. J. Harvey.: 328

W. H. H. Harley.: 81

TOWNSHIPS.: Cauthron

G. J. Harvey.: 99

W. H. H. Harley.: 80

TOWNSHIPS.: Sugar Creek

G. J. Harvey.: 108

W. H. H. Harley.: 25

TOWNSHIPS.: Petit Jean

G. J. Harvey.: 120

W. H. H. Harley.: 22

TOWNSHIPS.: Reveille

G. J. Harvey.: 171

W. H. H. Harley.: 161

TOWNSHIPS.: Driggs

G. J. Harvey.: 47

W. H. H. Harley.: 99

TOWNSHIPS.: Mountain

G. J. Harvey.: 47

W. H. H. Harley.: 47

TOWNSHIPS.: Johnson

G. J. Harvey.: 21

W. H. H. Harley.: 57

TOWNSHIPS.: Bear Wallow

G. J. Harvey.: 13

W. H. H. Harley.: 47

TOWNSHIPS.: Short Mountain

G. J. Harvey.: 250

W. H. H. Harley.: 164

TOWNSHIPS.: Totals

G. J. Harvey.: 2,088

W. H. H. Harley.: 1,466

All the other candidates for county officers received nearly the same number of votes in each township. The following persons, all Democrats, were elected to the office mentioned with their names, by majorities indicated by the figures annexed. H. F. Thomason, circuit judge, 455; W. B. Jackson, representative, 431; G. J. Harvey, county judge, 622; C. P. Trimm, circuit clerk, 621; H. Stroup, county clerk, 783; O. C. Wood, sheriff, 605; T. L. Fuller, treasurer, 475; E. Schneider, assessor, 529; J. H. Carmichael, surveyor, 599; J. C. Jewell, coroner, 558. A few townships gave a majority in favor of liquor license, but the whole number of votes cast in the county for such license was 1,385, and the number cast against such license was 1,750, a majority of 365 opposed to the "traffic."

.

Logan county belongs to the Twelfth Judicial District, composed of the counties of Scott, Sebastian, Crawford and Logan. Hon. John S. Little, of Greenwood, in Sebastian County, was elected judge of this district in 1886, his term expiring October 30, 1890. His successor, Judge H. F. Thomason, was elected at the September election, 1890. Prosecuting Attorney J. B. McDonough, of Fort Smith, was elected in September, 1888, his term expiring also October 30, 1890. His successor, Prosecutor O. L. Miles, was elected at the September election, 1890. The Logan Circuit Court convenes on the twelfth Monday after the last Monday in February and August of each year, and the length of term allowed by law is three weeks. From the organization of the county to the fall of 1890, the same individual held the offices of county and circuit court clerk. At the September election, 1890, C. P. Trimm was elected circuit court clerk, and on October 30, 1890, if living, he will open his office, taking from the county clerk's office all records pertaining to and belonging to the circuit court.

The Logan County legal bar consists of the following named attorneys: C. B. Fountain and W. B. Jackson of the firm of Jackson & Fountain, Theo. F. Potts, Anthony Hall, J. H. Wilkins, J. H. Evans, W. H. H. Harley, G. S. Evans, E. Hiner, James Cochran, J. F. Keith, C. P. Trimm (clerk elect), O. L. Miles (prosecutor elect), H. Stroup, T. P. Manning and B. B. Chism, the latter being now the Secretary of State. Several of these men are young "limbs of the law" just entering the profession.

In the prosecution for crimes only one man has suffered the death penalty in Logan County, and that one was James Tucker, colored, who was executed on the gallows in 1884, for the murder of Barker, also colored. In 1878, one Smith, a white man, committed suicide in the jail while under sentence of death for the murder of a young man. The criminal record of Logan County is similar to that of other counties of its size and age. The people are very civil, and good order prevails.

At the beginning of the Civil War of 1861-65 a very strong Union sentiment existed with the people of the territory now comprising Logan County. Men were not so enthusiastic and eager to join the Confederate Army as in many other parts of the State. When the Confederate conscript act was enforced several Union men were forced into the Confederate Army; others fled the country and enlisted in the United States armies at different points, and others, with their families, hid away in the mountains. During the early part of the war, and as long as the territory was wholly within the lines of the Confederate armies, it was overrun by guerrillas and bushwhackers, who preyed upon and severely punished the Union people wherever they could be found. After the Union armies advanced, and the territory fell within their lines, it was overrun, to some extent, by marauding parties, guerrillas and scouts from both sides. Retaliatory measures were resorted to in some instances by Union troops, and the families of those favoring and assisting the "Southern cause," became the sufferers. In this way–this system of guerrilla warfare–much damage was done, untold and indescribable suffering was caused, and lives were sacrificed.

The action known as the Haguewood Fight took place in September, 1863, at a point one-half mile east of the present town of Paris. On this occasion Company H, of the First Arkansas (Federal) Infantry, commanded by Capt. Parker, was escorting a wagon train returning from Dardanelle to Fort Smith, from which place it had previously gone to Dardanelle with a load of supplies for the Federal troops at that port. It was attacked by Joe Shelby with his regiment of Confederate Cavalry. Company H of the First Arkansas was largely composed of men whose homes were in the immediate vicinity of the place where the fight occurred, and a number of them had left the camp of the train and escort to visit their homes, and were absent when the fight occurred. Many of the company engaged in the action had previously been prisoners of war in the hands of the Confederacy, and, knowing the hardships of prison life, they fought with unusual desperation, secreting themselves behind the wagons as best they could. Although fighting against great odds, they held the enemy at bay for nearly two hours, and then were completely routed. Two Federal soldiers, B. F. [p.333] Wilkins, father of Hon. J. H. Wilkins, now of Paris, whose home was only about four miles from the scene of action, and –– Hawkins, were killed; others, together with a few wounded, were captured, and others escaped. Several Confederates were killed and wounded, their number not now being known. The train of wagons, of course, was captured.

A Federal force was stationed at Roseville to guard that post and landing, and on one occasion, in the fall of 1863, the pickets stationed on the Tittsworth farm below the post, were driven in by Confederate scouts and one Union soldier was killed. The scouts then retired. Some time thereafter the post at Roseville was attacked by a force of Confederate cavalry. The latter was repulsed and compelled to retire with considerable loss. It is claimed by persons whose homes have been here since a time before the war, that the territory now embraced within the county, furnished nearly an equal number of soldiers to the contending armies. As soon as the war closed, and the smoke of its clouds cleared away, the soldiers returned from the contending armies, buried the hatchet of warfare, resumed their avocations of life, have lived in peace, and now entertain kind feelings one for the other. There are at this writing four posts of the G. A. R. within the county, one at Paris, one at Corley, one at Booneville, and one at Ellsworth, and by the time this work reaches the reader there will probably be a camp of S. of V. at Ellsworth. The Confederate ex soldiers have an organization at Paris.

The town of Paris had its origin when its site was selected for the seat of justice, in 1874. It has all been built since that date, and it has now a population of about 800. It is situated about five miles south of the Arkansas River, and twelve miles by wagon road from Altus, the nearest station on the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad. It has 9 general stores, 4 family groceries, 2 drug and 2 harness stores, 2 furniture and 2 millinery stores, 2 livery stables, 3 blacksmith and wagon shops, 1 meat market, 1 shingle and planing-mill, 1 flouring-mill and cotton-gin, 1 corn-mill and cotton-gin, 3 hotels, 3 church edifices–Methodist, Baptist and Catholic–one school-house–Paris Academy–3 resident ministers, several lawyers, 4 physicians, a lodge each of Masons and K. of P., a post of the G. A. R., an association of ex-Confederate soldiers, 2 weekly newspapers, etc. Paris is connected with Altus and Fort Smith by daily back and mail lines. From four to five thousand bales of cotton are handled here annually. Paris was incorporated February 18, 1879. At this writing its corporate officers are as follows: William M. Greenwood, mayor; C. B. Gray, recorder; T. J. Connelley, Jr., treasurer; Z. P. Pillgreen, marshal. There are five aldermen. The town is out of debt and has some money in the treasury.

The Paris Express, an eight-column folio, published by William M. Greenwood, is now in its eleventh volume. having been established in 1880. The Paris Tribune, a six-column folio, now in its sixth volume, is published by its proprietor, L. B. Gamble, and edited by W. H. H. Harley. Both of these papers are neatly printed and well edited, the former advocating Democratic and the latter Republican principles.

Roseville, an old steamboat landing, and the oldest town in the county, is situated on the Arkansas River, at the ferry on the Altus and Paris mail line road. It contains 2 general stores, 1 drug and 1 grocery store, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, 2 blacksmith shops, and a school-house and church combined. Prior to the Civil War, and up to the completion of the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad, Roseville was a place of considerable importance, doing a large amount of business, having the river for its transportation.

Booneville, with a population of about 500, is situated in the southwest part of the county, on the Petit Jean River. It is a good business point, and ships annually from 1,500 to 2,000 bales of cotton. It has 8 general, 4 grocery, 1 drug and 1 millinery store, 1 livery barn, 2 blacksmith shops, a schoolhouse, the Fort Smith District High School, 1 church, 1 grist-mill, planing-mill and cotton-gin combined, the Booneville Enterprise, 5 lawyers and 5 physicians. The Booneville Enterprise was established in 1878, being the first newspaper published in the county, by Moore & Co., who still own it. It was suspended from 1880 to 1884, when its [p.334] publication was renewed. It is edited by J. F. Keith, is a seven-column folio, and labors in the interest of the people and the Democratic party. Booneville is one of the oldest towns in the county.

Magazine, twelve miles southwest of Paris, with a population of about 400, is beautifully situated on a high plateau, just west of the Magazine Mountain, in the center of a fine farming country, and does a large business. It is connected with Paris by telephone and a daily mail line. It has 5 general stores, 2 drug and 1 grocery store, a grist-mill, cotton-gin and woodwork establishment combined, 3 blacksmith shops, 1 school-house, 2 churches (Baptist and Methodist) and 5 physicians. The finest residence in the county, that of Mr. E. D. Hooper, merchant and farmer, is at this place.

Chismville, in the western end of the county, sixteen miles from Paris, has two general and two drug stores, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, a blacksmith shop, school-house, and 3 physicians, and does a a considerable amount of business.

Caulksville, eight miles west of Paris, contains two general and three grocery stores, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, blacksmith shop and a school-house, the latter being used also as a church.

Driggs is a small village consisting of two general stores, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, blacksmith shop, a school-house and two physicians.

National Springs, ten miles west of Paris, is noted for its mineral springs.

Corley (Burnett Springs) on Flattop Mountain, about eight miles southeast of Paris, is a pleasure or summer resort.

Ellsworth, ten miles east of Paris, has one general store, a blacksmith shop, Masonic hall, a grist-mill and cotton-gin and one church-Methodist.

Prairie View, three miles northeast of Ellsworth, contains three general stores, a drug, grocery and milliner store combined, a blacksmith shop, a school-house and Masonic hall and a grist-mill and cotton-gin.

Shoal Creek, situated in the eastern end of the county, has a general store and a grist and saw-mill and cotton-gin.

Morrison's Bluff on the Arkansas River in Range 24 west, is an old steamboat landing. It has two general stores, a drug and grocery store, a grist-mill and cotton-gin, blacksmith shop, school-house and Catholic Church.

Patterson's Bluff is a steamboat landing on the Arkansas River in Range 25 west. It has a general store, a grist-mill and cotton-gin and a school-house.

At each of the forogoing places there is a postoffice in addition to what is mentioned, and the other post-offices of the county are Blaine, Briar Creek, Carolan, Delaware, Dublin, Flat, Golden City, Hobart, Idell, Money, Patsie, Revilee, Spielerville and Sugar Grove. Some of these are hamlets, consisting of the post-office, a store, blacksmith shop, etc.

In regard to the public schools and the working of the free-school system in Logan County, but little more need be said than what was so well said two years ago by the school examiner of the county in his letter to the State superintendent of public instruction accompanying his annual report. The following is a copy of the letter.

"PARIS, ARK., September 20, 1888.

"Hon. W. E. Thompson, State Superintendent,

"DEAR SIR–The figures below are from the reports of directors for the year ending June 30, 1888. The reports are incomplete, nine districts making no annual report and many others only partial ones. The following is as nearly correct as can be made from date so inadequate:

Amount expended for schools $7,964.90

Amount paid teachers $7,741.77

Average wages paid teachers per month, male $38.74

Average wages paid teachers per month, female $34.89

Number of teachers employed, males ln='3'>63

Number of teachers employed, females ln='3'>13

Number of teachers employed*, total ln='3'>78

Number of teachers employed, white ln='3'>70

Number of teachers employed, colored ln='3'>6

Average term of schools, months ln='3'>37

Number of districts ln='3'>86

Number of districts voting tax ln='3'>50

Number of districts voting no tax ln='3'>27

Number of districts not reporting vote on tax ln='3'>9

Average tax voted, mills $0.00486

Number of school-houses ln='3'>93

Value $17,095

Number of private and denominational schools ln='3'>11

Number of children not attending public schools 3,747

"The free-school system is gaining in favor with the people, notwithstanding the loss of the local school fund, more than $10,000, by robbery of the county treasury, which greatly crippled the operation of the schools for the year herein reported.

"Three prominent defects in our school system are: 1. The employment of untrained and incompetent teachers because they are cheap. 2. The shortness of terms. 3. Non-attendance of pupils.

"In regard to the first, there has been decided improvement in the last few years, due largely to the good results of teachers' institutes. If the office of the county examiner were replaced by that of county superintendent the efficiency of the schools could be doubled. ‘As is the teacher so is the school.’ An efficient county superintendency would in a few years develop a corps of trained teachers in every county.

"A second great need is more money. Last year our schools averaged only three and two-thirds months in duration. The State school tax ought to be at least 5 mills, with another 5 mills at the option of the electors. It is cheaper to educate than to punish. Schools are better protection than courts, school-houses better than jails.

"Lastly, of 7,682 persons of school age, but 3,935 were enrolled in the public schools, and of these the average attendance only 1,926. Thus of 100 scholars only fifty-one are enrolled, and the average attendance is but twenty-five; so that the benefits of our free schools reach effectively only one in four of our school population. A reasonable compulsory attendance is no more oppressive than compulsory taxation. If the one is right for property holders, the other is equally right for parents, and so large a proportion of children growing up in ignorance demands it.

"Respectfully submitted, J. S. SHIBLEY,

"County Examiner, Logan. County."

The State superintendent's report for the years of 1889 and 1890 has not been published at this writing, but the writer is informed that an increasing interest is being taken in educational matters. County and district normal institutes have been held and attended by teachers.

There are two chartered schools in the county having a collegiate course of instruction–the Fort Smith District High School, at Booneville, with a building valued at $4,000, and the Paris Academy, at Paris, with buildings valued at $10,000. Both these schools have a good patronage from this and the surrounding counties, and are doing excellent work in the cause of education. Good schools are also maintained for from nine to ten months at Magazine, Ellsworth, Prairie View and other places in the county, and the German Catholics maintain parochial schools at Paris, and at St. Benedict's, seven miles east of Paris.

The various religious denominations have churches within easy reach of every neighborhood in the county. The Methodist Episcopal Church South has five circuits in the county, the Methodist Episcopal Church has two, and the Baptist, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian Churches have a large organization and regular preaching in all parts of the county. The German Catholics have churches and regular services at Paris, Shoal Creek, Morrison's Bluff, and St. Benedict's.

Sunday-schools are maintained in the churches at the towns and villages and the closely settled neighborhoods. The church organizations are doing good work in the cause of Christianity, the people are generally moral and Christian in character, and no home-seeker need fear that he will not find here both church and school facilities, and a kind and hospitable people to live with. The county has voted "no license" for the last eight years.

A splendid view of the county and surrounding territory is obtained from the top of Short Mountain. Facing northward the beholder first sees the valley of the Arkansas, the winding of the river and villages thereon. Beyond the river in a direction about eighteen degrees west of north, the town of Ozark, county seat of Franklin County, is plainly visible, and in a direction about seven degrees west of north the college and elevated portion of Altus, in the same county is in plain sight. Looking farther to the right, other towns on the Eittle-Rock & Fort Smith Railroad can be seen, and as a background to this picture are the Boston Mountains in the distance. Looking eastward the valley of the Arkansas can be seen for many miles, and in a direction [p.336] about ten degrees south of east, Mount Nebo in Yell County is in plain view. Just to the right of this appear the Blue and Spring Mountain ridges in Logan County. Facing southward the beholder first sees the beautiful valley and its neat little farms at the foot of the mountain, and in a southeast direction, and near by he looks down upon the town of Paris. Just beyond the first valley he sees the extensive Pine Ridge, and from a point due south to southwest he beholds the Petit Jean Mountains beyond the river and valley of the same name. Looking southeastward over and beyond Pine Ridge, Calico to the right and Flattop Mountain to the left, being divided by Short Mountain Creek, are plainly seen. Looking south and east of south over and above the mountains just mentioned, the viewer sees the highest and most magnificent mountain of all–the Magazine–its most elevated point being south about thirty degrees east. To the west the mountains in Sebastian County can be seen, and a little north of west the city of Fort Smith shows its steeples and towers. About fifty degrees west of south Pilot Mountain in Scott County is plainly seen.

The varied scenes are grand, magnificent, awe-inspiring.

"God hath infinite power. And that ye may see In the fold of the flower, The leaf of the tree,

"In the wave of the ocean, The furrow of land, In the mountain of granite, The atom of sand.

"Ye may turn your face From the sky to the sod; And where can ye gaze That ye see not God?"

J. M. Agnew, merchant and postmaster at Roseville, is a son of Benjamin and Elizabeth Agnew, of Walker County, Ga. The parents emigrated to this State in the fall of 1869, and here the father died in the summer of 1871, when our subject was twenty-one years of age. The latter was reared to the arduous duties of the farm, and on account of the breaking out of the war he received a rather limited education. After the death of his father he remained with his mother, working the farm, until twenty-eight years of age, and then bought and located upon a tract of land which he cultivated for two years. He then moved to Roseville and embarked in the grocery business which he still continues. In 1888 he was appointed postmaster at this place, and has since discharged the duties of that office in a creditable and satisfactory manner. Mr. Agnew was born on August 80, 1850, and has been in public life for several years. He has gained for himself a reputation as a solid and reliable tradesman, and one whose energy and enterprise must of necessity materially develop this enterprise. His mother still lives in Clark Township, this county, and although sixty years of age she is strong and hearty. She is the mother of eleven children, eight of whom grew to maturity, and she now resides with her youngest son on the homestead. Mr. Agnew is a member of the A. F. & A. M. lodge at Roseville, and he is also a member of the K. of P. of this place. He has remained single. He is a hard worker, is honest and upright in his dealings with the public, and gets a good share of the trade.

Acknowledgments–The writer and compller of the history of Logan County has received much assistance and valuable information from Judge Theodore Potts and other individuals, the county officers, and the Express and Tribune officers, to all of whom proper acknowledgments are due.

John B. Bailey, liveryman, Booneville, Ark. Among the active enterprises of a city like Booneville the business of liveryman occupies, necessarily, an important place, contributing, as it does, to the pleasure, convenience and actual necessities of the community. Among the most notable establishments of this class in the city is that conducted by Mr. John B. Bailey. Though but recently established, this stable is becoming very popular, and is one of the best in the city. Mr. Bailey was born in Tennessee, May 4, 1847, and is a son of Stephen and Nancy (Jones) Bailey, both natives also of the Big Bend State. The parents were married in Hawkins County of that State, in 1828, and of the eight children born to this union (three sons and five daughters) seven are now living: Louisa Ann [p.337] (wife of Cregg Brown), Sarah (wife of Riley Killday), Jane (wife of William Minard), Orville, James (deceased), Francis and Eales. The father was justice of the peace for a number of years. The parents both died in Tennessee, the father in 1856 and the mother in 1853. Both were members of the Baptist Church. John B. Bailey attained his growth in Greeue County, Tenn., and in 1866 was married to Miss Nannie Murphy, a native of Tennessee, and daughter of James and Jane (Crawford) Murphy, the father a Methodist minister. Her parents are both deceased, the father on February 28, 1879, and the mother in 1889. They were the parents of these children: Mahaley, Kate, William, Elber, Andy, Betty, Ike, George, Becky and Chaplin. To Mr. and Mrs. Bailey have been born an interesting family of six children: Thomas G. (married Miss Minty Gideon, March 17, 1889, and have one child, Gusey), James E., Georgia, Orville, Maggie and Lula M. Mr. Bailey has been a farmer all his life, and is now the owner of 520 acres of land, with 250 acres cultivated. He moved to Booneville in 1890, and in June of the same year he built a livery barn, which business he has since carried on, his main object in moving to town was to educate his children. Politically he is a Republican. He is a member of the Baptist and his wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

Henry Bangs, planter, Booneville, Ark. For a number of years, or since his residence in this county, the reputation which Mr. Bangs enjoys has been not only that of a substantial and progressive agriculturist, but of an intelligent and thoroughly posted man in all public affairs. He was born in the Old Dominion on January 6, 1828, and is a son of Jacob and Abigail (Lawrence) Bangs, both natives of Virginia. The father was a soldier in the Florida War, in which he was killed by the Indians. The parents were married at Fortress Monroe, and to them were born three children, of whom our subject is the eldest. The other two, Benjamin and Stephen, are both farmers, and are living in this township. The mother died about 1843. Henry Bangs, at the age of thirteen years, joined the Florida troops, and was in service for five years. He came to Arkansas, and was married in what is now Logan County, in 1850, to Miss Sarah Walton, a native of Kentucky. Of the twelve children born to this union–six sons and six daughters–seven are now living, viz.: George, Emily (wife of John Basinger), Levenia (wife of Andrew Smith), Adelia (wife of A. Starns), Elizabeth (wife of S. Suttles), Franklin and Robert. The mother of these children died in the year 1882. She was a member of the Christian Church. Mr. Bangs married his second wife, Mrs. E. C. Barlow, in 1886, she being a widow with five children, viz.: Alonzo, Ida (wife of Joseph Stanfield), Looney (wife of B. Foster), Callie and Asa. Mr. Bangs has 240 acres of good land, has 80 acres of this under oultivation, and raises corn and hogs principally. He is a member of the Christian and his wife a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

J. W. Barnett, farmer and ginner, Magazine Ark. Mr. Barnett's parents, J. W. and Elizabeth (Yearout) Barnett, were natives of Tennessee, in which State their nuptials were celebrated, and there they resided until 1869, when they moved to Arkansas. Their son J. W. Barnett, the subject of this sketch, was born in the Big Bend State also, in 1832, and like the average country boy of that day, his educational advantages were limited. He was partly reared in that State, and when twenty-one years of age he began farming on his own account, that having been his principal occupation up to that time. Agricultural pursuits have since continued to be his chosen calling, and his advanced principles and progressive ideas have

had much to do with the success that has attended his efforts. Aside from this he is the owner of a good gin valued at about $3,000 and in this occupation be has also been quite successful. He entered the army in 1863, and was for the most part in active service until the close of the war. He was captured at Jenkins' Ferry and was kept a prisoner at Tyler, Tex., for ten months. He had his nose shot in two while in service. Mr. Barnett has been twice married, his first union being with Miss Mary Fitzgerald, who bore him two children: Tennessee and John. His second marriage, which occurred in 1867, was to Mrs. Permelia Underwood and to [p.338] this union were born six interesting children, all living and in the enjoyment of the best of health. They are named, Candonia, A****na, Lillie, Wyoma, Edna and Ore. Mr. Barnett is a Republican in his political preferences, and he and wife are members of the Baptist Church.

Isaiah Beck was born in Lumpkin County, Ga., in December, 1846, and is one of the prominent farmers and stock-raisers of Logan County, Ark. He began life for himself at the age of twenty years, and as he had been reared to farm life, it was but natural, perhaps, that he should choose agricultural pursuits as his occupation in life. He has since closely applied himself to this calling, and with what success, may be inferred from a glace at his present place. In 1869 he was wedded to Miss Lucinda C. Fox, daughter of Henry Fox of Logan County, and they are the parents of eight children: Joseph M., Marion J., Charles P., Leona Etter, Benjamin M., Archie G. and John H. and Maggie (twins). Joseph M. (married Josephine Brice, daughter of Martin Brice). Mr. Beck owns 100 acres of land and has 80 acres under cultivation. His land is well adapted to the raising of cotton and grain, and he is also interested in stock-raising. He and Mrs. Beck have been members of the Christian Church for fourteen years, and are substantial supporters of all worthy movements. They are highly esteemed in the community and have many warm friends. Mr. Beck's parents, Jeffery and Sallie (Sism) Beck, were natives of North Carolina. They were married in Walker County, Ga., resided there for a groat many years and reared a family of eight children, our subject being next to the youngest. They are named as follows: Andrew, John W., William J., Sarah E., Carolina, Ira, Isaiah and Adaline. The mother died in Georgia, in 1859, and the father then married the Widow Nicholson. In 1862 he removed to Montgomery County, Ark., and there his death occurred in 1870.

Alexander S. Bennett, a prominent citizen of Roseville Township, was born in Bradley County, Tenn., August 20, 1845, and is the son of Henry K. and Mary A. (McDonough) Bennett, the father a farmer by occupation. Alexander S. was trained to farm labor from an early age and received his education in the common country schools. He remained under the parental roof until sixteen years of age (1861) and then enlisted in Company B, Sixth Georgia Regiment Infantry, and served until the close. He was paroled at Greenville, N. C., after which he returned to his father's home in Georgia, whither the latter had moved in 1857, and there attended school for one year. After this he worked on the farm until 1869, and then came to Arkansas, locating in Roseville Township, which has been his home until the present. On his arrival here he rented land for two years and then clerked in a general merchandise store for James Sewell until 1875. The same year he entered into partnership with C. F. Wood, and they bought out the business of Mr. Sewell, bis former employer. After continuing this business for two years, Mr. Bennett sold out his interest and again engaged as clerk for Mr. Sewell, who had again established himself in business. Here he worked for two years. He then began clerking for S. M. Quinn, of Paris, and became general manager of his general merchandise store at that place, continuing one year. He then returned to Roseville and entered business in the firm name of A. S. Bennett & Co., and thus continued for three years, or until the close of 1882. At that date be sold out, entered the service of C. F. Wood at Caulksville, this county, and acted as general manager in his store for a year. Previous to this, in 1874, he was married to Miss Emma Wood, of Roseville, and they have two children: Mary W. and Joseph D., both of whom are attending the public schools of Roseville. In 1877 Mr. Bennett purchased a tract of land containing 200 acres lying near the village of Roseville, and of this he has 110 acres under a good state of cultivation, three good dwelling-houses on it, substantial outbuildings, etc. On October 1, 1889, he entered the employ of the railroad company as their agent at Roseville as receiving and forwarding agent from this place to Altus, the nearest point on the road. Mr. Bennett and his wife are deeply interested in educational matters, and are determined that their children shall have the best that is to [p.339] be obtained. The daughter has attended the Paris High School, and both the son and daughter are receiving instruction in music. Mr. Bennett has been a member of the school board at Roseville since his first arrival in this county. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Bennett is secretary of the board in this conference. He has also been steward in the church for some time. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., Roseville Lodge No. 83, and in politics is Democratic. He is one of the best business men of the place as well as one of the most respected citizens.

W. R. Bevens, groceryman, Booneville, Ark. The grocery trade constitutes a leading feature of the commercial fabric of the town of Booneville, being extensively engaged in, and conducted with ability and success. Prominent among those identified with it is Mr. W. R. Bevens. This gentleman was born in Fulton County, Ark., June 17, 1851, and was one of four children born to Andrew and Mary (James) Bevens, the father a farmor by occupation. The father and mother both died in Missouri, in 1856, on the same day, and of pneumonia. They were buried in the same coffin. Of their four children, only one besides our subject is now living, Hester (wife of James A. Dihel). Those deceased were James and Houston. The maternal grandfather, James S. James, came to Arkansas in 1849, and brought our subject with him, when the latter was but a small boy. W. R. was reared to the arduous duties of the farm, and was married in Jackson County, of this State, in 1873, to Miss Jennie Patrick, who bore him nine children, four now living: Latha, OSCHT M., Boswell M. and Chandler. Those deceased were Hattie, Luther, Archie C., Nellie, and one died unnamed. Mr. Bevens owns forty acres of well-improved land, and is one of the thrifty, enterprising men of the county. In 1888 he engaged in the grocery business, and this he has since followed successfully. He is upright and honorable in his dealings, and has achieved by positive merit a high position.

George W. Biggs, farmer, Paris, Ark. Located in the midst of one of the finest agricultural portions of Logan County, the farm that Mr. Biggs owns and occupies is conceded to be among the best in this vicinity. This is saying not a little, for on every hand may be seen superior places, whose ownership indicates thrift and prosperity. Mr. Biggs inherits his natural ability for agricultural pursuits, for his father before him followed that calling, and is prosperous and progressive. The parents, Preston and Priscilla (Betts) Biggs, were both born in Jefferson County, Tenn., and there they grew to mature years. They were married, however, in Hamilton County, and the fruits of this union were seven children–six sons and a daughter. The parents removed from Tennessee to Logan County, Ark., in 1870, bought land, and there the father tilled the soil. He is still living and engaged in the same pursuit. The mother died on January 22, 1887. George W. Biggs, the eldest of the family, was born in Hamilton County, Tenn., in February, 1848, and when twenty years of age was married to Miss Mary E. Barbee, daughter of Lewis Barbee, of Tennessee. She was born in Jefferson County, Tenn., but reared in Hamilton County, where she remained until 1870, when Mr. Biggs removed to Arkansas. He located on land bought in Logan County, and is the owner of 160 acres with 100 acres under cultivation. His union resulted in the birth of eleven children: Sarah J., Lonisa C., William S., Mary E., Calvin A., Tilden, Martha (died in November, 1887), George W., Ader M., James S. and Benjamin. Sarah married John S. Storts, a farmer, and they have two children, viz.: Arla May and Delmer D. Louisa C. married Thomas Wear, a farmer, and they have an infant son. Mr. Biggs is a member of the Farmers' Alliance, and he and wife are both members of the Baptist Church. He gives liberally of his means to schools, churches and everything pertaining to the general welfare of the community, and is one of Logan County's most highly respected and successful farmers.

M. J. Bowers, postmaster at Paris, Logan County, Ark., and a representative citizen of the same, was born in Johnson County, of this State, in 1853, and of the seven children born to his parents, he was next to the youngest in order of birth. His father, William Bowers, was a native [p.340] of the Old Dominion, and was a farmer by pursuit. He came to Arkansas at an early day, and was married in Newton County, to Mrs. Sabary Barnes, nee Christy, a native of Tennessee, who came to Arkansas in 1835. She was a widow, and the mother of two children by her first marriage, she being a descendant from Cherokee Indians. The family moved to Johnson County, Ark., about 1845, and there the father died when M. J. Bowers was a small child. The latter was reared by an elder sister, after the death of his mother in 1862, who moved to Logan County, Ark., in 1858. He was well educated in the common schools of the county, and in 1874 entered the high school at Magazine, where he remained for three years. Then in connection with farming, he began teaching school and continued at this until 1886. In 1887 and 1888 he was deputy sheriff of the county, and for two years he was half owner and manager of the Paris Serpent, which he made a vigorous Republican paper. On July 25, 1889, he was appointed postmaster at Paris. He was married in 1877, to Miss Ellen S. Anderson, a native of this State and county, and a daughter of Capt. C. P. Anderson, of Magazine. This union resulted in the birth of seven children: Etta, Lillie June, Ezra James and Ellen Edna (twins), Charles Dennis, Freds May and Powell Clayton. Mr. Bowers owns a farm adjoining the town of Paris, in which he resides, and he is one of the county's best citizens. He is a member of the Paul McCobb Lodge No. 65, K. of P.

Henry P. Bowerman, merchant, Booneville, Ark. Among the names which have acquired prominence on the wings of Booneville's prosperity, is that of the subject of this sketch, who is one of the prominent business men. He was born in the Lone Star State, Hunt County, in May, 1850, and was the son of J. P. and Matilda M. (Grady) Bowerman, the father a native of Tennessee and the mother of Marshall County, Ky- The parents were married in Kentucky, in 1842, and the fruits of this union were ten children–six sons and four daughters–the daughters all deceased, two dying in Texas, one in Kentucky, and one in Arkansas. The names of the six sons, in order of birth, areas follows: John J., William H., Henry P., David L., Elijah F. and Peter Lee., all now living. The parents removed from Tennessee to Kentucky at an early day, and from there to Texas, in 1847. In 1866 they moved from the last named State to Sebastian County, Ark., and the father died in Logan County, of that State, in 1886. The mother died in Fannin County, Tex., in 1889. When ighteen years of age Henry P. Bowerman started out for himself as a farmer and blacksmith, and in 1871 was married to Miss Maggie Meek, daughter of John S. and Naomi Meek, of Sebastian County, where our subject and wife were married. To this union were born ten children: Mary E., Sarah T., Elleu S., Alice J., Ida A., William H., James L., Mittie Lee, Bessie Pearl and Amos B., all single and living with their parents. Mr. Bowerman is the owner of residence property in Booneville, worth about $300, and he is now engaged in merchandising in that city, carrying a stock of goods valued at about $1,200. He is also a harness and saddle-maker by trade, and runs this in connection with his store. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Lodge No. 247, and he and wife are both members of the Missionary Baptist Church. He has always been a liberal contributor to schools, churches and all laudable public enterprises.

H. C. Brown, farmer and carpenter, Paris, Ark. Mr. Brown, a man well known and highly esteemed in the community where he makes his home, was originally from Georgia, his birth occurring in that State in 1854. His father, Danason Brown, was born in the Palmetto State, and the mother was born in Georgia. H. C. Brown received his early educational training in his native State, and in 1869 he moved to Mississippi. At the age of twenty-one years he began for himself as a tiller of the soil, and this be continued until 1879, when he removed to Paris, Ark., and there was engaged in the carpenter business. From there he removed to Waldron, Scott County, where he continued the last named occupation for about four years. Returning to Paris in 1885, he remained there until 1889, and was one of the prominent citizens of that community. In 1876 he was married to [p.341] Miss Susan Raybury, by whom he had three children: Viola, John H. H. and Ethel. Mrs. Brown died in 1887, and Mr. Brown was married the second time, in 1889, to Mrs. Martha McVeigh, a native of Georgia, and daughter of B. T. Freeman, who was a native of Georgia. Mr. Freeman was an ex-lieutenant in the Confederate Army, and a member of the Masonic fraternity. He died on February 21, 1873. His wife, Jane (Whitlock) Freeman, was a native of South Carolina. She died on September 30, 1875. Mrs. Brown's first marriage occurred in 1877 to Mr. J. B. McVeigh, a native of Arkansas, by whom she had four children, only one, Addie M., now living. Mr. and Mrs. Brown are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and he is also a member of the Farmer's Alliance, but has never affiliated with any other secret organization. His father, Danason Brown, with his wife, Mary Brown, are yet living in La Fayette County, Miss., the former a member of the Masonic fraternity, and both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

Rev. William Bunch, a pioneer planter livinging Boone Township, was born in Dickson County, Tenn., on November 14, 1817, and is one of the honored and esteemed citizens. His father, Tarleton Bunch, was a native of Virginia, born in 1783, and he was married in South Carolina to Miss Mary Beaver, a native of South Carolina also born in 1783. Sir children were the fruits of this union, one besides our subject now living: Mary who was born in Perry County, Tenn., April 23, 1820, and who is the wife of James Simons. The father was a farmer by occupation and also carried on the blacksmith's trade. He died in Tennessee on August 26, 1852. He was a member of the Baptist Church for forty years, as was also the mother whose death occurred on September 10, of the same year. William Bunch was principally reared on a farm, and in 1843 he began learning the tan ****er's trade, which he continued to follow until 1857. He was married in Decatur County, Tenn., in 1838, to Miss Jane Mays, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of Abraham and Rebecca (Rhodes) Mays. Of the ten children born to that union seven are now living: Susan, Nancy J. Mary E., Julian, Martha J., William H. and David H. Those deceased were Louviey J., Tennessee and George A. The mother of these children died November 7, 1862, she was a member of the Baptist Church. On April 30, 1865, Mr. Bunch was married in Hopkins County, Tex., to Miss Mary E. Eledge, a native of Cannon County, Tenn., born in 1838, and the result of this union was five children: Isaac S. J., Catherine P., Lucy A., Joseph E. J. and Eliza (deceased). Mr. Bunch has been a Baptist minister since December 19, 1859. He is a member of the Masonic order, Sugar Creek Lodge No. 205, and is a liberal and willing contributor to all movements of importance. He is the owner of 320 acres of good land, with 183 acres under cultivation. He emigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1857, settled in this county, and here he has resided ever since, respected and esteemed by all. He is now a member of the National Farmers' Alliance at Glendale, Boone Township, Logan County, and, although over seventy-three years of age, is enjoying comparatively good health.

Rev. Sterling Burton, farmer, Chismville, Ark. Mr. Burton owes his nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in that State in 1832, and is a son of Squire and Rebecca (Roy) Burton, natives also of that State. The parents moved to Arkansas in 1852, and there passed the remainder of their days. Sterling Burton was reared in Tennessee, and received a rather limited education in the common schools. In 1851 he began farming for himself, and that he has made a success of this occupation is not for a moment to be doubted, when a glance is cast over his fine tract of land. He enlisted at the breaking out of the war, and was in service until peace was declared, at which time he found himself without means to start again. However he was not discouraged, and went to work with renewed vigor, meeting with the success usually following hard and persistent efforts. He was united in marriage to Miss Lillie A. Weaver, a native of Arkansas, in 1866, and to this union were born the following children: Charles, John, Francis A., Rebecca ., Sarah R., Eugene, Price, Robert L. and Ida. Mr. Burton has affiliated with the Democratic party ever since he first commenced [p.342] to vote, and is a strong adherent to the principles of that party. He and Mrs. Burton are members of the Church of Christ.

Dr. W. H. Butler, physician, Paris, Ark. One of the most familiar and welcome faces in the home of the sick and ailing of Logan County is that of Dr. Butler, who administers to the physical wants of his fellow-man, in a highly satisfactory and successful manner, as his many patients, now living, can testify, The Doctor was born in Henderson County, Tenn., in 1829, and was the fourth in a family of eleven children born to Henry and Frances Hopkins (Webb) Butler, the parents natives, respectively, of Tennessee and Virginia. The paternal grandparents were of English-German descent, and the maternal grandparents were natives of the Old Dominion and of English descent. Henry Butler, father of subject, was a farmer, and resided in Tennessee until his death, in 1845. The mother received her final summons in 1871. Her people were among the oldest settlers of Rutherford County, Tenn. Both parents were members of the Primitive Baptist Church. It fell to Dr. Butler's lot to grow up with a farm experience, and his early education was received in the common schools. At the age of twenty-four years he was elected bailiff of his county, and served for five years in that capacity. In 1858 he began merchandising, continued this for one year, and then began the study of medicine, reading with some of the prominent physicians. He began practicing at Camden, Tenn., in 1862, in partnership with Dr. R. B. Travis, continued with him for a year, and then went to Kentucky, thence to Illinois, where he remained until October, 1888, graduated in the the medical department, University of Nashville, in 1869, then went back to Gibson County, and from there to Arkansas, locating in Logan County, at Ellsworth. He bought 180 acres of land, and farmed in connection with his practice; moved to Paris the spring of 1887, and is owner of property near this town. He was married in 1855 to Miss Susan J. Todd, of Tennessee, who died on May 12, 1856. His second marriage was to Miss Amanda A., daughter of Silas Travis, of Tennessee. She died in 1868, leaving three children: Lilly Irene, Flora Jane and Frances Josephine, all deceased. In 1869 Dr. Butler was married to Miss Louisa A. Walker, of Gibson County, Tenn., and twelve children were born to this union, four of whom are living: Sarah T., Susan Diana, Martha Morton and Benjamin C. Eight died in infancy. The family are members of the Primitive Baptist Church, in which the Doctor is an elder. His farm is good valley land, with eighty acres under cultivation, six acres in strawberries, two acres in vineyard, and two acres in apples. He has cleared and improved his place, and now has one of the best homes in the county.

Edmond G. Butler, planter and nurseryman, Paris, Ark. Mr. Butler was born on July 21, 1839, in Tennessee, and is the son of Henry T. and Frances (Webb) Butler, the former a native of Virginia and the latter of North Carolina. The parents were married in Georgia, and to this union were born eleven children–five sons and six daughters–four of whom are now living: Martha (wife of Robert Taylor), Tabitha, William H., and Edmond G., who is the youngest. The father died in Tennessee in 1845, and the mother died in 1871. Both were members of the Baptist Church. Edmond G. Butler was reared in his native State, and in 1864 was united in marriage to Miss Diana Sturdivant, who was also from Tennessee, her birth occurring in that State in 1842. Her parents, Jesse and Elizabeth (Smith) Sturdivant, were natives of North Carolina and Georgia, respectively. The father is now living in Paris, Logan County, Ark., but the mother died a number of years ago. To Mr. and Mrs. Butler were born fourteen children–six sons and eight daughters–seven now living: Johanna (wife of S. R. Rodgers), Alice (wife of J. D. Hays), Francis, Eunice, Donna, Albert and Jesse. Those deceased were Thomas, Joseph, Edmond, Laura, Cleveland, Ruth, and one died in infancy. Mr. Butler was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in Company H, Twenty-seventh Regiment Infantry in 1861, and serving until 1864. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Shiloh, retained in St. Louis for three months, and was then permitted to go home. He never returned to the army. After the war he followed farming until [p.343] 1885, when he embarked in the nursery business. He moved from Tennessee to Arkansas, and in 1872 settled in Lawrence County, where he remained until 1873, at which date he came to Logan County, farming until 1885. He moved to Short Mountain in December, 1886, and continued the nursery business, and has nine and one-half acres in all kinds of fruit. He is the owner of 460 acres of good land, and has 280 acres of this under cultivation. He has been school director six years. Mrs. Butler is a member of the Christian Church.

Hon. Jacob Buttram, farmer, Sugar Grove, Ark. Mr. Buttram is one of the representative men of the county and is thoroughgoing and progressive in his ideas. He was born in Tennessee in 1825, and in 1848 started out to fight life's battles for himself as an agriculturist. The following year he was wedded to Miss Josephine Wilson, a native of Tennessee, born in 1826, and the daughter of George Wilson. The same year of his marriage Mr. Buttram removed to Scott County (now Logan) and bought eighty acres of land, to which he has since added until he now has 820 acres, 140 acres of which are under cultivation. Upon this he has erected six houses, dug wells, planted several orchards and made many and vast improvements. To his marriage have been born eight children, only one of whom is now living: Margaret (wife of James Henderson). In 1863 Mr. Buttram was elected representative of Scott County, which office he held until the close of the war. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Sugar Creek Lodge No. 205. He was made a Master Mason in Booneville Lodge in 1859, and was one of the charter members of Sugar Creek Lodge in 1868, being worshipful master of the same for twelve years. In 1878 Mrs. Buttram's death occurred. She was a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1879 Mr. Buttram took for his second wife Mrs. Emma R. (Barnett) Logan, who was born in Alabama in 1842, and who is the daughter of Thomas and Nancy Barnett. Her first husband was James Logan, Jr., and by him she had one child, a daughter, J. E. Logan, who was born in 1875. Mr. and Mrs. Buttram were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. About 1868 Mr. Buttram erected a gin run by horsepower, but this was afterward changed to a steam gin, which he conducted until 1878. He secured the first post-office in Petit Jean Township, and was appointed the first postmaster, which office he held for about six years. This office took its name from the fine grove of sugar maple trees in the yard of Mr. Buttram. This gentleman has always been a liberal contributor to all public enterprises, was instrumental in building two churches, schools, halls and other public buildings. In order to secure a trading point in the valley of Petit Jean, Mr. Buttram gave forty acres, in the year 1884, for the purpose of laying off a town, the nearest point at which goods of any kind could be bought being at Magazine, eight miles distant. Four stores now supply the wants of the people in the vicinity of Sugar Grove, as the little town is now called. Mr. Buttram has been steward in the Methodist Episcopal Church South for thirty years, and is a man well and favorably known all over the county. His parents, Noah and Ann (Huffaker) Buttram, were both natives of Kentucky, in which State they were married, and the father was a successful tiller of the soil.

C. A. Callan, farmer and postmaster, Delaware, Ark. Mr. Callan, who is classed among the successful and enterprising citizens of Logan County, owes his nativity to Alabama, born in in 1845, and is the son of George A. and Matilda (Davis) Callan. Our subject started out to fight life's battles for himself in 1867, and in that year, was married to Miss Elvira Johnson, a native of North Carolina, born in 1843, and the daughter of Robert A. and Nelvina Johnson. To Mr. and Mrs. Callan were born seven interesting children, viz.: Cicero A., Engene, Matilda, Venia, Sarah, Caley and Albert. The mother of these children died in 1886. In 1869 Mr. Callan bought forty acres of land and afterward added, at one time sixty-five acres and at another twenty acres of railroad land, improving the whole tract by clearing fifty acres and fencing. His buildings are all of a first-class order, and he has about six acres in orchard. He has also erected a good house, barn, etc., for his tenants. His land will yield two-thirds [p.344] to three-fourths of a bale of cotton, or thirty-five to fifty bushels of corn to the acre. Mr. Callan was appointed postmaster in 1873, and he has continued to discharge the duties incumbent on this office over since. Under his management the business has increased to over four times what it was when Mr. Callan first took charge of the office, receiving now, at each mail, about forty pounds. During the late struggle between the North and South, his smpathies were with the Confederate Cause and he enlisted in Company D, Col. Hill's regiment Cavalry, serving from 1863 until the close of the war. He was in the battle of Mark's Mill, Poison Springs, and many minor engagements. During 1878 and 1870 Mr. Callan served as constable, and filled that position in a very satisfactory manner. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In November, 1889, Mr. Callan was married to Miss Annie McAllister, a native of Arkansas, born in 1865, and daughter of Larkin L. and Ninerva McAllister. She is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

Dr. T. S. Cope, merchant, Driggs, Ark. Dr. T. S. Cope has been a resident of Logan County, Ark., since 1880, and not only enjoys an excellent reputation as a business man, but is held in high esteem as a citizen. He is straightforward and upright in all his dealings, and his motto is "Honorable representations and fair treatment to all." Dr. Cope owes his nativity to Franklin County, Tenn., born in 1844, and his parents, John and Jane (Sargent) Cope, were natives of Kentucky, where they were reared. They moved from the Blue-Grass regions of Kentucky to Tennessee, resided there for a number of years, and then removed to Montgomery County, Mo.,in 1849. There the father's death occurred in 1852 and the mother's in 1883. Dr. T. S. Cope chose Miss S. A. Burnett, daughter of John Burnett, a farmer of this county, as his life companion and they were married in 1879. One child, T. A. Cope, was born to this union. In 1880 they removed from Osage County, Mo., to Logan County, Ark., and here Dr. Cope engaged in the practice of medicine, continuing the same up to 1889, when he abandoned his practice to engage in merchandising. He has a good stock of dry goods and groceries, also clothing, and is postmaster, the post-office being in his store. He handles a $5,000 stock, and is doing a good business. Aside from this he is the owner of forty acres of land with good buildings, etc., and besides his store building and residence he is the owner of three lots in Driggs and property in Burnett Springs, the summer resort on the top of Flattop Mountain. He is the only one of his family now in Arkansas, as his brothers and sisters are all in Missouri. Dr. Cope is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are members of the Free-Will Baptist Church. The Doctor is a liberal contributor to schools, churches, and in fact all worthy movements.

S. T. Carolan, planter and merchant, Carolan, Ark. This prominent and enterprising citizen was originally from Alabama, his birth occurring in Lawrence County on January 19, 1852, and is a son of W. P. and Hannah A. (Sealey) Carolan, natives of South Carolina, the father born on March 18, 1800, and the mother in 1807. Of their large family, eleven only lived to be grown: William B., J. H. T., S. T., and the following are now deceased: Phillip, J. H., Elizabeth, Sarah, J. W., Thomas P., Hannah S. and Robert. The father moved from the Palmetto State to Alabama, and from there to Arkansas in 1854, settling in what is now Little River County. He was sheriff of Morgan County, Ala., one term. His death occurred in this county in 1875, and both he and wife were members of the Primitive Baptist Church. She died in 1877. S. T. Carolan passed the principal part of his youthful days on the farm, and was married in this county in 1874 to Miss Alice Edwards, a native of Mississippi born on September 24, 1852, and the daughter of Lewis Edwards. Her parents both died in Alabama. To Mr. and Mrs. Carolan were born four children– three sons and one daughter–Walter E., John W., Samuel E. and Mamie. Mr. Carolan owns 730 acres of good land, and has 300 acres under cultivation, his principal crops being corn and cotton. In 1878 he built a steam cotton-gin, and in 1889 he built.a new gin and corn-mill, in which he has put new machinery. The capacity of this gin is [p.345] eight bales per day. He also has a half interest in a cotton, saw and corn-mill combined with a Mr. Oliver, of this county. In 1877 Mr. Carolan embarked in the mercantile business at Carolan, and carries a stock of goods valued at about $4,000. He was appointed postmaster in 1878. Mrs. Carolan is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

J. C. Catner, farmer and merchant, Chismville, Ark. Owing to the fertility of the soil in Logan County, Ark., and by energy, industry and economy Mr. Catner has become one of the wealthy citizens of the county. He was born in Hot Springs County, Ark., on April 22, 1846, and is the son of Morrison and Malinda (McCoal) Catner, natives of Illinois. The parents were married in Hot Springs County, and to their union were born eight children–six sons and two daughters–who are named in the order of their birth as follows: William, Joseph, Morrison, J. C., Malinda, Grant, and the other two died in infancy. The parents removed from Hot Springs to Logan County, Ark., in 1848, and there they reside at the present time. Of the above-mentioned children J. C. Catner is the sldest now living. In 1864 he enlisted in the United States Army, Company I, Second Arkansas Cavalry as a private, and served until peace was declared. He then returned to his home in Logan County, engaged in tilling the soil, and was married in 1868 to Miss M. E. Stanley, daughter of G. W. C. and Adaline (Hudson) Stanley. Their eight children are named as follows: Georgian, Antonia, Mary, Sallie B. and Sydney B. (twins), James, Maret and Maset (twins). Georgian married V. L. Estes, a merchant of Greenwood, Sebastian County. Mr. Catner is the owner of 1,300 acres of land in Logan County, and has about 400 acres under cultivation. He has also been occupied in merchandising at Chismville, where he has a stock of general merchandise worth $6,000, and he has a store at Greenwood. He does an annual business of about $30,000 at the first mentioned place, and he is also doing an immense business at Greenwood. He is one of Logan County's most successful business men and highly respected citizens. He is one among the heaviest dealers in the county. Socially he is a member of the Masonic fraternity. He lost his wife in January, 1884, and in 1880 was married to Miss Laura Baker, daughter of James Baker.

Benjamin H. Caulk, farmer, Caulksville, Ark. In all communities and in every condition of life there are those who succeed in whatever they undertake, whether of a professional, agricultural or commercial nature, and among this class is Mr. Caulk, who is one of the progressive and substantial farmers of the county. He is the owner of 190 acres of land, and has 100 acres under cultivation, all the result of his own industry and perseverance. He is a native of this county, born in 1833, and is the son of George and Nancy (Fort) Caulk, probably natives of Missouri. They moved from New Madrid, Mo., to what is now called Logan County, Ark., at a very early period and before the State was admitted into the Union. In 1834 they removed from Arkansas to Mississippi, and there the father died two years later. After this his widow returned to Logan County, Ark., with her children (1838), and there received her final summons in 1848. Of the seven children born to his parents–four sons and three daughters–Benjamin H. was the youngest in order of birth. He was married in September, 1859, to Miss Martha Davis, daughter of Ned Davis, and one child, a boy named George, was the only issue of this union. Mrs. Caulk died in January, 1861. The following year Mr. Caulk enlisted in the Confederate Army in Capt. Titteworth's company, under Maj. Gibson, and was in active duty west of the Mississippi. The principal battles in which he took an active part were Poison Springs and the Mark's Mill fight. He surrendered with Col. Bryant near old Fort Wichita in the Chickasaw Nation, after which he returned to his home in Logan County, resumed farming, and this has been his principal occupation since. He was married, the second time, in 1870, to Miss Nancy A. Ledgewood, daughter of Lansom Ledgewood, and to them have been born seven children–four daughters and three sons: Minnie Lee, Martha L., Robert, Hattie, Adaline, Archie and one child died in infancy. Minnie married Irk Riley in 1888, and they are now residing in Logan County, [p.346] where Mr. Riley is ongaged in tilling the soil. George, the son by the first wife, married Miss Louisa Carpenter, daughter of Owen Carpenter, and they have three children. He is also engaged in tilling the soil. Robert Caulks, brother of the subject, founded the town of Caulkaville, and was the first to begin work in the place. The Caulks family being the oldest settlers in the county, the town was named for them. Our subject being roared in Logan County during its pioneer days, his educational facilities were not of the best, but this he has improved very materially by study and observation. In educational and all other worthy movements he takes great interest. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M.

Thomas Cauthron, planter and ginner, Booneville, Ark, Mr. Cauthron is possessed of those advanced ideas and progressive principles which seem to be among the chief characteristics of those of Arkansas nativity. He was born in what is now Logan County, October, 16, 1836, was taught the duties of farm life in boyhood, and was married in 1855 to Miss Nancy Anderson, a native of Arkansas, born in 1838, and the daughter of Pinkney Anderson, a pioneer settler of this State. Five children were born to this marriage: Charles C. Walter P., Edward, Thomas R., and Nancy H. (who is now the wife of R. E. Rorie, of cKinzie, Tenn.). Mrs. Cauthron died in 1864, and was a member of the Christian Church. In 1867 Mr.

Cauthron was married to Mrs. N. J. Cornelius, widow of Austin Cornelius, who bore him five children, four now living: John E. (deceased), Robert M., Eleanor S., Samuel S. and Joannah. During the late unpleasantness between the North and South, or in 1863, he enlisted in Company B, Second Arkansas Regiment, Infantry, and served in the Union Army until the termination of hostilities. In February, 1864, at an election held in his regiment, and also in a number of precincts in his county (Scott), he was elected to represent that county in the Legislature, and served under what was known as the Murphy Government. After returning home he resumed agricultural pursuits, which has been his occupation ever since. In 1873 he was appointed by Gov. Baxter, president of the Board of Registrars of Sarber (now Logan) County, and in 1874 he was elected clerk of the circuit court of Sarber County, which office he filled for two years. At the end of this term he declined to become a candidate for re-election, and returned to his farm. He built a steam cotton-gin and corn-mill combined, the capacity of the gin being eight bales per day. His fine farm, consisting of 300 acres, with seventy-five under cultivation, is kept in the best of condition, and everything about the place indicates to the beholder that an experienced hand has been at the helm, figuratively speaking. Mrs. Cauthron received her final summons in 1888. She was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of which our subject is also a member, he being an elder in the same. He is a Mason, and a member of Blocker Lodge No. 247, of Booneville. His father. Col. Walter Cauthron, was a native of Georgia, born in 1797, and was a farmer by occupation. He was married in Red River County, Tex., in 1822, to Miss Bushiba Wilson, a native of Tennessee, born in 1803. They became the parents of nine children–five sons and four daughters–five of whom are now living: C. W., Charles, Thomas, Parthenia (widow of Rev. Mr. Burns of Hood County, Tex.), and Lueindia (wife of Maj. M. T. Tatum, of Greenwood, Ark). The father emigrated from Illinois to Arkansas in 1821, and settled on Walnut Prairie, Sevier County, Ark. While a resident of Scott County, Ark., he was county and probate judge, in 1852. He died in Logan County, Ark., in 1877, and was a member of the Christian Church, of which his wife was also a member. She died in 1849.

A. M. Chitwood, farmer and miller, Prairie View, Ark. Mr. Chitwood is still another of the many prominent citizens of Logan County, Ark., who owe their nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in 1844, and is the son of Russell B. and Sarah (Moore) Chitwood, both natives also of the Big Bend State. The parents moved to Arkansas about 1851, entered eighty acres of land, erected a house and other necessary buildings, and here the father was engaged in tilling the soil for some time. He then sold out and started a tan yard, which he conducted for about six years. A. M. [p.347] Chitwood began working for himself in the fall of 1861, and made his first purchase of land in 1872. This he soon sold, and in 1877 he purchased eighty acres of railroad land, upon which he cleared about fifty acres, built a double house and other buildings, and set out orchards, etc. In 1886 he exchanged his land for a gin and grist-mill, which he ran for two years, when he sold it and purchased land, 106 acres at Prairie View, where he now resides. He also purchased one-half interest in a saw-mill, which he ran one year, and then after selling that mill, purchased the mill he now owns near Blaine Post-office. In 1890 he purchased eighty acres of timberland, where his mill is located. The mill is equipped with a 30-horse power boiler and a 25-horse power engine, and is estimated to cut 10,000 feet of lumber per day. Mr. Chitwood has mproved his home place by erecting good substantial buildings, and by making many other important changes. He raises from thirty to thirty-five bushels of corn, or one-half a bale of cotton to the acre each year. In 1863 Mr. Chitwood was married to Miss Mary A. Tompkins, a native of Tennessee, and the daughter of Carroll Tompkins. To them were born three children, who are named as follows: Russell B. and Dors Isabel (twins) and Mary Luetta. Mrs. Chitwood died on January 13, 1874. Mr. Chit. wood was justice of the peace and constable of Ellsworth Township for six or eight years. In July, 1879, he was married to Mrs. Emily L. Griffins nee Wilkur, a native of Arkansas, and the daughter of B. T. Wilkur. Seven children were born to this marriage: Cora L., Arthur, John A., Berry B., Sarah M., Wilbur N., and one unnamed. In addition to his other enterprises, Mr. Chitwood is the owner of a shingle machine, which has an estimated capacity of 18,000 per day.

John G. Chitwood, postmaster, Prairie View, Ark. In including in this work the sketches of prominent business men of Logan County, none are more deserving of recognition than that of John G. Chitwood. He was born in Hamilton County, Tenn., in 1846, and his parents, B. B. and Sarah (Moore) Chitwood, were natives of the same State. In 1851 the parents moved to Logan County, Ark., and there the father's death occurred in 1879. The mother is still living, is seventy-one years of age, and makes her home with our subject at Prairie View, Ark. John G. Chitwood was reared in his native county, and received his education in the common schools. He started out for himself as a school teacher in 1865, and this was his principal occupation for many years. In 1875 he was married to Miss Mattie J. Bennett, daughter of Joseph and Mary (Hirchs) Bennett, and to this union were born the following children: Do Se, Zena, Russell G., Mary A., Utha, and Luna (who is deceased). Mr. Chitwood is a stanch Republican in his political views, and Mrs. Chitwood is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which she has been a worthy member for many years. Four of the children are also members of the same church. Mr. Chitwood is a thoroughgoing business man, and with the correct business principles and efficiency with which this business is conducted, it can not fail to contribute largely to the convenience of a community, and to its own established prosperity.

J. A. Corley, a prominent planter of Johnson Township, is a native of North Carolina, born on October 11, 1839, and is a son of James and Martha (Williams) Corley, natives also of North Carolina. The father was a farmer by occupation, and was married in his native State. Of the nine children born to this union, the following grew to maturity: J. A., William Y., James P., John E., George T., Pauline E. (wife of James R. Lee), and Susan F. Mobeley (wife of A. Mobeley). The father emigrated from North Carolina to Mississippi, and thence in 1856 to Arkansas, settling in Logan County, where he bought and improved a tract of land. He was a soldier in the late war, was a member of the Baptist Church, and died in Fort Smith in 1864. His widow died in 1868. She was a member of the same church. J. A. Corley was married in Logan County, Ark., on December, 28, 1865, to Mrs. Mary A. Moore, a native of Arkansas, born on July 15, 1843, and five children are the fruits of this union: Lucy E., Lucinda C. (wife of L. C. Rodgers), John L., E. P. and Vestile A. On March 10, 1863, Mr. Corley enlisted in [p.348] the First Arkansas Infantry, Company H, and served until the close of the war. Afterward he returned to his home, began tilling the soil, and this he has continued successfully ever since. He is the owner of 120 acres of good land, and has 60 acres under cultivation, his principal crops being corn, cotton, wheat and oats. He has a good frame house and barm, and everything about his place indicates a thrifty owner. Mrs. Corley's parents, John and Martha C. Johnson, were born in North Carolins and Tennessee, respectively. They were married in the last named State, and to them were born eleven children, nine of whom are now living: Lucy A. (deceased), Henry C. (deceased), Martha J., Malinda, Armitta, Greene L., Angeline A., Clarissa, Arminta, Wadie E. and Samuel J. Mr. Moore emigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas at an early day, settled in this county, and there followed farming. He received his final summons on January 1,

1862, and the mother in May, 1874. (There is something wrong with this sketch, but the publishers are not to blame, as the subject who tried to correct the sketch failed to clear up the discrepencies).

J. P. Corley, ginner, miller and farmer, Paris, La. Mr. Corley, one of the substantial citizens of the county, whose name is almost too well known to need any comment, was born in Mississippi, on October 14, 1846. His parents, James and Martha (Williams) Corley, were natives, respectively, of Alabama and North Carolina. The father was a farmer by occupation, and was engaged in this pursuit in Mississippi until 1858, when he came to Arkansas, settling in Logan County. He died in 1863-4, while a soldier in the army. The mother is also deceased. Both were members of the Missionary Baptist Church. Of their children, eight in number, six are now living: J. P., Jesse A., W. Y., John E., Susan F. (wife of L. Mobeley), Pauline E. (wife of J. R. Lee), G. T., Leroy F. (deceased), and Mary E. J. P. Corley attained his growth principally in Arkansas, receiving his education in that State, and was married in Logan County, Ark., in the year 1868, to Miss Mary F. Cunningham, a native of Mississippi, born in 1849. Seven children have been born to that union, six now living: James W., M. E. (wife of Frank Lee), Henry E., Emma, Lena A. (deceased), Rufus A. and Winford A. The mother of these children died in 1882. She was a member of the Baptist Chuch, and an estimable lady. Mr. Corley built a steam cotton-gin in 1889, with a capacity of eight bales per day, and he is the owner of seventy-seven acres of land with fifty acres under cultivation. His principal crops are corn and cotton, and last year he ginned 180 bales of the last named article. In 1882 he built a nice frame house, has a good barn and has a fine fruit orchard consisting of 100 apple and 50 peach trees, also fifty grapevines. He is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church, and donates liberally to all public enterprises of a laudable nature.

J. H. Council, farmer, Ellsworth, Ark. No worthy reference to the affairs of this county would be complete without mention of Mr. Council, who, among others, is engaged in tilling the soil. His parents, Howard and Luciuda (Gallaberd) Council, were both natives of Tennessee, and of the five children born to their union, two besides our subject are now living: Howard, residing in Sebastian County, Ark., and Benjamin S., of Logan County. J. H. Council was taught the duties of farm life when but a boy, and when twenty years of age he started out for himself as a farmer, continuing in that occupation until coming to Arkansas. He was married in 1846 to Miss Elizabeth Rogers, a native of Tennessee, born in 1832, and the daughter of James and Elizabeth Rogers. The fruits of this union have been ten children, seven now living: Howard, Cleopatra (wife of J. E. Bennett), Candacy (wife of Frank Selph), Charley, Virginia (wife of George Deen), Rufus and Ida. Mr. Council came to Arkansas in 1850, located in Clarksville, Johnson County, where he remained until 1852, and then removed to what is now Logan County, where he entered 160 acres of land. He cleared eighty acres, built a good house, stable, dug wells, and set out a good orchard. To the original tract he has since added forty acres. His land is unusually productive, and he raises corn, wheat, oats and some cotton. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate service, Company B., Sixteenth Arkansas [p.349] Infantry, and afterward, at the reorganization of the army, after the battle of Corinth, he was transferred to the cavalry service. He was engaged in the battle of Elk Horn, Corinth, and in the Price raid through Missouri, during which time he was captured and sent to Rock Island, Ill., where he was retained about five months. He was then sent to Richmond for exchange a short time previous to the evacuation of that city. He was wounded in the leg at Corinth. Mr. Council is a member of Pleasant Mound Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of which he has been treasurer for several terms. Mr. Council lost his wife in 1882. She was a member of the Presbyterian Church. In 1884 Mr. Council married Miss Elizabeth Self, a native of Tennessee, born in 1826, and who has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church the greater portion of her life. Mr. Council is a member of the Presbyterian Church, of which he is elder, and he is a gentleman highly esteemed by all.

B. F. Cowley, farmer and ginner, Booneville, Ark. Mr. Cowley was originally from Alabama, his birth occurring in 1885, and he is the son of Henry and Elizabeth (Renegar) Cowley, both natives of Tennessee, where they were married about 1831. Of the five children born to this union, two besides our subject are living: David M. and Margaret (wife of J. R. McLemore). Those deceased were Mary H. and James. When twenty-three years of age B. F. Cowley started out to fight life's battles for himself as an agriculturist. He was married at that age to Miss Margaret Boshart, a native of Alabama, born in 1837, and the daughter of L. D. C. C. and Margaret (Barton) Boshart. To this union seven children were born, all of whom are living: Maud, Caledonia E. (wife of David Tiffin), David H, Robert G., Mary (wife of John Swint), George and Charley. Mr. Cowley followed tilling the soil in Alabama until 1881, when he came to Arkansas and settled first near Ozark, Franklin County, where he remained two years. In 1883 he came to Logan County, purchased 450 acres of land, on which he has since made many and vast improvements. In 1885 Mr. Cowley erected a steam gin, seventy saw stand, with an average capacity of six bales per day. His principal crops are corn and cotton. Iron of a good quality has been found on his farm, but no attempt has been made to develop the mine. Mr. Cowley is thorough in all that he does, and is a man of sound judgment and progressive ideas.

George L. Craven, miller and ginner, Blaine, Ark. This prominent and very successful miller and ginner was originally from Georgia, in which State his parents, W. M. and Sarah (Dobbins) Craven, were also born, His birth occurred in 1857, and when eleven years of age he removed with his parents to Texas, they being at the present time residents of that State. In 1877 George L. came to Arkansas and engaged in the saw-mill business (without friends or money), which he continued for three years, when he purchased a third interest in a saw-mill in Yell County. In 1880 Mr. Craven was married to Miss Caledonia McAllister, a native of Yell County, Ark., born in 1858, and the daughter of L. T. McAllister. To this union have been born three children: Luella May (born in 1880), Claude Eugene (born in 1882), and Ruby Ruth (born in 1885). In 1884, together with his partner, Mr. J. W. Blevins, Mr. Craven came to Logan County and erected a saw-mill, planer and shingle-mill at Wild Cat Hollow, where they remained about two years. They then removed to Delaware Township and remained there also two years. In 1889 they removed to Blaine, in Shoal Creek Township and taking another partner, Mr. H. S. Cline, they added new machinery and divided their establishment, placing a saw-mill one and one-half miles south of Blaine Post-office. To their planing-mill, they have added a gin and steam press and another planer, re-saw and corn-mill, and have connected the two establishments by a tram road one and one-half miles long, upon which they run an engine of their own construction. The capacity of their saw-mill is 25,000 feet per day, and is run by a sixty-horse power engine, having gang edgers, etc. The capacity of their flooring planer is about 0,000 feet per day, and their surfacing planer about 20,000 to 30,000 per day. The capacity of the shingle machine is 18,000 per day, the capacity of the corn-mill is 120 bushels, and the gin 12 bales per day (using direct steam press), and 40-horse [p.350] power engine, and employ when running full force, about 20 men. This company has about 2,500 to 3,000 acres of timberland contracted for upon which there is timber to keep them supplied for four years or more. Mr. Craven and his partner, Mr. Blevins, are members of Bright Star Lodge No. 213, A. F. & A. M., at Dardanelle. Both are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

J. L. Cravens, farmer and justice of the peace, of Shoal Creek Township, is a man esteemed and respected by all acquainted with him. He was born in Arkansas, in 1829, and is the son of Jesse L. and Martha (Logan) Cravens [see sketch of parents elsewhere in this work]. Of the ten children born to this union, seven are now living, and our subject is fourth in order of birth: William, Mrs. Sallie K. Jamison, Mrs. Margaret Johnson, Jerry, Nehemiah and Jesse. During his boyhood J. L. Craveus' educational advantages were limited, as the county was very thinly settled, and neighbors were few and far between. There were only a few subscription schools at that time, and no church buildings at all, preaching being held in private houses or in the wood. When about fourteen years of age he was left an orphan, and he began doing for himself. At the age of twenty-one years he went to California, engaged in mining, and there remained about three years. He then returned, and began farming on the land owned jointly by himself and brother. After the death of the latter he purchased his brother's half (80 acres), cleared and improved it, and later sold about 94 acres of the entire estate. Later he bought 100 acres, then 80 acres, and afteward sold 120 acres, having now 165 acres. These tracts he improved, by building a house, stables, digging wells, setting out orchard, and clearing about 20 acres. Mr. Cravens was married in 1854, to Miss Emily A. Tobin, who bore him five children, only two of whom are now living: Cornelius R. and Jesse J. Mrs. Cravens died in 1864, in full communion with the Methodist Church. In 1861 Mr. Cravens enlisted in the Confederate Army, as captain of the militia, and in 1862 joined the regular service, Gordon's regiment, and served until the close of the war. He then resumed farming, beginning anew, as everything had been lost during the war except his land, and this has continued to be his chosen calling since. He was married, the second time, in 1866, to Miss Elizabeth F. Corban, a native of Tennessee, born in 1842, and the daughter of Wilkins and Elizabeth (Coffee) Corban. Eight children were the fruits of this union, five now living, and named as follows: Alice L., Sampson, Homer B., Nehemiah and Edith C. Mr. Cravens has served about twenty years as justice of the peace, and has discharged the duties incumbent upon that office in a very satisfactory manner, as may be inferred from the length of time he has held the position. He is a Mason, a member of Elizabeth Lodge No. 215. He and Mrs. Cravens are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, of which he is class leader, and has been superintendent of the Sunday-school.

W. L. Cravens, merchant and planter, Patterson's Bluff, Ark. Mr. Cravens, one of the pioneer settlers of Logan County, Ark., was born in Wayne County, Mo., May 4, 1826, and of the four children born to his parents only two are now living, and he is the elder. His brother, J. E., is now residing at Clarksville. The parents, Nemehial and Sophia (Thompson) Cravens, were natives of Christian County, Ky., the father born in 1803, and the mother in 1810. They were married in Wayne County, Mo., and there, in connection with farming, the father carried on his trade of blacksmith until 1831. He then settled in what is now Logan County, Ark., and took quite an active part in polities. He is still a resident of this county, resides five miles east of his son, W. L., and, although in his eighty-seventh year, is still active for a man of his years. The mother was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and died in 1862. W. L. Cravens received a common business education in the country schools, and was taught the duties of the farm when a boy. On May 30, 1847, he married Miss Nancy Haney, who was born in South Carolina in 1827, and who was the daughter of Timothy and Mary Haney. To Mr. and Mrs. Cravens were born eight children–four sons and four daughters: Arkansas A. (wife [p.351] of Thomas Whitaker), Amelia J. (wife of J. J. Cravens), Fannie B. (wife of H. A. McKelney), Charles R., Adelaide G., Hanson W. and Nehemiah H. (deceased). Mr. Cravens was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in Hill's regiment of Cavalry in 1863, and acted as Hill's adjutant. He was in the army about only six months and was never in any regular battle, having been put on scouting duty. Returning home after the war he tilled the soil for one year and then embarked in merchandising in Clarksville. He then sold out to his partner and moved to this place, where he engaged in the same business, continuing at this ever since. He carries a stock of goods valued at about $10,000, and is also the owner of 2,000 acres of land, 1,000 acres being in Johnson County. He has about 500 acres in cotton this year, and has about 900 acres under cultivation. He has an excellent residence fronting the Arkansas River, and everything about the place shows good judgment and excellent taste. In 1870 he erected a large cotton-gin, and this was burned down in 1887, but in 1889 he built a new one. The capacity of this gin is ten bales per day. Mr. Cravens owns a half interest in a gin and store at Hartman, and also has business at Prairie View. Mrs. Cravens died in 1886. She was a devout member of the Christian Church. Mr. Cravens is a member of the Masonic order, Franklin Lodge No. 9, Clarksville, Ark.

S. A. J. Creekmore, farmer and ginner, Dublin, Ark. The subject of this sketch needs no introduction to the people of Logan County, Ark., for he is one of the most esteemed agriculturists and ginners of the same, and is one whose honesty and uprightness have never been questioned. He was born in Alabama in 1835, and was the son of Robert and Elizabeth (Germany) Creekmore, natives of North Carolina and Georgia, respectively. S. A. J. Creekmore had early instilled into his youthful mind all the details of farm life, and his educational advantages were rather limited. At the age of seventeen years he started out in business for himself as a farmer, miller and ginner, and these have since continued to be his chosen occupations. During the Civil War he enlisted and served the Confederacy faithfully and well until cessation of hostilities. His wife, who was formerly Miss Jane P. Davis, and whom he married in 1867, was the daughter of Ralph and Jane (Calhoun) Davis. To Mr. and Mrs. Creekmore have been born the following children: M. L., Lizzie M., Nannie R. and R. M., all living and having excellent health. Mr. Creekmore moved from Mississippi to Logan County, Ark., in 1872, and here he has since made his home, respected and esteemed by all acquainted with him. In his political views he is a strong adherent to Democratic principles, and has never failed to vote with that party. He and Mrs. Creekmore are members of the Christian Church.

J. B. Donathan, farmer, Magazine, Ark. Mr. Donathan is one of the many residents of Logan County, Ark., who were originally from Alabama, and who, since their residence in this State, have become prominent men in whatever calling in life their tendencies have led them. He was born in 1841, and moved with his parents, B. F. and Sarah (Lloyd) Donathan, to Arkansas in 1851. He was principally reared in the last named State, and here he received a limited education in the common schools. In 1861 he began business for himself as a farmer, and is now the owner of 800 acres of excellent land in Logan County. With care and perseverance he has attended to his adopted avocation, and with energy and thoroughness his successful results have been reaped until now he is in possession of a comfortable competence. In the fall of 1861 Mr. Donathan enlisted in the army, and was in active duty until the close of the war. Previous to this, in 1860, he was married to Miss Mary Dunn, daughter of Joseph and Catherine Dunn and a native of Arkansas. Her parents were natives of Tennessee. To Mr. and Mrs. Donathan were born the following children: William H., James L. (deceased), Martha L., Benjamin F., Robert L. (deceased), Katie, John B. (deceased), Mary E., Margaret V., Emma and Laura J. Mr. Donathan is a Democrat in politics, and he and wife are consistent members of the Primitive Baptist Church. Mr. Donathan is highly respected.

Jacob Dorough, planter, Paris, Ark. Mr. Dorough's first impression was that of assisting on his father's farm, and it is but natural, perhaps, that when it became necessary for him to choose some occupation in life, he should select the one to which he had been reared. He was born in Georgia, October 22, 1849, and his parents, Milton B. and Emily M. (Casper) Dorough, were natives of Georgia and South Carolina, respectively, the father born in 1820 and the mother in 1819. They were married in Carroll County, Ga., and to them were born ten children, five besides our subject now living: William T., Margy M., John R., Simeon H. and Nancy R. Those deceased were Louisa S., James P., Milton W. and George H. The parents died in Georgia, the father in 1890 and the mother in 1884. Both were church members. The father was in the Indian wars. Jacob Dorough attained his growth on his father's farm, and was married in Heard County, a., in 1865, to Miss Susan L. Mosely, a native of Georgia, born April 14, 1850. Twelve children have blessed this union, nine now living: James W., Milton M., Charles F., George S., Henry E., Robert S., Elbert R., Sarah C. (died November 8, 1890), Rhoda J., Adolphus W. (deceased), Jacob H., and Emily R. (died November 15, 1890). Mr. Dorough enlisted in Company H, infantry, in 1864, and served until 1865. He was paroled at Athens, Ga., and then returned home, where he engaged in tilling the soil. He is now the owner of 270 acres of land, and has 100 acres under cultivation. He was elected justice of the peace of Mountain Township, in 1878, and has discharged the duties of that office ever since. He is a blacksmith, and works for the neighborhood. He is a member of the Farmers' Alliance, and a member of the Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Dorough is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Truman Driggs, farmer and ginner, Driggs, Ark. Mr. Driggs, who has the reputation of being one of the most thoroughgoing, wide-awake farmers and ginners of Logan County, was born in the Buckeye State, April 8, 1832. His parents, George and Abigail (Conant) Driggs, were both natives of New York State, but at an early age became residents of Athens County, Ohio, where they were married. The fruits of this union were three sons and four daughters: Riley, Jeremiah, Arvilla, Almedia, Catherine, Damris A, and Truman. The mother died in Ohio in 1837, and Mr. Driggs afterward married Miss Catherine Cornwell, who bore him one son. This child died in infancy, and the mother died a few days later. In 1842 Mr. Driggs married Elma Wood, and they became the parents of two children: Robert E. and Ruth Anna. Mrs. Driggs died in 1848, and Mr. Driggs took for his fourth wife the widow of Caleb Martin, her maiden name being Martha Chandler. She died without issue. His fifth marriage was to Miss Lavina Martin. All his marriages occurred in Athens County, Ohio. Mr. Driggs died in 1887, at the age of ninety years. He was a farmer all his life. His fifth wife is still living in Ohio. The paternal grandfather was a physician, and the maternal a successful agriculturist by occupation. Truman Driggs removed from Athens County, Ohio, to Logan County, Ark., in 1879, and brought all his family with him. He bought land, and engaged in tilling the soil. He is now the owner of fifty acres of land, and he also owns a cotton-gin at Driggs. He was married in Ohio in 1853, to Miss Hannah J. Martin, daughter of Caleb Martin, whose widow married the father of our subject, the latter marrying his step-sister. Three children were born of this union–a son and two daughters: Barzilla M., Mary L. and Almedia. Mary died in 1881. She was the wife of Lewis Driggs. Barzilla married Sarah Chandler, in 1874, and Almedia married William Funk. The last named couple have one child, a girl named Mary L. On January 5, 1864, Mr. Driggs enlisted in the United States Army, Company H, Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, and participated in the battles of Nashville and

Franklin. He was discharged on October 12, 1865. Mr. Driggs then returned to his family in Ohio, but subsequently removed to Arkansas, and has been a resident of Logan County, and of his present place for eleven years. He and Mrs. Driggs are members of the Universalist Church, in Ohio. Mr. Driggs contributes liberally to all worthy movements, and is a public-spirited citizen. Their [p.353] son, Barzilla, was married twice. His first wife's name was Lucy Funk. She lived only a few months. His second wife's name was Sarah Chandler. Both were natives of Ohio. Caleb Martin, father of Mrs. Truman Driggs, was born in England, but came to Ohio with his father when a small boy. His brother Samuel started with them, but died on the way, and was buried at sea. Caleb settled in Pennsylvania, and married Margaret Baker. To them were born nine children–six sons and three daughters: John, James B., Caleb L., Hiram G., Samuel H., William J., Polly, Rachel and Emily. Their mother died when Emily was small. Some time afterward he married Martha Chandler for his second wife, and in the year 1840 they moved to Meigs County, Ohio. Of their union were born four children–two sons and two daughters: Margaret A., Hannah J., Joel C. and George B. On March 20, 1850, the father died at the age of eighty-two, and some time later the widow moved to Athens County, Ohio, where she married George Driggs in 1852, and died March 25, 1854. The children all married. The sons, James and Caleb, became wholesale merchants in St. Louis, Mo.; John and William became machinists, and located in Cincinnati, Ohio; Hiram was a tailor, residing in Harrison County, Ohio; Samuel was a doctor, living in Meigs County, Ohio; Joel is a farmer in Pike County, Ill.; George B. owns a saw and planing-mill in Huntington, W. Va., where he now lives. The last two were born of the second marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Driggs have an adopted daughter, Arlie E. Wood, who married John G. Jones, and has one child, a boy, named August Homer.

W. H. Fort, hotel keeper, Paris, Ark. The town of Paris is to be congratulated on her good hotels, among which, that conducted by that popular and genial gentleman, W. H. Fort, ranks prominent. This gentleman was born May 20, 1822, and is a son of Spear and Margaret (Titts-worth) Fort, the father a native of North Carolina, and the mother of Tennessee. The mother was captured by the Creek Indians when ten years of age, and was released after a year's captivity. She married Mr. Fort in the last named State, and to this union were born twelve children–six sons and six daughters. At an early day the parents removed to Cooper County, Mo., entered land, and there the father tilled the soil until his death in 1828. The same year his widow removed to Logan County, Ark., with her children and there received her final summons in 1847. W. H. Fort, the next to the youngest child, was married in 1846 to Miss Nancy Sewell, daughter of John Sewell of Mississippi, she being a native of that State. Her father removed from Mississippi to Arkansas when Mrs. Fort was about ten years of age, and when she was sixteen years of age she was married to Mr. Fort. Eleven children were born to this union: Susan M, Mary T., Belle, James, Sallie, Harmon, Eudora, Isabella, Jefferson, Maud, and the next died in infancy. They have seven children now living. Mr. Fort is now the owner of the Paris Hotel in Paris, his property being worth about $5,000, and by his social, pleasant manners has won many patrons. Having followed the active duties of the farm for many years he became too old to follow the plow any longer, and so he gave his land, which amounted to about 2,000 acres altogether, to his children, while he chose the hotel business for himself. He is a Mason and one of the oldest and most esteemed citizens of Logan County, of which he has been a resident for sixty-two years. He and wife are both church members, he of the Cumberland Presbyterian and she of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

James H. Fort, planter, Paris, Ark. Located in the midst of one of the finest agricultural portions of Logan County, the farm which Mr. Fort owns and occupies is conceded to be among the best in this vicinity, and this is saying not a little, for on every hand may be seen superior places, whose ownership indicates thrift and prosperity. He was born three and a half miles west of Paris, Ark., in 1857, and was the fourth in a family of ten children born to William H. and Nancy A. (Sewell) Fort, the father a native of Missouri and the mother of Mississippi. The father came to Arkansas in 1828, has since resided in this county, and now resides at Paris, where he has made his home for about fifty years. It fell to the lot of [p.354] James H. Fort to grow up with a farm experience, and he was educated at Quitman and Magazine, this county, Ozark and Charleston in Franklin County and Dardanelle in Yell County. He remained at home until nineteen years of age, when he began farming for himself, investing in 805 acres southwest of Paris in Short Mountain Creek, with fifteen acres cleared. He began making improvements, and resided here for about eight years. He is now the owner of about 900 acres in various tracts lying near Paris, has 500 acres under cultivation and 400 acres of which is creek bottom. The remainder is among the best uplands of the county. He has good buildings on his place and is one of the thrifty and successful planters of this region. Mr. Fort has recently removed to Paris, where he expects soon to erect a tasty residence. He was married in 1876 to Miss Rosa Anna Huckaby of this county. The family are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Fort is soon to enter the ministry. He is a member of the Farmers' Alliance, is progressive in all things, and is practically a self-made man.

John V. Frost, farmer, Driggs, Ark. If, as is self evident, this work would be incomplete without sketches of the more public-spirited of the successful agriculturists, and substantial, well-to-do citizens of Logan County, then the subject of this sketch justly finds a conspicuous place in the present volume. He was born in Alabama in 1835, and is the son of Jacob W. and Elizabeth (Corley) Frost, natives of North Carolina, where they were reared. They were married, however, in Alabama, and to them were born four children: Mary Ann, John V., William G. and Jesse A., all natives of the last mentioned State. They removed from Alabama to Mississippi, remained there several years, and then in 1855 removed to Logan County, Ark., where the father tilled the soil until his death in 1886. The mother is still living. Of the four children mentioned above, only one besides our subject is now living, William G., who married Miss Kyle, the fruits of this union being four sons and two daughters. John V. Frost was married in 1857 to Miss Elizabeth James, who bore him five children, viz.: Robert N., Martha A., Sarah F., Amanda A. and Mary E. (deceased). Mrs. Frost died in August, 1866, and subsequently Mr. Frost married Miss Rachel Galor (December, 1866), by whom he has two children: Jacob W. (deceased), and Emily C. Mr. Frost owns 125 acres of land, and has 60 acres under cultivation. He enlisted in 1862 in the United States Army, Company E, Fourth Arkansas Cavalry, was in the Pea Ridge fight, and also in the battle of Prairie Grove. He was discharged in June, 1865, at Little Rock, Ark., and afterward returned to his family, where he resumed the occupation of farming. He and Mrs. Frost are both members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

Larken B. Gamble, business manager of the Tribune and a farmer of advanced and progressive ideas, owes his nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in that State in 1839. His parents, Josiah and Elizabeth Gamble, were natives also of the Big Bend State. Larken B. Gamble was reared in his native State, and there received a limited education, although he has improved this very materially by observation and study. He started out in business for himself in 1865, and from that date until 1876 he was engaged in railroading and steamboating. In 1883 he moved to Logan County, Ark., and here, in connection with other enterprises, he has been engaged in farming and merchandising. He is at present proprietor and business manager of the Tribune, a Republican paper, published at Paris, and which is a welcome visitor in the numerous homes it enters. Mr. Gamble has ever been an earnest advocate of all public enterprises calculated to benefit Logan County, and through the columns of this paper has wielded no slight influence in directing the proper steps to be taken for a worthy movement. At the breaking out of the Civil War, or in July, 1861, Mr. Gamble enlisted in the Third Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, U. S. A., for service, and was in active duty all of the time up to February 23, 1865. He was wounded in the left hand and arm, the left knee and the right ankle. By the explosion of a shell his eyes and ears were very much affected, and so continue at the present time. On December 14, 1876, his marriage with Miss Annie M. Shafe, daughter of John and Mary A. Shafe, was [p.355] solemnized in Benton County, Ark. Mr. Gamble is a strong Republican from principle, and he and Mrs. Gamble are worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He believes that man's first duty is to his family, if he has one, and next to the flag of his country, the stars and stripes, and in the discharge of these duties God's blessings will assuredly follow.

D. T. Garner, farmer and ginner, Booneville, Ark. The parents of our subject, William and Martha (Linnear) Garner, were natives of South Carolina and Georgia, respectively, and they were principally reared in the last named State. They were also married, and to their union were born nine children–seven sons and two daughters–George W., John S., Ellen J., D. T., James F., William N., Richard H. and Daniel L. The ninth one died in infancy and was unnamed. The parents are still living in Georgia, where they reared their family and where they have resided for nearly sixty years. D. T. Garner was born in October, 1841, in Gwinnett County, Ga., and there passed his youth and boyhood. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate Army, Company A, Forty-second Georgia Infantry, and was captured at Vicksburg, on June 24, while on picket. He was paroled when Vicksburg surrendered and returned to his home in Georgia, where he remained about a year, after which he entered the army again and served until the cessation of hostilities. He then made his way to Georgia again, and in 1865 was married to Miss Rhoda Carroll, daughter of the widow, Rhoda Carroll. They removed from Georgia to Booneville, Ark., in 1871, and remained there until the spring of 1877, when they removed to Mason County, Tex. In the fall of 1887 he returned to Logan County, Ark., bought land and engaged in tilling the soil. He also bought one-half interest in a gin-mill with George R. Basinger, and still makes this his occupation. He is the owner of 137 acres of land, and has 40 acres of this under cultivation. He and wife are the parents of seven children–four sons and three daughters–Charles R., Lulu (deceased), Martha O., Dewitt, Carroll, Maud and Newton. Our subject is the only one of his father's family now living in Arkansas. His son Charles married Miss Ida Corlan, daughter of William Corlan, and is engaged in farming in Logan County. Mr. Garner and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and contribute of their means to all worthy enterprises.

M. F. Goss, farmer and carpenter, Delaware, Ark. In addition to being a first-class agriculturist, Mr. Goss is also a carpenter and builder, and many evidences of his ability and skill are to be seen in this part of Logan County. His parents, Noah and Ann Eliza (Crittendon) Goss, were born in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and came to Arkansas about 1840. To their marriage were born three children who are named in the order of their births as follows: John W., Manfred F. (subject) and George E. The parents settled in Yell County, and there the father cultivated the soil for many years. He purchased 300 acres of land, improved 100 acres of this, and erected good buildings, etc. The mother died in December, 1886, and the father in 1889. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and the father was a steward of the same. M. F. Goss was born in Yell County, Ark., in 1849, and tilled the soil in that county until 1875, when he made his advent into Logan County. He purchased 80 acres of good land, cleared 40 acres of this, and has made many and vast improvements on the same. His principal productions are cotton, corn, wheat and oats, and as his land is rich and productive, his crops seldom fail. Mr. Goss was married in 1867, to Miss Isabel Johnson, a native of North Carolina, born in 1847, and the daughter of Robert and Melvina Johnson. Of the eight children born to this union, five are now living: Benny, Norah V., Manfred E., Annie and Sammy (twins). During the late unpleasantness between the North and South Mr. Goss engaged in the Confederate service, in Capt. Orr's company of cavalry, when but fourteen years of age. He was deputy sheriff in 1879-80, and held the same position in 1884-85. He was elected justice of the peace in 1888, and when his school district was first formed be was made director, serving in that capacity for ten years. In addition to his occupation as farmer [p.356] Mr. Goss is also a carpenter by trade, and contractor and architect, doing his own draughting and designing. He and wife are both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and Mr. Goss is a steward in the same, also teacher in the Sunday-school.

F. M. Gwaltney, merchant, Prairie View, Ark. The trade carried on in general merchandise is of very great importance and constitutes a leading factor in the commercial fabric of the smaller towns and villages. It is a line of business requiring special qualifications of a high order, and those possessed of these succeed in this somewhat precarious undertaking. Prominent among those engaged in this line in Prairie View is Mr. Gwaltney, who is an energetic, thorough man of business, and whose relations with the public are of an honorable and upright character. This gentleman was born in Smith County, Tenn., in 1842, and in 1858 he moved to Logan County, Ark. He received a rather limited education, and at the age of sixteen years began farming and merchandising for himself. These occupations he has continued to follow ever since. During the struggle between the North and South he enlisted in Company C, First Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, and in 1863 was severely wounded in the right ankle. He is still greatly troubled by this wound. Returning home after cessation of hostilities he continued his former pursuits and was married in 1866 to Miss Nancy Cravens, daughter of J. and W. Cravens. The following children were the result of this union: Jennie, Katie, Adalaide, Nina J., William, Rills, Pearl L., Ova J. and Boulanger. Those deceased are William, Rilla and Ova J. Two of the daughters are married and the others are at home. In his political views Mr. Gwaltney is a Democrat. Mrs. Gwaltney and some of the children are members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

W. H. H. Harley, lawyer and editor of the Tribune, Paris, Ark. Mr. Harley is one of those men, too few in number, who fully recognize the truth so often urged by the sages of the law, that, of all men, the reading and thought of a lawyer should be the most ****rtended. Systematic reading gives a more comprehensive grasp to the mind, variety and richness to thought, and a clearer perception of the motives of men and the principles of things, indeed of the very spirit of laws. This he has found not only most essential in the prosecution of his professional practice, but very useful in conducting the editorial policy of his paper. Mr. Harley was born at Holly Springs, Miss., in 1841, and is the second of ten children born to W. R. and Louisa J. Harley, both natives of the Old Dominion. The paternal grandfather, John Harley, was of English descent, and his ancestors came from that country during the colonial period. The maternal ancestors, Thompsons and Bowens, were descendants of old Virginia families, and figured prominently in the Revolutionary War. Both families were of English descent, and were prominent in their day and time. W. R. Harley, father of W. H. H. Harley, was a merchant and banker in the early part of his career, and has held official positions nearly all his life. He was State Senator in Virginia and also from Marshall and De Soto Counties, Miss., and was Indian agent to New Mexico under Buchanan. He came to Arkansas in 1859, settled at Princeton, Dallas County, and has served two terms in the Legislature from that county; has also been county judge of the same for four years. He is now living at the age of eighty-two years and does his own business as merchant and farmer. W. H. H. Harley was reared in Mississippi, and was fortunate in having good educational advantages. At the breaking out of the war he enlisted in the Confederate Army, Company C, First Arkansas Regiment Infantry, from Dallas County, Ark., and was in active service until cessation of hostilities. He participated in many of the principal engagements, was wounded at Kenesaw Mountain, and after being disabled served in a civil capacity until peace was declared. After the war he taught school in Southern Arkansas for several years, and at the same time was engaged in reading law. About 1875 he was admitted to the bar in Dallas County, and there he began practicing, and succeeded in establishing a good reputation. A few years later he came to Logan County, located at Paris, and there he has practiced ever since. He established the Paris Express in 1879 [p.357] and 1880, and had editorial charge for one year. He was then connected with the People's Friend for one year, and in 1889 was engaged as editor and manager of the Paris Tribune. Mr. Harley was married in 1880 to Mrs. A. J. Harley, daughter of G. W. Wolf, a native of Logan County. To this union four children were born: Edna Jane, Charles Bowen, Jessie and Benjamin H., the latter died in infancy, in 1889. Mrs. Harley is a worthy member of the Methodist Church. W. H. H. Harley is an Old School Presbyterian, and believes in the sovereignty of God. In his household is a stop-daughter, Willie Ann, an amiable and good girl. As a citizen he has always favored the enforcement of the laws, and has given to the churches and schools such help and support as his ability would allow.

Dr. W. A. Heartsill, physician and druggist, Morrisons Bluff, Ark. It is to the skill and science of the druggist that suffering humanity looks for alleviation of pain. The physician may successfully diagnose, but it is the chemist who prepares the remedy. When, therefore, as in the case of the gentleman whose name forms the subject of this sketch, the two professions, namely that of the physician as well as that of the druggist are combined, how doubly important becomes the establishment conducted by Dr. W. A. Heartsill. This gentleman was born in Louisville, Blount County, Tenn., on December 7, 1852, and his parents, Hiram and A. M. F. (Wright), were natives of Virginia and Tennessee, the father born near the Salt Works in Washington County, Va., March 2, 1807, the mother at Mount Pisgah in Blount County. Tenn., September 21, 1813. She was the daughter of Dr. Isaac Wright of that county. They were married June 8, 1837. His parents moved to Georgia in 1865, and there the father resides at the present time. The mother died on October 6, 1890. Dr. W. A. Heartsill remained in Tennessee until thirteen years of age, and then in October, 1865, moved to Georgia with his parents. In 1871 he came to Arkansas, located in Logan County, and there remained until 1875, when he returned to Georgia. While in the latter State he read medicine under Dr. Charles P. Gordon of Dalton, Ga., for three years, and in 1876 went to Philadelphia, where he attended lectures at the Jefferson Medical College; in 1878 attended lectures at the Nashville Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., gradu****ting in February, 1878. He then returned to Logan County, Ark., where he has been actively engaged in his practice ever since. He was married on January 3, 1880, to Miss Sallie E. Edmondson, a native of Spring Place, Murray County, Ga., and the daughter of John L. and Kate (Sellick) Edmondson, natives also of Georgia. To Doctor and wife have been born the following children: Cleve R., Isaac N., J. L. E. and William H.; one child, Cleve R., died at the age of eight years and six months. The Doctor is a strong Democrat, and adheres closely to the principles of that party. He is a very successful practitioner and reliable druggist. Mrs. Heartsill is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

J. S. Hixson, planter, Paris, Ark. The father of our subject, William Hirson, was a native of Tennessee and was an agriculturist by occupation. He was married in his native State to Miss Mary Ragan, a native of Alabama, and nine children were born to this union–five sons and four daughters–seven of whom are now living: J. S., Nancy L., John A., William H. (deceased), Henry, Joseph A., Caroline T. (deceased), R.J and M.L. The father emigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1858, and settled in what is now Logan County. He was killed in 1863, during the war, and was a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The mother was married in this county in about 1878 to N. Miles. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. J. S. Hixson was married in Franklin County, December 22, 1872, to Miss Laura Fort, who was born in Franklin County in 1848. The result of this union was the birth of eight children, seven now living, viz.: Orlando, Ada and Ida (twins), Oscar, Elmer, Cleveland, Rilla and Arthur (deceased). Mr. Hixson is one of the most enterprising and successful agriculturists in this township. He was born in Hamilton County, Tenn., December 1, 1848, and was fairly educated in the common schools. He has always followed the occupation of farmer, and is progressive [p.358] and thoroughgoing. He is the owner of 246 acres of land, and has 115 acres in a good state of cultivation. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In his political views he affiliates with the Democratic party.

Hon. Matt Hixson, merchant, Shoal Creek, Ark. Mr. Hixson, a prominent business man of Shoal Creek, was born in Tennessee on Christmas day, 1842, and is the son of James and Milley (Wheeler) Hixson, both natives also of the Big Bend State. The parents came to Arkansas in 1852, purchased, the same year, 160 acres of land and soon had 50 acres of this under cultivation. Matt Hixson was but ten years of age when he came with his parents to Arkansas, and during his boyhood he attended the subscription schools two or three months each summer, being obliged to go about three miles to get his education. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate Army as corporal, and served in that capacity until the reorganization at Corinth, when he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant, and afterward made first lieutenant. He took a prominent part in the battles of Elk Horn, Corinth, Port Hudson, and was in numerous minor engagements. At the battle of Port Hudson, after a siege of forty-two days, Mr. Hixson, with his command, was captured and taken to Johnson Island, Ohio, where he was kept about ten months, during which time he had small-pox. Later he was taken to Point Lookout, Md., to be exchanged, but for some reason was not, but was taken to Fort Delaware. He was sent from there to South Carolina to be exchanged, but instead was put in a stockade, where he, with his companions, were kept during the battle and subject to fire from both sides. He was kept in this stockade for forty days, and was then transferred to Fort Pulaski, where he remained for some time and then returned to Fort Delaware. There he was paroled at the close of the war and returned home. He was twice hit during the war, once on the breast by a spent ball, which did not penetrate the flesh, and again by a piece of bomb in the leg. While at Fort Delaware Mr. Hixson, with his companions, captured a dog belonging to a visitor, and after the owner had left they smothered the animal with blankets and cooked him in a tea kettle. His regular fare while at Fort Delaware was a small piece of corn bread, one-half pint of pickles per day, and occasionally a piece of light bread. Many laughable incidents occurred, notwithstanding their suffering, among which is the following: Some of the guards were ex-slaves, and frequently recognized their old masters among the prisoners who were allowed, just so often, to pass out through the gates to bathe. By diving to the bottom they could secure oysters. One of the negro guards, pacing along the parapet with all the dignity possible for a colored soldier in uniform to assume, called out to his old master, who was diving for oysters, "Hello, Massa, w'at yo' doin' down dar?" to which the prisoner replied, explaining his occupation. The guard then exclaimed, while pointing to himself, "I used to be bottom rail, now bottom rail on de top." Those oysters formed a very pleasant addition to the prison fare. After the war Mr. Hixson began clerking in a general mercantile store in Little Rock, continued there for about two years and then returned home, where he followed farming on his father's land for one season. He then began clerking in a dry goods and grocery store at Spadra, in which place he remained for about four years, attending school in summer and clerking in the winter. In 1879 he embarked in business with J. A. and T. R. Sadler in general merchandising at Shoal Creek, and later Mr. Hixson purchased the entire stock of the firm with the store building. This building has a basement and is 24×70 feet in dimensions. He carries a stock of goods valued at about $5,000, and is doing a good business. He is owner of 3,000 acres of land, and has expended between $15,000 and $20,000 in improvements. Upon two of his farms coal has been found (outcroppings) which is used in the blacksmith forges of the neighborhood. No attempt has yet been made to develop these mines. Mr. Hixson's principal crops are corn and cotton, and be also gives considerable of his time and attention to the raising of live stock, mules and cattle. On December 25, 1870, Mr. Hixson was married to Miss Belila A. Sadler, a native of Arkansas, born Christmas day, 1844, and [p.359] the daughter of Rufus and Elizabeth Sadler. Three children were born to this union, two of whom are living: Gracie C. (born in 1872), and Matt. S. (born in 1878). Mr. Hixson represented what is now Logan County in the Legislature in 1874-75. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. Lodge at Ellsworth, Ark.

L. F. A. Holleman, planter, Paris, Ark. Mr. Holleman has been a resident of Logan County, Ark., for the past seventeen years, and his example of industry, and his earnest and sincere efforts to make life a success, are well worth the imitation of all. The condition of his farm, which consists of 120 acres, shows the thrift and energy which are among his chief characteristics, and all necessary buildings and fences form a prominent feature of the improvements. L. F. A. Holleman was born on October 15, 1831, and is a son of William H. and Em****line (Davenport) Holleman, natives of Tennessee, the father born on February 22, 1812, and the mother on January 28, 1813. They were married in Smith County, in 1830, and of the eight children born to this union, only four besides our subject are now living: Orville J., William C., Thomas H. and E. J. The father died in Alabama on April 18, 1852. He was a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. The mother is now living in Alabama, and is a member of the same church. L. F. A. Holleman was educated in the Franklin Academy, and was married in Chattooga County, Ga., on November 10, 1852, to Miss Narcissa Wyatt, who was born in Georgia, on January 11, 1832. They became the parents of one son, W. E., who was killed in a railroad disaster on July 17, 1890. Mrs. Holleman died on November 12, 1854, in full communion with the Methodist Episcopal Church. On October 14, 1857, Mr. Holleman took for his second wife Miss M. E. Hendrix, a native of Alabama, born on December 16, 1840, and to this union were born eight children, six now living, viz.: O. B., A. L., M. H., W. H., S. S. (deceased), J. B., N. V. (deceased), and F. G. The second wife died on February 4, 1882, and on November 13, 1885, Mr. Holleman married Mrs. E. J. Daniel, a native of Alabama, born on December 12, 1841. Mr. Holleman enlisted as a private in the cavalry, Company G, in 1862, and at the end of eighteen months was promoted to the quartermaster department of his regiment. He participated in the battles of Stone River, Chickasaw Mountain, and was in a number skirmishes, serving until peace was declared. He was paroled at Columbus, Miss., in 1865, and after the war he returned home, where he engaged in cultivating the soil. In March, 1873, he moved from Alabama to Arkansas, settled in this county, and has seventy-five acres of his fine farm under cultivation. He was elected justice of the peace of Short Mountain Township, in 1888, and in his political views is strictly Democratic. He and Mrs. Holleman are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and he is steward of the same, being at the present time lay delegate to the Arkansas annual conference.

Eli D. Hooper, merchant and farmer, Magazine, Ark. Mr. Hooper, who is classed among the successful business men and enterprising farmers of the county, was originally from Illinois, his birth occurring in that State in 1837. His parents, Clayburn R. and Mary A. (Story) Hooper, were natives of the Blue-Grass State, the former born in 1813 and the latter in 1819. The paternal grandparents of our subject were James and Jemima Hooper, and the maternal grandfather was Solomon Story. Clayburn R. Hooper was the father of eleven children, ten of whom are now living and named in the order of their births as follows: Eli D., Sidney J. (wife of L. P. Ellington), Mary J. (wife of John O. Hall), Peter W., Grace A. (relict of John Rankins), Martha E. (wife of N. L. Hardin), Eliza E. (wife of George G. Loyd), Josephine (wife of J. W. Worley), Nancy Caroline (wife of W. S. Blanton) and Caledonia (wife of Henry Chappell). In 1849 Eli D. Hooper came with his parents to Arkansas, where the father took up 200 acres of Government land. The latter enlisted in Company B, Third Illinois Infantry, and served during the Mexican War, participating in the battles of Vera Crus and Cerro Gordo. His death occurred on December 29, 1875. Eli Hooper began for himself at the age of seventeen, working for wages and with the proceeds [p.360] attending college. He engaged in merchandising in 1866 in Illinois, and there he remained until the latter part of 1867, when he returned to Arkansas and brought goods from Illinois and St. Lonis. He established himself in the same business at Long Ridge, and in connection carried on a gin, which he had erected soon after coming there. In 1870 he removed his stock to what is now Magazine, at that time the first store, built a grist-mill and gin, and there he has been continuously in business up to the present time. He established a post-office at that point, and he also established a store at his farm in Petit Jean Valley. In the two stores he carries a general stock of about $5,000, and does an annual business of about $15,000. His farm in the Petit Jean Valley is considered one of the finest and consists of 756 acres lying the full width of the valley, and is one and a fourth miles in length. He has also in Reveille Township 436 acres of land, upon a part of which the greater portion of the town of Magazine was built. Upon his farm and in Magazine Mr. Hooper has the finest residences in Logan County, and his other buildings are of a first-class order. He devotes his attention to the raising of corn and cotton, his farm in Petit Jean Valley being especially adapted to that, and also gives considerable attention to the raising of horses, mules, cattle and hogs. Mr. Hooper was married in 1865 to Miss Martha J. Franklin, a native of Illinois, born in 1844, and the daughter of William B. Franklin. Mrs. Hooper died on July 16, 1866, leaving two children, twins, one of whom died when about sixteen years of age. The other, William F., is now a physician in Magazine, where he is earning for himself an enviable reputation in his profession. On December 25, 1867, Mr. Hooper was united in marriage to Miss Margaret E. Loyd, who was born in Alabama in 1840, and who was the daughter of Thomas and Sarah Loyd. The fruits of this union were eight children: Patsie (wife of S. D. Sanderfer), Sallie (wife of W. M. McIntrerf), Mary O. (wife of J. L. Gamble), Nellie W., Thomas P., Nancy L., Daniel W. and Henry C. In 1872 Mr. Hooper was made a member of the board of supervisors, and he filled the position of postmaster at Magazine for about fourteen years. For many years he has been a member of the Masonic fraternity. He has always been a man of great energy and perseverance, and lthough he has met with many reverses, he has always pushed forward again. He takes a prominent part in, and is a liberal contributor to, all worthy enterprises.

Hon, W. B. Jackson, a prominent lawyer and present representative of Logan County, Ark, owes his nativity to Mississippi, born in 1851, and is the eldest living child in the family of John L. and Elizabeth C. (Pearson) Jackson, the parents natives of Georgia and Mississippi respectively. The paterual grandparents were natives of North and South Carolina respectively. W. B. Jackson's early impressions were at once directed toward the channels of agricultural pursuits, and he received a good, practical education in the common schools. In 1869 he began the study of medicine at the University of Philadelphia and grad. uated from Washington University, Baltimore on February 22, 1871. He immediately began practicing in Mississippi, but in 1874 went to New York, where he practiced in Bellevue Hospital for some time. He then returned to Mississippi and began the study of law in 1876, being admitted to the bar the following year. In 1879 he came to Arkansas, located at Paris, and here he has since been engaged in the practice of law. He is a business-like and painstaking lawyer, is concise in argument and well read, and has a steadily increasing practice. In 1889 he formed a partnership with C. B. Fontaine. He has been an active Democrat in polities and has ever voted with that party. His superior intelligence and fine ability became recognized by the numerous friends whom he had gathered around him, and he was elected to represent this connty in the Legislature in 1890. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. Though a young man he is one of the rising attorneys of this judicial district.

P. J. Jansen, merchant, Prairie View, Ark. In including in this work the sketches of prominent business men of Logan County, none are more deserving of recognition than that of Mr. Jansen, who for a number of years has carried on an extensive [p.361] mercantile establishment at Prairie View. He is of German nativity, born in that country in 1844, and his parents, P. J. and Katherine Jansen, were natives also of that country. He passed his boyhood and youth in Germany, and his educational facilities were more than nsually favorable. He began business for himself as a miner in 1878, and this was his principal occupation up to 1884, when he emigrated to the United States. The same year he located in Logan County, Ark. Previous to coming to the United States, or in 1874, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Scherter, who bore him the following children: Clara, Mattie and Peter. In 1885 Mr. Jansen moved to Little Rock, Ark., and was book-keeper for W. J. Hutt for some time. Subsequently, however, he returned to Logan County, Ark., and embarked in merchandising for himself, which business he carries on successfully at the present time. He carries a stock of goods valued at from between $5,000 to $6,000 dollars, and is a live, energetic business man. He is a strong adherent to the principles of Democracy, and has ever voted with that party. Mrs. Jansen and children are members of the Catholic Church, and the family is respected and esteemed throughout the community.

John A. Johnson, planter, Paris, Ark. Mr. Johnson is one of the successful farmers of Johnson Township, and one of its pioneer settlers. Like many other prominent men of Logan County, he owes his nativity to North Carolina, his birth occurring in 1821, and is a son of Littleton and Lucy (Adkins) Johnson, natives also of that State. The father was born February 15, 1795, and was married December 11, 1816, to Miss Adkins, who was born July 30, 1799. Their family consisted of nine children–three sons and six daughters–only one, a sister, besides our subject, now living: Susan A. (wife of R. J. Nesbit, now residing in Texas). The father emigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1841, settled in what is now Logan County, and entered a tract of land on which he made large improvements. His wife died in 1837 and he in 1857. John A. Johnson was reared in this county, and was married here in 1857, to Miss Mary Lee, who bore him five children, three now living: W. L., William C.and Emma. The wife of our subject died in 1866 and he was married, the second time, in 1869 to Miss Margaret Guthrey. Mr. Johnson enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1863, and served as a private until peace was declared. He is the owner of 120 acres of fine land, and has 100 acres of this under cultivation, his principal crops being corn and cotton. Mrs. Johnson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

W. H. Jones, merchant, Prairie View, Ark. Among the prominent business houses of Prairie View, one deserving of special mention in connection with the dry-goods line, is that conducted by W. H. Jones, who, notwithstanding the fact that he takes a lively interest in all public affairs, is at the same time a conservative and reliable business man. He is a native-horn resident of this county, his birth occurring in 1853, and is the son of F. M. and C. L. (Swiney) Jones, the father born in Missouri, and the mother in Tennessee. W. H. Jones attained his growth in his native county, and secured a good practical education in the common schools. At the age of twelve years he started out for himself, and has been engaged in merchandising the principal part of the time since. He is now the owner of a stock of goods valued at from $5,000 to $6,000, and by his pleasant, agreeable manners has built up a good trade. He also owns considerable real estate, and a summer residence on one of the peaks of the famous Magazine Mountain. Bear Wallow Springs are located here, which, with the heathful climate and beautiful scenery make it a delightful summer retreat. His wife, who was formerly Miss Eliza J. Sykee, and who was the daughter of Robert and E. Sykes, bore him the following children: Minnie B., Clementine O., Arnold, Roland V., James W., Ralph O. and Robert C., of whom Clementine O. and Arnold are deceased. Mrs. Jones was born in Tennessee in 1853, and moved with her parents to Kentucky when a child. In 1868 she came to Arkansas. Mr. and Mrs. Jones are esteemed members of the Christian Church, as are also the children, and in polities Mr. Jones is a Democrat.

Thomas Jones, farmer, Driggs, Ark. Mr. Jones is in every way worthy to be classed among [p.362] the successful agriculturists of this county, for by his own industry he has become the owner of a fine farm of 505 acres, and 400 acres of this have been cleared. He owes his nativity to Chambers County, Als., his birth occurring in March, 1846, and is the son of Thomas and Nancy (Davis) Jones, both probably natives of Alabama. Thomas Jones, the youngest of four children–two sons and two daughters–was left an orphan when quite young, and was reared principally in his native State. He left Alabama immediately after the war, came to Arkansas, and has since been a resident of this State. He was married in Logan County in 1871, to Miss Trency Galer, and to them have been born eleven children, ten of whom are living: John T., Jeremiah S., Charles W., Sarah J., William E., Marzela, Zeba A., Everett and Louisa (who died at the age of seven months). Mr. Jones is engaged in raising cotton and grain, and while he is an agriculturist of advanced ideas and tendencies he does not lose sight of the stock interest. The improvements on his place are all of the best. (Mr. Jones did not correct and return this sketch and hence the publishers cannot give the names of his other children).

Dr. J. A. Keith, physician and merchant, Booneville, Ark. Among the people of Logan County the name of Dr. Keith is not an unfamiliar one, for he has not only won an enviable reputation as a physician, but as a business man and citizen, he is respected by all. He owes his nativity to Buncombe County, N. C., born December 16, 1824, and his parents, Rev. William and Sarah (Allen) Keith, were native Virginians, the father born in 1777, and the mother in 1778. Their nuptials were celebrated in North Carolina, and of the nine children that blessed that union, only three children are the living representatives of this family: Nancy (wife of Alfred Murry), and Sarah A. (wife of O. H. Ramsey). Those deceased were named John, Henry, William M., A. F., R. C. and Jackson. The father was a farmer by occupation, but was also an ordained minister in the Baptist Church. He was a soldier in the War of 1812. The parents both died in North Carolina, the father in 1853, and the mother in 1867. The latter was also a member of that church. Dr. J. A. Keith commenced the study of medicine in Tennessee, in 1853, attended lectures at Augusta, Ga., in 1858 and 1859, and after graduating, commenced practicing at Mars Hill, Yancy County, N. C. He has practiced his profession ever since, and is ever to be found at the bedside of the sick and afflicted. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, was also in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and was brave and fearless in the discharge of his duty. During the last named war he enlisted (1862) in Company A,

Sixty-fourth North Carolina Infantry, and was elected commander of his company in March, of that year, nd lientenant-colonel on the organization. He was in the battles of Chickamauga, Chickasaw Mountain, Perryville, Knoxville and a number of skirmishes, serving until 1865. Previous to the war, or in 1856, he was married, in Greene County, Tenn., to Miss Margaret Jones, daughter of Thomas Jones, and a native of Greene County, Tenn., born January 6, 1831. Her father died in 1867, and her mother many years previous, or in 1849. Dr. and Mrs. Keith are the parents of five children, three now living: James F., Laura (wife of W. D. McInturf), and Mattie E. The two children deceased were Laura (No. 1) and William B. After the war Dr. Keith engaged in the practice of his profession, and emigrated from North Carolina to Arkansas in 1869, locating in what is now Logan County. In 1869 he embarked in mercantile pursuits, which he has since carried on. He is the owner of 2,100 acres of land, and has divided about 1,300 among his children. He has about 700 acres under cultivation. His principal crops are corn and cotton. He has a steam saw-mill, located on Sugar Creek, six miles south of town, and this has a capacity of about 12,000 feet per day. He and Mrs. Keith are worthy members of the Baptist Church, and are liberal supporters of all worthy enterprises. The Doctor is a member of the A. F. & A. M., Booneville Lodge No. 247. James Frank Keith, son of our subject, is a prominent attorney at law at Booneville, Ark., and was born in the Palmetto State, August 28, 1866. He was educated in the Arkansas University, Fayetteville, Washington ] County, and also attended school at Buckner College during 1882 and 1883. During 1883 and 1884 he taught school in Logan County, and in 1885 he was admitted to the bar. In 1889 and 1890 he was engaged in the newspaper business on the Booneville Enterprise, where he remained until October, of this year. He is not in the newspaper business at present, but has turned his attention entirely to the practice of law. He was married December 24, 1885, to Miss Alice Stanford, a native of Alabama, and the daughter of Joseph P. and Sarah Stanford. Two children are the fruits of this union: Ella and James. Mr. Keith is a member of the Baptist, and his wife a member of the Episcopal Church.

George Kincannon, farmer, Magazine, Ark. This old and much-esteemed citizen of Logan County was originally from Georgia, born in 1823, and his parents, John and Rachel Kincannon, were natives of Tennessee and South Carolina respectively. The parents moved to Georgia in 1822, and one year later moved to Tennessee, where our subject was principally reared. The latter received a limited education in the common schools, and in 1843 he began farming for himself, having followed that occupation from early childhood, at which time his services were brought into requisition on his father's farm. He is now the owner of 320 acres of land in Boone Township, Logan County, and is a prominent and very successful tiller of the soil. In 1863 he enlisted in the army, served one year and then was elected sheriff of Scott County, Ark., after which he left the army. In the year 1846 he was united in marriage to Miss Eliza Wallen, daughter of Stephen and Betsy (Igo) Wallen. Mr. Kincannon's second marriage was with Miss Margaret Bowen in 1871. She was the daughter of E. and Margaret Bowen, natives of South Carolina. Mr. Kincannon's present wife is a native of Tennessee and was born in 1833. They have three children who are named as follows: Martha, Sophronia and Samuel. Mr. and Mrs. Kincannon are church members, he of the Presbyterian and she of the Christian denomination and they are liberal to all worthy movements. In politics Mr. Kincannon is a stanch Democrat.

Frank Kinney, miller and ginner. Morrison Bluff, Ark. Among the foreign****born element now in Logan County, those of German nativity stand in the formest rank as honest, industrious citizens. Mr. Kinney was born in Germany in 1830, and his parents, Jasper and Farony (Honel) Kinney, were also natives of that country, the father born in 1800. Frank Kinney was reared in his native country and his educational advantages were very good. He there learned his trade, miller, and in 1856 he sailed for America, where he expected to make his future home. On March 10, 1862, he enlisted in the army and was in the fight at Dardanelle, Ark. Mr. Kinney returned to his occupation of miller after the war, and as he had all the characteristics of those of German nativity–honesty, industry and economy–he soon became one of the substantial men of the county. His mill is worth about $4,000, and he is the owner of six residences, besides other property. Mr. Kinney was married on January 1, 1866, to Miss Charlotte Wilcox, daughter of Homer and Catherine Wilcox. To Mr. and Mrs. Kinney have been born the following children: Buddy, Frank G., Mary, Charlie, Florence, Lena and Edward, all living and enjoying good health. Mr. Kinney and his sons are stanch Democrats in their political views. While Mr. Kinney is a member of the Christian Church and his wife is a Baptist, the children are all members of the Methodist Church.

Capt. James R. Lafferry, a prominent planter of Logan County, Ark., was born in Hall County, Ga., on February 7, 1824, and was reared on the battle-field of Chattanooga, his father being the owner of the land on which both the battles of Chattanooga and Chickamauga were fought. During the Mexican War Mr. Lafferry enlisted and was in most of the hard fighting of that war. In 1848 he was married to Miss Martha Smith, who bore him the following children: George, Mary Ann, Margaret, Catherine, Nancy, Julia, Curley, Josiah, James, Reuben and Amanda (twins), Mattie and Virginia. Mr. Lafferry removed from Tennessee to Lawrence County, Ark., in 1851, remained there until the summer of 1851, and then returned to his old home in Tennessee, where he remained for [p.364] six years. In 1858 he again removed to Arkansas, and in 1862, enlisted in the United States Army, First Arkausas Cavalry, under Col. E. Harrison. He was captured in Missouri, in June, 1862, retained a prisoner until February 20, of the following year, and was paroled, in February, 1863. After this he enlisted in the United States Army, First Arkansas Infantry, was in the Fayetteville fight, and was with Gen. Blount in the actions at Fort Smith and Honey Springs. He was with Gen. Cloud, when Dardanelle was captured the first time, and was also in the Haguewood fight, where he was captured and exchanged. He was captured again at the second fight at Dardanelle, again exchanged, and was in the third fight at that place, January 15, 1865. He was in the fight at Ozark, with Brooks on his retreat from Fayetteville, and was wounded in the knee at that place. He also had his horse shot from under him, and in the fall his leg was broken. He was elected captain of Company B, Fourth Arkansas Cavalry, September 10, 1863, and served in that capacity until the close of the war. Mr. Lafferry has been a participant of forty battles, including those in the Mexican War, and was a brave and trustworthy soldier. He returned home at the close of the war, and has been a resident of Ellsworth ever since. He has followed agricultural pursuits, and is the owner of 318 acres of land with 50 acres under cultivation. The Captain is one of the pioneer settlers of Arkansas, and is a man who has passed an unusually event****l life. He was appointed United States receiver in the land office at Dardanelle, by President Grant in 1873, and was also one of the commissioners appointed to appraise the Fort Smith Reservation. Mr. Lafferry is one of Logan County's most highly respected citizens and oldest settlers. He is a member of the G. A. R., and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to which he is a liberal contributor, as, in fact, he is to all worthy movements. His father, George W. Lafferry, was born on the ocean as his parents came from France, and was reared in Lancaster County, Penn. The mother of our subject, Catherine (Rogers) Lafferry was a native of Georgia. After their marriage they removed to Chattanooga, Tenn., where the mother died in 1840, and the father in 1842. They were the parents of seven children, Capt. Lafferry being the eldest. George W. Lafferry served in the War of 1812, and was with Gen. Jackson at the battle of New Orleans; was in Texas with Maj. Fanning, and was a participant in removing the Cherokees to their present homes in the far west. He served under Gen. Winfield Scott, at the battle of Lundy's Lane. His great-great grandfather, Roger, was killed at the battle of King's Mountain.

J. K. Lee, planter, Paris, Ark. This prominent agriculturist is a native of Arkansas, born in Johnson County, on September 1, 1844, and is a son of D. R. and Susan A. (Redden) Lee, and the grandson of William and Dicey (Ennis) Lee, who were natives of North Carolina. To the grandparents were born eleven children, five now living: D. R., Britton, Winnie, Elizabeth and James H. William Lee emigrated from North Carolina to Tennessee, thence to Mississippi, and in 1837 moved to Arkansas, where his death occurred in 1863. He was a member of the Hard-shell Baptist Church. His wife died in 1872. The father of our subject was born in North Carolina on December 20, 1819, and he was married in 1840 to Miss Susan A. Redden, a native also of North Carolina, born on November 3, 1820. The fruits of this union were eleven children, six now living: T. A., A. P., F. C., Jane and Sarah. The father was elected county treasurer in 1873, served one term, and previons to this, in 1868, he had represented Johnson County in the Legislature. He was also justice of the peace of his township for several years. He has killed at least 500 deer in this State, and killed as many as four in one hour. He is now living with his son, T. A., and is a blacksmith and wagon-maker by trade. The mother died on Angust 30, 1887, and was a consistant member of the Baptist Church. J. K. Lee was reared on a farm, received a good practical education in the common schools, and was married here in 1871 to Miss Arminta Moore, a native of Logan County, born on May 29, 1848, and the daughter of John and Martha C. Moore. To our subject and wife were born eleven children, eight now living: John [p.365] D., George D., Victoria, Genevra, Emma, Samuel, Lucy and Norman. William C., Henry and Agness are the ones deceased. Mr. Lee was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in Company H, First Arkansas Infantry in 1863, and served until cessation of hostilities. He then returned home, engaged in tilling the soil, and is now the owner of 185 acres of good land with 90 acres under cultivation. His principal crops are cotton and corn. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and Mrs. Lee is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church.

Nick Lenz, miller and ginner, Morrison Bluff, Ark. Mr. Lenz has all the elements characteristic of those of German nativity–honesty, industry and frugality–and it is only what could be expected that he should become one of the substantial men of the county. He was born in 1862 and his parents, Jacob and Barbara (Polly) Lenz, were natives also of that country, where they passed their entire lives. Nick Lenz received good educational advantages in Germany, and there learned the blacksmith's trade, which has since been his principal occupation, although in late years he has been engaged in milling and ginning. In 1883 he left his home and the companions of his youth to seek his fortune in the United States and came to Arkansas, locating in Logan County. He followed blacksmithing until 1887, and then embarked in the milling business, being at the present time the owner of a mill valued at about $3,000. His nuptials with Miss Annie Rina, a native of Arkansas, were celebrated in 1888, and to this union has been born one child, Lizzie C. In his political views Mr. Lenz affiliates with the Democratic party, and he and wife are worthy and esteemed members of the Catholic Church.

Dr. J. S. Leslie, physician, Dublin, Ark. Among the citizens of Logan County, the name of Dr. Leslie is a familiar one, for during his six years' practice here he has won an enviable reputation, not only as a practitioner, but as a citizen and neighbor. He was born in Missouri on August 28, 1862, and his educational advantages were appreciated to the fullest extent. He began working for himself at the early age of fourteen years as an agriculturist, and this continued to be his principal occupation up to 1884, when he began practicing medicine. Previous to this, however, when but eighteen years of age, he began reading medicine, and this continued for three years, when he attended lectnres in Iowa for two years. He completed the same in 1884, and immediately entered upon the practice of his profession. The same year Miss C. Peters became his wife, and three interesting children have followed this union: S. Ellen, Burdett and John V., all of whom are alive, and enjoying good health. Mrs. Leslie's parents were S. B. and Artie Peters. Mr. Leslie is a strong adherent to Democratic principles, and has voted with that party ever since attaining his majority. Mrs. Leslie is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. The Doctor has a good practice and is a promising young physician. His parents, William and Sarah Leslie were natives of Tennessee, and much respected citizens in their locality.

J. T. Lewis, planter, Booneville, Ark. Mr. Lewis has spent his entire life in the occupation of farming, and the manner in which he has acquired his present possessions denotes him to be a man of energy, push and enterprise. He was born in Jasper County, Mo., January 13, 1845, and is a son of David and Eliza (Stanton) Lewis, natives also of Missouri. The former was a farmer by occupation. To his marriage were born seven children, only one of whom, besides our subject, is living, Lila (wife of James Hicks). Those deceased were named Charles, Robert, Rachel, Jasper, and one unnained., The father emigrated to Arkansas in 1855, settled in what is now Logan County, and entered and improved some land. His death occurred in Logan County, Ark., in 1865. The mother, who was a consistent member of the Baptist Church, died in the same year. J. T. Lewis was early taught the duties required on the farm, and was married in Logan County, to Miss Rebecca McLoid, who bore him five children, viz.: Francis, William, Nancy, James E. and Mattie. Mr. Lewis' second marriage occurred in 1869. He was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in the cavalry, Company I, Second Arkansas Regiment, in 1863, and serving the Union faithfully and well until [p.366] 1865. Returning home he engaged in cultivating the soil, and this has been his principal occupation up to the present. He is the owner of 400 acres of good land, and has 300 acres under cultivation, his principal crops being corn and cotton. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is in favor of all public improvements, such as the building up of churches, school-houses, etc. His fine farm is situated two miles west of Booneville, and he has an excellent orchard of apple and peach trees. He also has several small-fruit orchards on his tract of land.

Henry M. McCaslin, postmaster, Booneville, Ark. Mr. McCaslin was originally from Gallatin County, Ill., his birth occurring on September 2, 1841, and his parents, James M. and Jane (Taylor) McCaslin, were natives of Tennessee. They were married in Gallatin County, Ill., in 1836, and to them were born three children—two boys and one girl: William C., Henry M. and Mary (who married Thomas Carr in 1853). The latter's husband died about six months after marriage and Mrs. Carr then married I. H. Mangrum, by whom she had two children. She became the mother of one child by her first union, but this child, a daughter, died in St. Louis during the war. The father of our subject removed to Frauklin County, Ark., in 1847, bought land there, and there tilled the soil. The mother had died in Illinois in 1842, and the following year the father married Miss Jane McFerrin, who bore him two children: John B. (who died in 1862) and Phœbe Ann (who died in 1861). Mr. McCaslin received his final summons in Franklin County, Ark., in 1849, when forty-one years of age. Mrs. McCaslin, the second, died in Kansas in 1865. Henry McCaslin was edncated in Franklin County, Ark., and in 1863 he enlisted in Company E. Second United States Arkansas Infantry, under Col. M. L. Stevenson, who was on duty in his own State during the entire war. He was in the Pea Ridge fight, the Saline fight and various others of minor importance. He was discharged on August 8, 1865, at Clarksville, Ark. After the war he came back to his old home in Illinois, married Miss Lucinda Dyer, daughter of Joel and Elizabeth Dyer, and remained engaged in farming in that State for four years. To his marriage were born these children: Jessie S., William P., Minnie, Charles Dyer, Felix (deceased), John Logan and Lucy L. Jessie married C. C. Canthran, a farmer living near Booneville, Ark., and they have a son, Leo Cauthran. Mr. McCaslin removed from Illinois to Logan County, Ark., in 1869, bought land and carried on farming. He is now the owner of 100 acres and has 60 acres under cultivation. He was appointed postmaster at Booneville in June, 1889, and is at present running a grocery store in connection with the post-office. He carries a stock of goods valued at about $700. Mr. McCaslin is one of Logan County's most highly respected citizens and substantial business men. He is a member of the G. A. R., and is an enthusiastic Republican. He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity and the I. O. O. F. He is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church and contributes liberally to all worthy enterprises.

Dr. W. Y. McClure, physician and surgeon, Delaware, Ark. Not only a very successful physician but a leading exponent in general surgery, in its many various branches, Dr. W. Y. McClure is worthy of mention in a review of our foremost professional men. He was born in Georgia in 1862, and is a son of Andrew H. H. and Sarah J. (West) McClure, natives of the Palmetto State, the father a farmer by pursuit. The educational advantages of our subject were limited, attending a short time in the common schools, and the principal part of his education has been obtained by self study. In 1882 he began the study of medicine under Dr. J. H. Hockinhull, of Cumming, Ga., and afterward studied at home. Subsequently he attended lectures at Southern Medical College, at Atlanta, Ga., gradnating and receiving his degree in 1885. He began practicing in Forsyth County, Ga., remained there about six months, and then removed to Arkansas, in October, 1885. He first located at Milan, Yell County, remained there until 1887, and then removed to Delaware, Logan County, where he has built up an extensive practice. He is called in consultation with other physicians in this and Yell Counties, [p.367] and is, in fact, a physician of more than ordinary ability. In February, 1890 he started a general drug business at Delaware, and at the same

time added a stock of family groceries. The Doctor was married in 1884, to Miss Lizzie J. Reese, a native of Georgia, born in 1867, and the daughter of Jacob K. and Nancy E. Reese. To this union have been born three children: Samuel Arthur, (born in 1886), Minnie Ethel (born in 1887), and Willie Harrison (born in 1889). In 1888 Dr. McClure purchased seven acres of land, which he has improved in every way, and in 1890 he erected a store-building, the expense of which, including other improvements, was about $1,000. He carries stock, including furniture of about $400.

David T. McVay, planter and miller, Paris, Ark. Mr. McVay, one of the independent sons of toil, and a successful miller of Short Mountain Township, was born in Mississippi on August 30, 1853, and came to this State with his parents when a small boy. He was married in Logan County in 1876, to Miss Harriet Streete, who was originally from Georgia, her birth occurring in that State on June 15, 1857, and the daughter of William Streete, also a native of Georgia. To Mr. and Mrs. McVay were born five children—two sons and three daughters: George, James, Eller O., Flora and Martha. Mr. McVay has a fine farm of 338 acres, and has 90 acres of this under cultivation, his principal crops being corn and cotton. He has a good frame house, substantial and comfortable outbuildings, and has an orchard of one acre. He has a good steam cotton-gin and sawmill combined, and the capacity of the gin is sixteen bales per day, and can cut 3,000 feet of lumber per day. Last year Mr. McVay ginned 497 bales of cotton, and the prospect this year is considered as good. Mrs. McVay is a member of the Christian Church. Mr. McVay's parents, George and Nicey (Leeten) McVay, were natives, respectively, of Alabama and Mississippi. They were married in the last named State, and six children were born to this union, two only now living, one besides our subject, Thomas. The father emigrated from Mississippi to Arkansas in 1857, settled in

McClain's bottom, where he entered and improved land. He died in this county in 1863. The mother had died in 1860. She was a member of the Christian Church.

Matthew Maberry, farmer, Paris, Ark. Mr. Maberry is a native of Virginia, and his parents, Charles and Ellen B. (Thompson) Maberry, were natives of the same State, born in Floyd County. In 1848 they removed to Schuyler County, Mo., and from there to Arkansas in 1858. Mr. Maberry bought land in Logan County, and cultivated the soil until his death, on June 11, 1883. The mother died on May 19, 1890. Matthew Maberry was born on May 15, 1844, and in 1863 he enlisted in Company K, Eighth Missouri Infantry, C. S. A., and was a participant in the battle of Prairie Grove. On May 10, 1863, during a skirmish in the Indian Territory, he was wounded in the leg and disabled so that he did not enter the service again. He was captured shortly afterward, paroled, and came home. In June, 1879, he was wedded to Miss Lou Aun Sewell, daughter of William Sewell, of Logan County, Ark. The Sewell family was among the pioneer settlers of Logan County. Mr. Maberry is the owner of 137 acres of land, the old homestead of his father, and is a man of good judgment and sound practical sense. He was elected constable for Short Mountain Township, where Paris, the county seat, is located, in September, 1886, and has served in that capacity up to the present time, being re-elected every two years successively. He contributes of his means to all landable enterprises, and is in every way a worthy citizen.

Dr. B. M. Miller, physician and planter, Shoal Creek, Ark. Dr. Miller was born in Missouri, in 1831, and is the son of Samuel and Mary (Hatton) Miller, the former a native of Virginia, and the latter of South Carolina. The father was a soldier in the War of 1812, and at its close was mustered out at what was then the little French village of St. Louis, where he met and married Miss Mary Hatton in 1815. He was a farmer, and continued that occupation until his death, in 1858. His widow joined the "silent majority" in 1877, at the age of eighty-seven years. Both were members of the Methodist Church. The paternal grandparents [p.368] were John and Katherine (Bellue) Miller, and the maternal were Thomas and Joannah Hatton, who were the grandparents of Frank Hatton, postmaster-general. The parents of Dr. Miller were identified with the early history of Missouri, and the latter received his education in the schools of his district until eighteen years of age. He was then sent to Westminister College, at Fulton, Mo., and there continued until twenty-one years of age. In 1855 he began the study of medicine under Dr. Thomas Howard, of Millersburg, Mo., and continued with him for two years, after which, in 1857-58, he attended lectures in the Missouri Medical College. He then commenced practicing in St. Aubert, Mo., where he remained about a year and a half, and then came to Johnson (now Logan) County, Ark., located in the neighborhood of Shoal Creek, and there he has built up a very extensive practice, extending over a large portion of the eastern part of Logan and a part of Yell Counties. He is assisted by his son, Dr. S. E. Miller. Our subject was married in 1867, to Miss M. J. Sellers, a native of Tennessee, born in 1847, and the daughter of Edward and Serena Sellers. To this union have been born four children: S. E. (born in 1867), Aubrey (born in 1868), Dudley (born in 1876), and Jean (born in 1878). In 1869 Dr. Miller purchased 100 acres of land upon which he has built a good house and substantial out buildings, and further improved by fencing and clearing about 60 acres. He raises wheat, oats and corn, and in the last few years has been raising cotton. His farm will average thirty bushels of corn, forty to sixty bushels of oats and three-fourths of a bale of cotton to the acre. In 1862 he enlisted in Company I, Tenth Missouri Cavalry, as assistant surgeon, but resigned and served as private. He took part in the Missouri raid and served until the close of the war. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Elizabeth Lodge No. 215. His wife, who was a consistent member of the Methodist Church, died on July 18, 1890, to the great orrow not only of her husband and children, but the numerous friends her pleasant, genial disposition

had gathered around her.

F. J. Moore, planter, Ellsworth, Ark. Like many of the representative citizens of the county, Mr. Moore owes his nativity to Tennessee, his birth occurring in Bledsoe County March 12, 1831, and he is the son of Nimrod and Sarah (Jones) Moore, the parents natives of Virginia, the father born in 1794 and the mother about 1796. They were wedded in Tennessee, and there they reared a large family of children—seven sons and five daughters—six children now living: Mary (wife of Leroy Standifer), Malinda, R. J., Sarah (widow of R. B. Chitwood) and O. P. Those deceased were named Harriet H., Edward H., Nimrod, Marion, Susan and Obediana. The father was a saddler by trade. Both parents died in Tennessee, the father in 1856 and the mother in 1868. She was a member of the Primitive Baptist Church. F. J. Moore, who is the youngest of the living children, was principally reared on the farm, and by his marriage, which occurred in Johnson County, Ark., November 30, 1857, to Miss Mary Chitwood, a native of Tennessee, born in 1833, he became the father of four children: Sarah E. (wife of L. F. Watson), Marion M., John N. and Esther (wife of J. L. Kell). Mrs. Moore died in this county in 1869. She was a worthy and much esteemed member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. Moore was married, the second time, in 1867, to Miss Caroline L. Lassater, who was born in Tennessee in 1840. They have six children: William H, Leroy F., Maggie M., Richard J., Rachel and Amanda. During the late unpleasantness between the North and South Mr. Moore enlisted in the United States Army, Company B, Fourth Arkansas Regiment Cavalry, under Capt. James R. Lafferry, and served until the close of the war, but was never in any regular battles. He was commissioned second lientenant of his company. Returning to his home he engaged in tilling the soil, and is now the owner of 2,000 acres of as good land as is to be found in the county, 100 being cultivated. Mr. Moore is a Mason, Pleasant Mound Lodge No. 234, and he is secretary of the same. He and Mrs. Moore are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He has been justice of the peace of his township for ten years.

J. E. Norfleet, liveryman, Paris, Ark. Among the many excellent livery stables in Paris must be mentioned that conducted by Mr. J. E. Norfleet, which business was engaged in by that gentleman in 1883. It has been a matter of succession for the past seven years. Mr. Norfleet was born in North Carolina in 1837, and is the eldest of four children, born to the union of Albert A. and Rebecca (Daniel) Norfleet, both batives of North Carolina. The paternal grandfather, Albert, and a brother Thomas, while infants, sailed from England to America with their parents. Their vessel was wrecked and the parents drowned. These boys not knowing their names, were re-christened after the wrecked vessel, that is Norfleet, and they were reared in North Carolina and Virginia, respectively. Albert followed farming and stockraising, was a representative man of his county, and received his final summons in North Carolina. Albert A. Norfleet, father of our subject, was reared in Mississippi, and was a successful tiller of the soil. He moved to Mississippi in 1839, but his death occurred in Florida in 1850. The mother followed him to the grave six years later. J. E. Norfleet attained his growth in Mississippi, and when twenty-one years of age, began for himself as a farmer. At the breaking out of the war he enlisted in the first company organized in Mississippi, Company G, Ninth Mississippi, and was in service in Florida the first year. He was then with Gen. Forrest, on outpost duty, and was in the last battle fought in Alabama, east of the Mississippi River. After the war he cultivated the soil until 1873, after which he was engaged in merchandising. In 1881 he came to Arkansas, settled at Paris and sold goods for two years, after which, in 1883 he embarked in the livery business which he is now following. He owns his own residence and considerable town property and a well equipped stable. He was married at the age of seventeen years (1854), to Miss Angeline Cooper, a native of Tennessee and the result of this union was twelve children: Robert N., Lucian M., William L., Mattie, Lina, Effie, Kate, James, Thomas, Almira and John and Bettie, the latter two dying in infancy. The family are members of the Christian Church.

M. W. Parker, postmaster, Shoal Creek, Ark. Mr. Parker is a representative man of Logan County, Ark., who has attained his property by industry and good business ability, and has won an enviable position in society circles. He was born in Alabama in 1829, and his parents, John and Rachel (Shipley) Parker, were natives of Maryland and Pennsylvania, respectively. The parents came to Arkansas in 1842 and settled in Pope County. Their family consisted of ten children, M. W. the youngest, and only two besides our subject now living: Elkana D. and Joshua M. M. W. Parker was but thirteen years of age when he came with his parents to Pope County, and in 1846 he enlisted for service in the Mexican War as a private in Company A, Col. Yell's**** regiment. He was in the battle of Buena Vista, had his horse shot from under him, and was mustered out in 1847. Returning home he engaged in farming, and two years later was married to Miss Jemima Jones, who was born in Alabama, and who was the daughter of John and Jencie (Bobbett) Jones. To this union were born seven children, all of whom are living: Mary J., Annie, Joshua, William, Jesse, Olive and Bell. Mr. Parker purchased eighty acres of land in 1851, and afterward homesteaded another eighty acres joining the original tract, all of which he improved by erecting good buildings, setting out orchards, etc. He has never raised less than half a bale of cotton to the acre, and generally more, and seldom less than forty bushels of corn. Mr. Parker was elected justice of the peace in 1872, and served continuously for twelve years. In 1889 he was appointed postmaster at Shoal Creek, and has filled that position in a creditable manner ever since. In 1881 he bought a steam-gin and corn-mill, and in 1882 took in his son, Joshua Parker, as partner. Together they have added new and improved machinery, until they now operate none of the original machinery, all being new. Their gin has a capacity of twelve bales of cotton per day, and they operate a steampower press. Their corn-mill has a capacity of 125 bushels per day, and their machinery is driven by a twenty-horse-power engine with a shaft 127 feet long. In 1863 Mr. Parker entered the Federal [p.370] service as a private in Company H, Third Arkansas Cavalry, and was stationed at Lewisburg and Dardanelle. He was mustered out in June, 1865. He is a member of Ellsworth Post No. 12, G. A. R., and was elected senior vice commander at the organization of the post in July, 1890.

L. J. W. J. Powell, farmer, Booneville, Ark. One of the men who has contributed much to the development of Logan County is Mr. Powell, a prominent agriculturist of the same. His parents, Isaac and Sarah (Jones) Powell, were both natives of Georgia. They moved to Arkansas in 1844, bought land in Logan County, and there made their home. The father served in the Florida War, and was also in the War of 1812, fighting under Packinham at the battle of New Orleans. The educational advantages of our subject during his boyhood were limited, receiving only about ten months' schooling altogether, and in the spring of 1854 he wem to California, where he was engaged in mining and farming for eleven years. He then returned home by way of the Isthmus, after stopping for some time in New York and five months in Illinois. He began work on a mill, and after-ward bought, in partnership with his brother, 120 acres of land, where he remained about six years. He improved about eighty acres, erected a house and other buildings, and made many other important changes. He then sold this land and bought 160 acres of Government land, having at the present time about sixty acres of this cleared. Aside from the large crops of cotton, corn and oats that he raises, he is also engaged in raising a good grade of cattle and hogs. Mr. Powell was married in December, 1868, to Miss Frances T. Lyons, a native of Arkansas, and the daughter of John and Rebecca Lyons. Mrs. Powell died in 1869, leaving one daughter, Rebecca Endora, now the wife of H. H. Ozier. In 1871 Mr. Powell was wedded to Miss Mary Jane Cox, a native of Missouri, born in 1847, and daughter of Joseph and Caroline Cox. The fruits of this union have been ten children, eight of whom are living: Alice May, Oceola Mark, Arthur Lee, Alberta, Louisa Ellen, Rosa Viola, Oscar Randolph and Ernest Lester. Mr. Powell is a member of the A. F. & A. M., Lodge No. 247, at Booneville, and he and his estimable wife are members of the Christian Church, of which he has been deacon.

Dr. B. Priddy, physician, Magazine, Ark. Dr. Priddy has acquired an enviable reputation in Logan County, as an able physician and surgeon, and the extent of territory over which he travels to alleviate the sufferings of the afflicted, is a sufficient proof of his popularity. His parents, William H. and Sarah (Lusk) Priddy, were natives, respectively, of Tennessee and North Carolina. They removed to Mississippi at an early day, and there received their final summons. Dr. B. Priddy was born in Mississippi, on May 14, 1834, and there he was principally reared and educated. At the age of tweny-three years he began the study of medicine, and that he has been successful in the practice of his profession is too well known to be commented on. His strong good sense, his calm conservatism and his genuine ability were soon perceived, and he was elected to represent Logan County in the Legislature three times. In 1862 he enlisted in the army, and organized and commanded two companies in this part of Arkansas. He remained in active service until the close of the war, and was a brave and gallant soldier. He was married to Miss Sarah K. Scott, daughter of S. A. and E. E. Scott, and their children were named as follows: Eudora, Florence E., Edna S., Arthur B. and Blanch, all of whom are living. Dr. Priddy is a straight Democrat, and Mrs. Priddy and the eldest daughter are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

James Redden, a prominent and pioneer planter, residing in Johnson Township, Logan County, Ark., is a native of Tennessee, his birth occurring in Henry County, on February 15, 1829. His parents, William and Milly (Berks) Redden, were natives of South Carolina and Georgia, respectively, and they were married in the last named State. The father was a farmer by occupation. Their union resulted in the birth of thirteen children, only one besides our subject now living: Lemuel. The father was drafted in the War of 1812, went to Norfolk, and was there discharged. He and wife emigrated from Tennessee to Arkansas [p.371] in 1836, settled in what is now Logan County, and there the father's death occurred about 1880. The mother died about 1856, and she was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. James Redden was married in Logan County, in 1861, to Miss Martha Smith, a native of Georgia, born in 1837. The result of this union was the birth of seven children—four sons and three daughters: Denison J., J. C., William, Joseph, Dora, Emily and Jennie. Mr. Redden was a soldier in the Civil War, enlisting in Company B, under Capt. H. Butts, in 1863, but he served only about nine months and then came home. In his early life he followed building cotton-gins. He is the owner of 240 acres of good land, and has 75 acres under cultivation. His principal crops are corn and cotton. He has a comfortable home and can spend his declining years in ease and plenty. He and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and he is a member of the Masonic fraternity. He is one of the county's most honored and esteemed citizens.

D. J. Redden, teacher and planter, Paris, Ark. Among the thoroughgoing, wide-awake farmers of Johnson Township stands the name of D. J. Redden, who is a native-born resident of this county, his birth occurring on August 29, 1862. He is a son of James and Martha Redden, and was educated at the Arkansas Industrial University, Fayetteville, Washington County, Ark. He became familiar with the duties of the farm in boyhood, and when twenty-one years of age started out in life for himself as a school teacher, which profession he has since continued. He was married in Logan County on December 16,

1886, to Miss Minnie Maberry, a native of this county, born on April 17, 1864, and the daughter of Charles and Ellen (Thompson) Maberry. Her parents were natives of the Old Dominion, born in 1820 and 1822, respectively, and their children were named as follows: Matthew, Josh, Augustus, Latich, Belle, Jane, Aid, Lion, Annie and Minnie. The parents of these children emigrated to Missouri, and from there to Arkansas in 1858, settling in this county. Here the father died in 1883 and the mother in 1890. Both were members of the Baptist Church. To Mr. and Mrs. Redden were born two children: Opie and Doy. Mr. Redden is the owner of 120 acres of good land, all well improved and well cultivated, and in 1885 he built a nice frame house, which, together with his substantial outbuildings, constitute a prominent and attractive feature of his place. He has a good young orchard of apple, peach, plum and cherry trees, and the principal crops raised on his farm are cotton, corn and oats. Mrs. Redden is a member of the Baptist Church, and Mr. Redden is in favor of all public improvements, extending a ready and helping hand to the poor and needy. Politically he affiliates with the Republican party.

Marvel Rhyne, a prominent pioneer and merchant of Booneville, was originally from North Carolina, born in Lincoln County, March 28, 1823, and is a son of Michael H. and Barbara (Wethers) Rhyne, both born in North Carolina. The father was a tiller of the soil, and moved from North Carolina to Tennessee, in 1832. By his marriage to Miss Wethers he became the father of ten children: Dicey, Anna, Eliza (wife of Silas Dothrow), Vardsey, Albert, Isabela, Michael H., John, Marvel and Caroline, whom we have named in the order of their births. The mother of these children died in Lincoln County, N. C., in 1827. The father then married Miss Peggy Hoyle, who bore him twelve children. He died in 1860, and his second wife followed him to the grave in 1880. Five of the children came to Arkansas. Marvel Rhyne was married May 29, 1859, to Miss L. A. Sadler, daughter of O. — and Eliza Sadler, and to them were born three children: Minnie L. (deceased), Horasio, and one died unnamed. Mrs. Rhyne died at Booneville, Ark., in 1863, and June 8, of that year, Mr. Rhyne wedded Miss Jacinthis S. Sadler, daughter of Elwood and Martha Sadler. Seven children blessed this union—three sons and four daughters: Mattie E. (wife of D. A. Carroll), John E., Lucy (living), Lucy (deceased), H. C. (deceased), Clara (deceased), Elisyzie (living), and Marvel (deceased). In 1863 Mr. Rhyne enlisted in the Confederate Army under Gen. Cabel, and he participated in the battles of Poison Springs, Jenkins' Ferry, Mark's Mill, and was with Gen. Price in the Missouri raid. He served until cessation of hostilities, being discharged at Fort Smith in July. He then returned home and engaged in agricultural pursuits, which he continued until 1868, when he embarked in merchandising in Booneville. He is one of the county's esteemed citizens, and one of its thoroughgoing business men. He carries a stock of goods valued at $5,000, and is doing well. He is a Mason, Booneville Lodge No. 247, and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. They contribute liberally to all worthy movements.

J. R. Roper, farmer, Morrison Bluff, Ark. Mr. Roper is possessed of those advanced ideas and principles regarding agricultural life which seem to be among the chief characteristies of the average native Tennesseean. He was born in McMinn County, of that State, in 1832, and his parents, J. M. and Mary M. (Giddon) Roper, were natives of the Big Bend State also. The mother died in Tennessee, and the father moved to Arkansas, locating in Logan County in 1881. J. R. Roper was reared in Bradley County, Tenn., and his educational facilities were limited. At the age of twenty years he began life as a farmer, which occupation he has since continued to follow and the success which seems to attend his efforts is well merited, for no one is more thoroughly interested in this calling, or gives it greater attention. In the fall of 1861 he enlisted in the army, and was in active duty until cessation of hostilities. He was captured in the fall of 1864, was sent to Johnson's Island, Ohio, and there remained for seven months. In 1857 he celebrated his marriage to Miss Frances Randolph, the daughter of J. and Margaret Randolph. The result of this union was the following children: Jephtha M., William M., P. R. and John F. Jephtha M. died when a young man, and P. R. died in infancy. Mr. Roper and his sons are stanch Democrats in their political preferences, and their votes are cast with that party at all times. Mrs. Roper and children are members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

John F. Roper, farmer, Morrison Bluff, Ark. Mr. Roper, whose life has been an active one, and who has by his own industry and intelligent management secured a substantial footing among the citizens of this community, was originally from Tennessee, born in Hamilton County, in 1862. His parents, J. R. (see biography) and Frances Roper, were also natives of Tennessee. The father moved to Logan County, Ark., in 1869, and is a resident of that county at the present time. John F. Roper attained his growth, and received his education in Logan County. In 1885 he began farming for himself, and this has continued to be his principal occupation. He is progressive and thorough in all that he does, and it requires but a few years, at the rate he is now advancing, to place him among the prominent agriculturists of the county. His wife, whom he married in February, 1885, was formerly Miss Abbie Fox, daughter of Francis and Abbie Fox, the father a native of France and the mother of Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Fox moved to Logan County, Ark., in 1880, and there they reside at the present time. To Mr. and Mrs. Roper were born two children: Jennie and Beulah, the former of whom died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Roper are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and in his political views he is a Democrat from principle.

Dr. Florenz Robert, physician and farmer, Dublin, Ark. Dr. Robert is another of the many prominent residents of Logan County, who owe their nativity to Germany, his birth occurring in that country in 1841. His parents, Bernard and Clara (Plester) Robert, were natives also of that country, and there our subject was reared to manhood. He received a good practical education and when twenty-four years of age he began for himself as an undertaker and builder. In 1872 he emigrated from his native country to the United States, located at St. Louis, Mo., and in 1878 moved to Logan County, Ark., where he has since made his home. By his marriage, which occurred in 1865, to Miss Lizzie Wiedebusch, he became the father of the following children: F. B., John N. and Lizzie: Dr. Robert's second marriage took place in 1880, to Miss Margaret Underwood, and the fruits of this union were the following interesting children: Henry, Dora, Herman, Frank, Annie and Clara. The children are all living and are strong and [p.373] hearty. The Doctor is a successful physician and has built up a large and lucrative practice. In fact, he has the ability and perseverance to make a success of whatever he undertakes, and is classed among the substantial men of the county. In polities he affiliates with the Demoeratic party. Mrs. Robert and the children are members of the Catholic Church.

St. Scholastica's Convent. The following is a short sketch and biography of this institution and its illustrious founders. As the Reverend Benedictine Fathers of St. Meinrad, Ind., undertook the founding of a mission at St. Benedict, Ark., in the spring of 1878, it was their most sincere wish and desire that the spiritual daughters of St. Benedict, the holy founder of the Benedictine Order, should share in their labor in the vineyard of the Lord. They therefore applied to the Convent of the "Immaculate Conception," of Ferdinand, Dubois County, Ind., for Benedictine nuns. The Ven. Mother Superior being animated with the desire of propagating the kingdom of God, answered in their favor and sent four nuns to their aid. On September 20, 1878, the Ven. Sisters bade adieu to their dearly beloved mother-house, Superior and Sisters, with tearful eyes and heavy hearts, though with the consolation of thus doing the most holy will of God. On arriving in Arkansas they were shown to St. Scholastica, about twelve miles distant from St. Benedict. The land, ten acres, was donated by the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad Company. They found a small box house, destitute of all comforts, and a small church. Of course their hardships and trials were numerous and of a trying character, but were borne with great fortitude and patience. They labored faithfully, doing all in their power for the welfare of the congregation, until the year 1882, when Ven. Superior Meinrada Lex, the present Mother, was sent by her superiors, from the convent of the "Immaculate Conception,#" of Ferdinand, Ind., to take charge of the convent of St. Scholastica and open a novitiate. The real founding, rapid growth and prosperity of this institution is marked from this date. Fulda, Spencer County, Ind., a neat and thrifty village, nestled in the midst of a rich farming region, is the birthplace of Ven. Mother Meinrada Lex. She was born in 1855, and is the daughter of George and Theresa Lex, her education being received in the academy of the "Immaculate Conception," Dubois County, Ind., and at an early age graduated from this institution with merit and honor. In 1870 she entered this convent as postulant, was invested in 1872 and took the simple vows one year later. After having passed public examination and receiving a very recommendable certificate she was engaged in teaching the boys' department in the public school of Ferdinand, Ind., a position she filled two years to the entire satisfaction of both the public and superintendents. At that time her superiors, to the deep regret of her pupils, as well as their parents, found it necessary to choose her among the first to bring the sacrifice of leaving the dear cloister to found a mission at St. Meinrad. Here she remained until 1876, when she was recalled to her convent, and was immediately elected novice mistress. However, it was not until commanded by virtue of holy obedience, one of the holy vows, that she could be induced to accept this difficult charge, being well aware of the great responsibility with which the duties of a novice mistress are burdened. With all the fervency of a truly Christian soul she now devoted herself to the discharge of her duties. The able and well skilled nuns of later years, who were in the novitate during her employment, are an ample proof of her wisdom and prudence. In 1879 it was deemed necessary by her superiors to order her again to St. Meinrad, there to act as principal of the public school. With ready and loving obedience, which she ever strove to practice, she followed the call of her Divine Master, who, through the medium of her superiors thus made manifest to her His most holy will. Here she remained until 1882, when she was again recalled to Ferdinand. Her loss was greatly bewailed by all, for through her removal they lost an able and a universally beloved teacher. But with what aim was she summoned home? Divine Providence had destined her for a greater and more important work, and she had scarcely arrived at her convent home and ventured to hope for the [p.374] gratification of the long cherished desire of resting herself in the bosom of her beloved cloister in the midst of the dear Sisters, when it was announced to her that she was again to leave her home so dear to her, and go to the distant St. Scholastica in Arkansas. These unwelcome tidings smote her heart like a thunderbolt, but after hurrying to the foot of the altar, and there raising her heart to God in prayer and tears, begged for the grace and strength to carry out this great sacrifice. She arose comforted, and gave her consent for the love of Him who had, in His great love for her, chosen her for His bride.

Consequently in May, 1882, she took leave of all that was near and dear to her of earth, and departed in company with her Ven. Mother Superior for her distant field of labor in Arkansas. On her arrival she found nothing but poverty and privation awaiting her. Two of the Sisters who were sent in 1878 were occupying the box house, containing three small rooms, and the other two were at that time engaged in teaching school in St. Benedict mission. It would make one shudder to rehearse the many trials of these poor Sisters, for the members of the congregation, although willing to give assistance, were utterly destitute of means themselves, battling to keep the wolf from the door, as there had been a succession of failures in the crops, from drouths. The convent, if the term is appropriate, was surrounded by a garden made tillable by their own toil and labor, the remaining ground of the 101 acres being yet an unbroken piece of forest land. There was also a small school numbering from twenty to thirty children, conducted by the Sisters, but under, the supervision of Ven. Mother Meinrada Lex, it grew rapidly, and soon numbered fifty pupils. This school was the only source of support for the wants of the convent and its inmates, and as it proved very inefficient the Sisters saw themselves forced to lay their own hands to the ax and clear land whereupon to raise farm products. Their fund was necessarily too meager to defray the expenses of hiring the work done, and as soon as her school was dismissed the Ven. Superior was at their head, upon which they set energetically to work to clear their land. Their hands were often covered with blisters from their unaccustomed toil, but, nothing daunted, they continued their labors, and as a reward now have thirty acres under cultivation. The novitiate was immediately opened on Ven. Mother Meinrada's arrival, and she soon had the joy of welcoming candidates from all sides, in spite of the utter poverty of the convent. Through the prudent and skillful management of the Superior she was en abled, from time to time, to add enlargements to their building, which was greatly needed, as the number of the community daily increased. The first addition was erected in 1883, it being 24x30 feet and was two stories in height. In 1885 a second story was added to the original building, and in 1890 an addition, 60x24 feet, forming an L, with the other buildings, making an area of 60x96 feet. It can easily be imagined that the Superior feels herself amply rewarded for the many sacrifices and privations she had to endure during the first years of her stay, and gladly forgets the many self abnegations and trials. Here it must also be noted that the German Catholics of Fort Smith won for themselves an undying and ever grateful remembrance in the heart of the good Mother and her community by their liberal contributions and by patronizing her school. She was thus enabled to accomplish the most of the improvements free of debt, which is, indeed, quite an exception and a visible sign of the blessing of Divine Providence. In 1886 a separate building, two stories high, and 24x40 feet, was erected and specially arranged for guests. It is scarcely ever unoccupied, for, almost daily, visitors from far and near, are welcomed by the genial and ever friendly inmates, and it must be added that all pronounce the place very attractive and interesting. The pure air, and delightful scenery which meets the eye from the convent is especially pleasing. New stables and numerous other buildings, as required by the institution, were erected from time to time. There is also a vineyard of from 2,000 to 3,000 vines and a fine orchard of four or five acres, containing a great variety of fruit, and in place of the former great scarcity of water there are now cisterns and wells, supplying an abundance of good water. The farm is well stocked with cattle, horses, swine, sheep and fowls. They also have good carriages, wagons, farming implements, etc., and the labor previously performed by the untiring Mother and her Sisters, is now given to men who are constantly employed about the grounds. The present routine of the convent is in marked contrast to what it was in former days, for, instead of discharging laborious and often over-burdening farm duties in days of snow and ice as well as intense heat and inclement weather, the inmates are permitted to devote their time to their appropriate duties. They are very skillful with their needles and their fancy work in fine silk, etc., has won universal admiration and is in great demand. In addition to the parish school conducted by the Sisters, the Ven. Mother Superior opened a higher school some years ago, known as St. Scholastica's Academy, a boarding school for girls and young ladies. The course of instruction includes every useful and ornamental branch of female education, while the most

untiring attention is paid, by these learned and devoted Sisters, to the moral and polite deportment of the pupils. Many of these Sisters received superior educations themselves, and afterward had experience as teachers in the then much-lauded and well-known Academy in Dubois County, Ind. Terms are moderate and in keeping with the times. Especial attention is given to both vocal and instrumental music, and instruction is given on the piano, organ, violin, guitar and mandolin. Difference of religion is not regarded in admission to the academy, and students of all denominations and creeds are alike welcome. This academy can boast of patronage ever since its opening, from pupils far and near, which is an ample proof of its merit and worth. Five missions have been instituted by the Ven. Mother Superior, where her Sisters are engaged in unceasing labor to the benefit of mankind. With the greatest zeal and fervor they teach and labor to the greater honor and glory of God. These missions are located at St. Scholastica, St. Benedict, Fort Smith, Paris and Dixie, and are patronized by American as well as German students. Many openings for missions can not be supplied for there are too few Sisters to supply the call for teachers.

ST. SCHOLASTICA'S CONVENT, SHOAL CBEEK, LOGAN COUNTY, AHKANSAS.

In 1887 the Mother Superior was unanimonsly elected prioress for the term of four years, and by this act the convent of St. Scholasticu became an independent institution, whereas, up to this time it was under the direct control of the convent of the "Immaculats Conception," being a branch house of the same. This step was found to be necessary, as nothing of any importance could take place without the permission of the Mother Superior of the mother-house. It is plain enough to perceive that communication between the two houses was very frequent, but as the distance was great, it caused much inconvenience, and often occasioned disadvantages to the convent. In the same year the newly elected prioress returned to the convent of "Immaculate Conception" and took the solemn vows, thus having the pleasure of enjoying the long-craved-for happiness of once more seeing the home and its beloved inmates so dear to her heart. After a short but happy stay she returned to the home Divine Providence had destined for her future place of usefulness, and where she was received with rejoicing hearts by her spiritual daughters, who were only too well aware of the treasure they possessed in her. With renewed zeal and energy she now devoted herself to the spiritual and corporeal welfare of those entrusted to her care, as well as the prudent and skillful management of the affairs of the convent in general. Her community now numbers fifteen professed Sisters, all of whom entered there and have taken the simple vows. Nine of them are on missions, while the remainder are in the mother convent, and nearly all are natives of the United States, but some few were born in different countries of Europe. There are sixteen postulants in the convent, three being natives of Arkansas, one of Kentucky, and twelve from Europe. The majority of the latter are of high birth and station, show excellent talent, and give promise of future reliance and support to the convent. The Superior hopes to soon be enabled to found missions where they will have occasion to complete the utter sacrifice of all earthly ties and pleasures, and devote themselves to the sole cause of glorifying God, and laboring [p.376] for the general welfare of mankind. They manifest great zeal and fervor in the divine service and worship of their heavenly Spouse, and often give utterance to their great desire of bringing any sacrifice which may be required of them in any future ordinance of Divine Providence, which will be made known to them through the medium of their Ven. Superior, to whom they are all warmly attached. How could it be otherwise, after bidding farewell to their native land, and tearing themselves from beloved ones, some of whom were far more dear to them than themselvos, for the purpose of glorifying God in a foreign land! May Divine Providence ever bless and prosper all their work and undertakings with bounteous success! The ****erable Mother Prioress will soon enlarge the buildings to double their present size, the new building to be made on the west side of the last enlargement, which is 60×20 feet, is beautifully furnished and is used as a chapel. The intended addition will be built and arranged as an academy, no cost, time or trouble being spared to make the same all that skill in architecture can furnish. It will undoubtedly present a beautiful aspect, the steeple towering in the center. This is already erected, and from its heights there chimes a sweettoned bell, sending its enticing call over the neighboring valleys and heights at frequent intervals during the day, to announce the recitation of the praises of God by the good Mother Superior and her community. It is hoped that Divine Providence will long spare the lives of the founders of this convent to the comfort and welfare of those trusted to her jurisdiction, and may the institute ever continue to exist and prosper to the greater honor and glory of God, and to the benefit of all mankind.

Ver. Rev. P. Wolfgang Schlumpf, the present very worthy prior of St. Benedict Monastery, was originally from Canton Zug, Switzerland, where his birth occurred on January 20, 1831, and is the son of Philip and Christina (Hotz) Schlumpf, the father dying when Father Wolfgang was but a boy. The latter was sent to Schwitz College, thence to France Rufach, still higher college, and afterward returned to Zug, where he attended school for some time. From there he went to Einsiedelen, entered the monastery at the age of twenty-two, completed his studies for the priesthood, and was rdained at the age of twenty-six years. After his ordination he was made professor of the gymnasium of the monastery. In 1862 he emigrated to

America and stopped at the monastery at St. Meinrad, Spencer County, Ind., where he assumed the duties of a parish near St. Meinrad for two or three years. In March, 1878, he, with two lay Brothers, came to Arkansas, and for the first time set foot on the soil of Logan County. This pioneer Father immediately took possession of Section 11, Township 7, Range 25, for the use and purpose of the new monastery. A dilapidated log-cabin was the only building on the apportioned lands; there was no visable being around to cheer and encourage the Father and his two companions. All was bleak enough, and certainly, judging from a mere human point of view, the outlook was not very encouraging. But this valiant man, had back for a thousand years or more, the history and acts of his Order before his mind's eye, and was not the one to be discouraged. Sturdy monks know not the word fail, and in the wilderness, amid strange surroundings, was founded what is now known as the Monastery of St. Benedict. Around that old log cabin has grown the above-mentioned institution, and numerous churches and schools, among the most prominent of which is the convent of St. Scholastica, at Shoal Creek. After St. Scholastica, congregations were formed at Morrison Bluff, St. Anthony's Church, at Caulksville; the Church of the Sacred Heart, at Charleston, Franklin County; St. Joseph's Church at Paris was founded in 1880, and other churches founded by this Father were St. Edward's Church at Little Rock; St. Boniface Church at Fort Smith; another St. Boniface at Dixie, Perry County, and St. Elizabeth in the same county, which are attended by Benedictine Fathers from the monastery of St. Benedict. Later four more congregations were placed under the jurisdiction of the Benedictine Fathers by the Bishop: Altus, Hartman, Coal Hill and Clarksville. These congregations are ministered to by the Benedictine Fathers, missionaries [p.377] sent from St. Meinrad and Einsiedelen, there being now ten Fathers, fourteen raters, nine lay brothers and three novices. The College of St. Benedict, founded by our subject, was organized and held its first session in 1887. At that session there were eight students, and this number has been increased each succeeding year. Many of these students enter the college with the object of becoming priests, and are so educated. The course of study as laid down here is very comprehensive. In the elementary course are reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, grammar, geography, physiology, drawing, United States history and the Christian doctrine. In the commercial course students are instructed in book-keeping in addition to continuing their studies in the common branches, higher mathematics, physics, rhetoric and ancient history. Students desiring to enter the priesthood are required to take Latin in the commercial course. In the classical course

students continue English, higher mathematics, world's history, church history, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, theology and all the branches accompanying a thorough theological course. Since acquiring the 640 acres of the monastery grounds, they have purchased 160 acres near Paris in the southwest quarter of Section 5, Township 7, Range 25. The college building is 25×50 feet, two stories high, and is situated about 100 yards from the monastery. It was remodeled in 1888 for a college, and now forms a very important part of the buildings of St. Benedict. In 1888 was laid the foundation for a stone chapel, on the heights, back of the monastery, 21×42 feet, with a 16-foot ceiling and a 40-foot spire. The present monastery being too small for the requirements, it is the intention of these Fathers to build in their new home a monastrey of solid stone which, like their own old faith, will be lasting and enduring; a college, too, worthy of the name and fame of a distinguished order, will surely follow. There is also upon the grounds a parish school conducted by Sisters of Charity.

Hon. M. C. Scott, farmer, Sugar Grove, Ark. Prominent among the wide-awake, industrious tillers of the soil in Logan County stands the name of M. C. Scott, who is a native of Arkansas, his birth occurring in 1842. His father, Milas T. Scott, was born in Illinois, and his grandparents, John and Catherine (Anderson) Scott, were both born in North Carolina, the grandfather in 1780. John Scott died in Logan County in 1848 and his wife, Catherine Scott, preceded him to the grave, dying in 1844. The father was born in 1805 and was married in 1830 to Miss Celia Garner, a native of Tennessee, born in 1808. Her father, Thomas Garner, passed his entire life in Tennessee, where his death occurred at the age of eightynine years. Shortly after their marriage the parents of our subject immigrated to the Territory of Arkansas and settled on a farm near Roseville, Johnson County, a place now known as the old Scott farm. After remaining there for two years they removed to what is now Logan County and embarked in merchandising near the present residence of our subject. In 1837 and 1838 Milas T. Scott represented his county in the Legislature and returned a second time. Milas T. Scott was a member of the Legislature at the time Scott County was set off, and it was named in honor of him at that time. He afterward removed his store to Booneville and erected a gin at Caulk's Creek. To his marriage were born eight children, only one besides our subject now living, Robert C. (whose birth occurred on August 28, 1836.) Upon the outburst of the war cloud that had been hovering over the country for so long a period, M. C. Scott (our subject) volunteered his services for the Confederacy and enlisted in Company A, Second Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, serving in Benjamin McCulloch's division until after the battle at Corinth, when he was united with Johnston's army. He participated in the battles of Oak Hill (Mo.), Elk Horn, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Franklin, Nashville, Richmond, Atlanta, Resaca, Bentonville, Jonesboro and numerous minor engagements. Taking all of them Mr. Scott was in twenty-six hard-fought battles. After the war he began tilling the soil on land received from his father's estate (forty acres), to which he has since added over 300 acres of unimproved land. He now has 125 acres under cultivation, has erected a good house and other buildings and has made [p.378] many other improvements. His principal productions are corn, cotton and oats. He raises on his uplands thirty bushels of corn to the acre and on the bottom lands fifty bushels on an average, although by actual measure he raised eighty bushels to the acre one season. Of cotton he raises over half a bale on the uplands and occasionally a bale to the acre. In 1867 Mr. Scott was married to Miss Mary Henderson, a native of Tennessee, born in 1845, and the daughter of A. H. and Martha J. Henderson. Of the five children born to this marriage three are now living: Charley (born in 1875), Early (born in 1880), and Lester (born in 1882). Mr. Scott represented Logan County in the Legislature in 1885 and 1886, and although no office seeker he consented to become a candidate at the request of his neighbors. He declined renomination. Mrs. Scott is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

Samuel I. Shelton, a prosperous farmer of the county whose advanced ideas and progressive views have resulted very substantially, was born in Dallas County, Ala., on November 21, 1835, and is a son of Samuel I., Sr., and Martha (Tatum) Shelton. The parents were married in Alabama, and to them were born five children–three sons and two daughters; Jonathan, Sarah, Samuel I., Jr., and two others who died in infancy. Jonathan died in Alabama when but seventeen years of age, and Sarah and our subject are the only ones of the family now living. The parents died about 1842 or 1843. Samuel I. Shelton, Jr., and his sister removed from Alabama to West Tennessee, where he left Sarah and went to Missouri, remaining there about a year. From there he went to Logan County, Ark. His sister was married in Alabama to Joseph Musgrove, and she and her husband came with our subject to Arkansas in 1858. Sarah died near Pine Bluff, Ark., in 1870, but her husband had died twelve years before. After his death she married Mr. Cazort, and he also died before her, leaving her four children by Mr. Musgrove and one by himself. Mr. Shelton was married in Tennessee in 1856 to Miss Susan Brown, daughter of James Brown, and the fruits of this union were two children: The eldest one died when an infant and the second one, John R. Shelton, also died when young. Mrs. Shelton received her final summons in 1862. Subsequently Mr. Shelton

married Mrs. Amanda Lee, widow of Lovett Lee, her maiden name being James, and the daughter of Joseph James of Johnson County. Three children have been born to this union: L. H., J. H. and A. A., all single and at home. Mr. Shelton is the owner of 270 acres of land, has 120 acres under cultivation, and is a prosperous farmer. He is a member of the Farmers' Alliance and also a member of the G. A. R., having been a soldier in the United States Army. He enlisted in Company H, First Arkansas Infantry, under Col. Johnson, March 10, 1863, and was engaged mostly in State duty. He was with Gen. Steele on the Camden raid, and was discharged on August 10, 1865, at Fort Smith. Since the war he has been engaged actively in the pursuit of his chosen calling, farming, and has met with the best of results. He and wife are both church members.

Isaac Smith, farmer, Corley, Ark. Among the successful agriculturists of Logan County whose merits are such as to entitle him to representation in the present work is Mr. Smith, the subject of this sketch. He was born in the Buckeye State in 1822, and was the son of Peter and Mary (Carson) Smith, the father a native of Virginia and the mother of Pennsylvania. The educational attainments of Isaac Smith were of rather a meager order, and he was early initiated into the duties of farm life, which occupation has continued to be his chosen calling up to the present time. He has closely applied himself to the same and with what success may be inferred from a glance over his fine farm of 160 acres in Mountain Township, Logan County, Ark. In 1861 Mr. Smith onlisted in the army, and remained in service until 1864, when he was discharged for disability, having received a severe wound in March of that year. He was wounded by the explosion of a boiler, and lay on a bed of suffering from March, 1864, until October of the same year. He lost the sight of his right eye by the hot water, and came very near losing the sight of the other eye. His left knee was dislocated at the same time, and he was disabled for [p.379] life. Mr. Smith was married to Miss Annie McKinney in 1840, and the fruits of this union were four children: John (deceased), Mary, Isaac D. and Catherine (deceased). Mr. Smith was married, the second time, to Hester A., daughter of James and Katie Cummins, and to this union were born three children: Ellen, Peter and James (deceased). Mr. Smith is a Republican in politics. Mrs. Smith is a devout member of the Baptist Church.

D. Speer, planter, Booneville, Ark. D. Speer, a well-known resident and planter of Logan County, was born in Kentucky, June 7, 1818, and is a son of James and Penelope (Jacks) Speer, both also from the blue-grass soil of Kentucky. The parents were married in their native State, but received their final summons in the Lone Star State, whither they had removed at an early day. Of fourteen children born to this union, only three are now living. D. Speer passed his boyhood days on the farm, and received an average education in the common schools. He was married in Tennessee, and the result of this union was the birth of nine children, six of whom are now living: D. G., Lee A., G. C., P. M., Martha F. (wife of George Keys) and William. Those deceased were John H., Ella A. and James. In 1863 Mr. Speer enlisted in the Confederate Cavalry and served until the close of the war. He was paroled at Tyler, Smith County, Tex. In 1866 he emigrated from Texas to Arkansas and settled in Hempstead County, where be resided one year. He then moved to this county, bought his present property, which consists of 270 acres of land, with 100 acres under cultivation, and he is one of the substantial men of the township. His wife, who was a worthy and consistent member of the Baptist Church, died in 1872. Mr. Speer is a member of the same church. His son, P. M., was born September 6, 1854, and was married in this county in 1874 to Miss Anna M. Terwilliger, a native of Pennsylvania, born in the year 1851. Four children were born to this union, three of whom are now living: Minnie E., Nellie M., Dew and Viola (deceased). Mrs. Speer is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

Emil Spieler, farmer and ginner, Spielerville, Ark. Mr. Spieler has all the characteristics of those of German nativity, and is honest, industrious and frugal. His birth occurred in 1849, and he is the son of Englebert and Pauline Spieler, natives also of Germany. The parents were married in the old country, and their union was blessed by the birth of six children, five now living and Emil being the eldest son. The father came to America in 1851, landed in New Orleans, then moved to St. Louis, thence to Illinois, and in 1879 to Arkansas. He settled in Logan County, and there the mother died in about 1863. She was a member of the Catholic Church. The father is now living in Madison County, Ill. Emil Spieler began working for himself when a young man, and his first venture was to build a large cotton, flour and saw-mill, which was erected in 1880-81. The capacity of this gin is from eighteen to twenty bales per day, and he cuts about 5,000 feet of lumber per day. Our subject was married in 1877, to Miss Mary Ejkorn, a native of Peoria, Ill., born in 1856, and they had six children born to this union: Emile (deceased), Englebert, Mary, Eda, Pauline and Emily. In 1880 and 1883 Mr. Spieler built a nice, large two-story frame house, a good barn, and comfortable outbuildings. He is the owner of 130 acres of land, has seventy acres under cultivation and has a good fruit orchard of apples, peaches, plums, pears, figs, etc. Last year he made 400 gallons of grape wine, and he has fourteen stands of bees. He and Mrs. Spieler are members of the Catholic Church.

J. W. Stanfield was early taught the duties of farm life, and this has been his chosen occupation, though of late years he has been engaged in the mercantile business, having a general stock of merchandise in Booneville, worth about $1,300. He has only been in the business about a year, but during that short period he has gained the confidence and esteem of all by his honest, upright dealings. He is a young man of good business qualifications, and will, no doubt, make a complete success of this enterprise. He is also the owner of fifty acres of good land, and has twenty-four acres under cultivation. In March, 1885, he was united in marriage to Miss Ellen Craine, daughter [p.380] of J. V. Craine, and they have one child, a daughter, named Vora Lee. Mr. Stanfield was born in Wayne County, Tenn., in August, 1857, and his parents, Thomas P. and C. A. (Woody) Stanfield, were both natives of Tennessee also. They were married in that State, and to their union were born six children–three sons and three daughters–viz.: Robert F. (deceased), J. W., Mary J., Joseph Z., Charity E. and Comfort A. The father was a soldier in the United States Army, and was killed in 1865. The mother removed from Tennessee to Arkansas, in 1880. Their daughter, Mary J., was married in Tennessee, to Buck Lynch, and then removed to Alabama, where she now resides. Charity (married J. W. Fields, of Booneville, Logan County, Ark.), Comfort (married A. T. Barlow, a farmer in Logan County), and Joseph married Miss Ida Barlow, sister to A. T. Barlow.

Harris T. Teague, farmer, Paris, Ark. The subject of this sketch is a native of Alabama, born June 24, 1848, and from an early age he was trained to the duties of farm life. Owing to the breaking out of the war his educational advantages were limited, and when twenty years of age he started out for himself as an agriculturist, renting land in Logan County, where he continued successfully for three years. He then bought railroad claim near Paris, and there he now lives. This place he has improved by erecting a house and a large barn, the latter 50×52 feet, and he is now preparing to build a large and commodious dwelling, 18×38, with an L 20×14 feet, and having six rooms. His farm now consists of 200 acres under a good state of cultivation, and 290 acres under fence. He was married in 1876 to Mrs. Grounds, of this county, but formerly of Tenn., and they have James R., Claudie T., Esther and Myrtle, all at home and attending the public schools. The father of our subject, A. A. Teague, was in the Confederate Army for about two years. He then returned to Alabama, and from there moved to the Lone Star State, where he resides at the present time. Harris T. Teague is qnite deeply interested in stockraising, and bas some fine mules and horses as well as cattle. The farm is well kept and has the appearance of thrift and enterprise. His crops are principally corn and cotton. Mr. and Mrs. Teague value an education far above what is customary in some of the rural districts, and are determined that their children shall have the advantages of the very best schools within their reach. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and are liberal in their support of all worthy movements. Mr. Teague is wide-awake and enterprising, and is an honored and highly-esteemed citizen.

Dr. E. W. Thomas, physician, Booneville, Ark. Among the people of Logan, as well as surrounding counties, the name that heads this sketch is by no means an unfamiliar one. For eleven years he was actively and successfully occupied in the practice of his chosen profession, and during this time he has built up an excellent practice. He was born in Walker County, Ga., in 1851, and is the son of Samuel W. and Mary C. (Davis) Thomas, natives of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. The parents were married in the last named State, but in 1850 removed from there to Georgia. There were nine children born to their union–five boys and four girls–named in the order of their births as follows: Mary T (deceased), Laura J. (deceased), Edwin W., William H. (deceased), Luther M., Florence L., Samuel B., Edgar R. and Mattie E. The parents removed from Georgia, and not believing in the old adage that "a rolling stone gathers no moss," moved from place to place, and finally settled at Pine Bluff, where the father's death occurred in 1887. He was a Cumberland Presbyterian minister and a member of the Masonic fraternity. The mother is now living at Fordyce, Dallas County, Ark., having passed her sixty-fourth year. Dr. E. W. Thomas received a good practical education in youth, read medicine under Dr. J. T. Foster (whose daughter afterward became his wife), and in 1879 and 1880 attended medical lectures at the Arkansas Industrial School at Little Rock, beginning to practice in the spring of 1880 at Ola, Yell County, Ark. There he was married the following year to Miss Rosa A. Foster, daughter of Dr. J. T. Foster, now of Booneville, Ark. Four children were born to this marriage; Harriet E., Jimmie C., James W. (deceased) and Rosa Dell. In 1882 Dr. Thomas removed to Booneville, where [p.381] he has succeeded in building up a good practice, being at the present time one of the prominent young physicians of the county. He also owns a residence property in Booneville valued at $2,000, and is not only respected in a professional point of view, but is esteemed and liked for his pleasant social qualities. Dr. J. T. Foster, father-in-law of Dr. Thomas, graduated at what was then the University of Louisiana and began practicing at Beebe, White County, Ark. From there he moved to Perry County, then to Yell County, and in 1881 to Booneville, Logan County, where he now resides. He served in the Civil War in Col. T. D. Merrick's Tenth Arkansas Regiment, first as first lieutenant, then captain and then as assistant surgeon. He was born at Greenville, Va., married Miss Harriet Alison at Memphis, Tenn., June 26, 1859, who bore him five children: R. A., J. H., B. B., O. T. (deceased) and R. S. The mother died in 1869, and later Dr. Foster wedded Ann Hill, of Perry County, and by her became the father of five children.

W. P. Tygart, merchant and farmer, Prairie View, Ark. Prominent among the successful merchants and farmers of Logan County stands the name of W. P. Tygart, who was born in Walker County, Ga., in 1848. His parents were J. H. and E. J. (Lasley) Tygart. He was reared in Arkansas, and his educational advantages were rather limited, although being of studious habits, and a man of observation, he has become well informed on all the current topies of the day. In the year 1865 he started out to make his own way in life, and engaged in merchandising and farming, which occupations he has continued to follow since. He is the owner of 290 acres of land in Logan County, Ark., and his improvements are all of a first-class order. In merchandising he has also been unusually successful, and has the confidence of his many patrons. He carries a stock of goods valued at about $6,000, and has conducted this business in Prairie View for the past four years. He was married in 1869, to Miss Mary A. Sivley, daughter of William R. and Obedience Sivley, and to this union have been born eight children, who are named as follows: G. W. (deceased), William M. (deceased), Mary B. (deceased), P. M., Waity (deceased), Mary E., Ira O. and May. The four children now living are at home and enjoying the best of health. Mr. Tygart has always supported the Ropublican ticket, believing its views to be sound and well suited to any man. Mrs. Tygart and her daughter, Mary E., are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

W. P. Van Hoozer, liveryman and planter, Paris, Ark. This prominent business man and planter owes his nativity to Missouri, his birth occurring in 1856, and was the only child born to the union of John and Caroline (Montgomery) Van Hoozer, both natives of the Old Dominion. The parents moved to Missouri soon after marriage, and the father died when our subject was but four years of age. The latter then came with his mother to Arkansas, and they resided in Washington County until the death of the latter in 1883. W. P. Van Hoozer was reared principally on a farm in Washington County, but later entered a drug store as clerk in Fayetteville. He came to Logan County in 1878, engaged as clerk in Roseville until 1880 and then, with Mr. Bennett, embarked in business for himself under the firm title of A. T. Bennett & Co., the same continuing for one year. Mr. Van Hoozer then bought out a drug store carried this on for a few years, and then was steamboat agent, in which capacity he did a good business. Subsequently he was railroad agent at Roseville, and ran a transfer line until 1889, when he came to Paris. Here he started a livery stable, contracted for the mail route from Paris to Altus, and ran a back between those points. He has about twenty-four head of stock in his stable, hacks, buggies and a four-horse coach, etc., being well equipped. He is also agent for the Water Pierce Oil Company, and supplies all the oil of this section. His farming interest consists of 480 acres of river bottom land with 320 acres under cultivation, one of the best tracts of land in the State and very productive. He has a store on the farm and it is conducted under the name of Van Hoozer & Parker. They do a good cash business. Mr. Van Hoozer's marriage to Miss Ada G. Titsworth, a native of Logan County, Ark., was consummated in [p.382] November, 1880, and they have one child, Nellie. Mrs. Van Hoozer's father, Randolph Titsworth, resides on a fine piece of property on the river below Roseville, which his father, John Titsworth, settled on in early times, and which is still in the possession of the family. Mr. Van Hoozer is the owner of a fine residence in Paris, and is one of the substantial mon of the county. His wife is a member of the Catholic Church.

Martin Wahl, farmer, Paris, Ark. This wellknown and respected citizen of Logan County was originally from Germany, his birth occurring in that country in 1835, and there he was principally reared. His educational facilities were very good, and when about nineteen years of age, or in 1854, he started out for himself as a tiller of the soil, which has continued to be his chosen occupation up to the present time. He is progressive in his ideas, and his residence, barns, outbuildings, and in fact all necessary conveniences indicate the quality of farmer that he is. His fine farm, consisting of 280 acres, is situated a mile and a half west of Paris, Ark. He left his native country, and emigrated to New York in 1854, and in 1859 he left that State for Michigan, where he remained until 1878. He then emigrated to Logan County, Ark., and settled on his present property. His wife, who was formerly Miss Frances Emo, was the daughter of Michael and Susan Emo. To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Wahl have been born the following children: Charles, Lizzie, Mary, Martin and Frank. Three of these children are married, one is attending school, and the other is at home. Mr. Wahl and his sons are stanch Democrats in their political views, and Mr. Wahl and all the children are members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Wahl's parents, C. and Margaret Wahl were also natives of Germany.

D. C. Watkins, farmer, Revilee, Ark. The parents of Mr. Watkins, William and Lucinda (Maddox) Watkins, were natives of the Palmetto State, where they were reared and married. They removed to Alabama at an early day, and there resided probably fifty years. Mrs. Watkins received her final summons there in 1880, and all the family, with the exception of one daughter, are residents of Arkansas. D.+ C. Watkins was born in Tuscaloosa County, Ala., in July, 1838, and when twenty-one years of age he started out to fight life's battles for himself. Two years later, or in 1861, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, in the Thirty-eighth Tennessee Infantry, and was in the battles of Chickama****ga, Shiloh and Franklin, besides numerous minor engagements. He served the Confederacy faithfully and well until cessation of hostilities, after which he returned to his home in Alabama. In 1869 he came to Arkansas, returned the next year to Alabama, and while there was married to Mrs. Margaret Weaver. In 1871 he returned with his wife to Logan County, Ark., and there he has since resided. He is the owner of 160 acres of land, and has 100 acres under cultivation. His nuptials were blessed by the birth of eight children–four sons and four daughters: Lucinda, William, Mattie, Viola, Rachel, two died in infancy, and John (died at the age of nine months). Mrs. Watkins died in April, 1886, and was a consistent member of the Christian Church. Mr. Watkins has been a resident of Logan County for twenty-one years, and is well known and respected over the length and breadth of it. He is one of the county's best citizens.

M. A. Williams, merchant, Chismville, Ark. Mr. Williams, one of the successful business men of the place, has acquired a wide reputation for perseverance and general business ability. He is a native of Johuson County, Ark., born December 7, 1845, and is a son of William and Elizabeth J. (Belue) Williams, both natives of Tennessee, the father born January 8, 1814. The latter has followed agricultural pursuits all his life, and made his home in Tennessee until 1833, when he came to Johnson County, Ark., settling on Horsehead Creek. Here he was married, and of the eleven children born to that union M. A. Williams is the eldest son now living. The children now living are named as follows: M. A., W. H., O. H., Amanda V. (wife of**** D. H. Wilburn, a planter of this county), Nancy L. T. (wife of J. A. Doran, a planter living in this county), and Sarah A. (wife of L. W. Parker, is also a resident of this county). Their children deceased were as follows: Twins [p.383] (unnamed), John V., Squire B. and Alda B. The father is living on a farm two miles from this place, and is a prominent member of the Baptist Church. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, and is now drawing a pension. During the Civil War he was in the Home Guards for the Confederate Government for six months. M. A. Williams was principally reared on a farm, and secured a common business education in the schools of the county. He was married October 4, 1869, to Miss Georgianna R. Stanley, a native of Alabama, born July 31, 1849, and the daughter of George W. C. Stanley. Mr. Williams was a soldier in the late war, enlisting October 13, 1863, in Company I, Second Arkansas Cavalry, and served until 1865, when he was discharged at La Grange, Tenn. Returning home after the war he engaged in tilling the soil, and this continued until 1878, when he embarked in mercantile pursuits at Chismville. This he has carried on ever since, and has met with flattering results. His stock of goods is valued at $8,000, and aside from this he is the owner of 530 acres of land, with 175 acres under cultivation. He is a member of the Masonic order, Six Mile Lodge No. 226. Mrs. Williams is a member of the Christian Church.

W. A. L. Williams, farmer, Chismville, Ark. Mr. Williams' fine farm, consisting of 280 acres of land in Washburn Township, Logan County, Ark., is well cultivated and improved, and his buildings are all in first-class shape. He is thrifty and enterprising, and the success which seems to attend his efforts is well merited, for no one is more thoroughly interested in this calling or gives it greater attention. He was born in North Carolina, in 1827, and is the son of John W. and Mary A. (Thacker) Williams, natives of the Old Dominion. Our subject was principally reared in North Carolina, and his educational facilities in youth were not of the best. He started out as a tiller of the soil in 1860, and this has continued to be his principal occupation since. At the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted in the army and served his country faithfully and well until the cessation of hostilities. He was married to Miss Margaret Jane Palmer, a native of North Carolina, and the daughter of Jesse and Betty Palmer, natives also of North Carolina. Mr. Williams removed from Missouri to Logan County, Ark., in 1870, and here he has made his home ever since. The fruits of his union were the following ohildren: Uriah, Tempy A., A. J., Mary E., L., Dora, Alice, Oscar and Wallace, all the children living and at home, with the exception of Uriah and Tempy A. Mr. and Mrs. Williams are members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is a Democrat in politics.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

John Young, a highly respected citizen and a prosperous farmer, was born in Marion County, Tenn., in 1828. Of the eight children—three sons and five daughters–born to his parents, he is the only one living in Arkansas. His father, James Young, was a native of Virginia, but removed to Tennessee when quite small. There he was reared and married to Miss Sarah Young, a native also of the Old Dominion, but who passed her girlhood in Tennessee. They are now residents of that State. John Young attained his growth in the Big Bend State, and then went to Alabama, where he remained three years actively engaged in farming. While there he met and married Miss Emaline Simmes, and later went to Georgia, where he farmed for about twenty years. In 1871 he removed to Logan County, Ark., and is the owner of 166 acres of land, with 100 acres under cultivation. His marriage was blessed by the birth of nine children: Sarah (wife of Joseph Noah), Julia (wife of D. T. Williams), Margaret, Rebecca, Jane (married John Howard), Savanah, John T., Martha (married C. Donaldson and died in 1889, leaving her husband and three children), and Malissa (married John Seth, and resides in Clark County). Mr. Young's first wife died in February, 1880, and the following year he was married to Miss Prudy Rainey, who bore him five children—four sons and one daughter–Henry, George, Alvin E., James E. and Melvin, all small and at home. Mr. Young is a minister of the gospel in the Baptist Church, and has been preaching the Word of God since 1862. He is one of the county's most esteemed and honored citizens. He contributes liberally to all laudable enterprises, and he allows no worthy movement to fall through for want of support.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

THIS is one of the largest of the counties of Western Arkansas. It is a true mountain and inter-mountain country, its territory being in the main within the Fourche and Poteau ranges, the ridge of the first forming its southern boundary and the latter in part traversing its northern tier of townships, and in part forming its extreme northern boundary; and again, it is traversed centrally by a range known locally as Ross Mountain; the axis of the three being parallel, and the trend from east to west. In all the Trans-Mississippi country, nothing presents itself which, in its fertility, healthfulness, water, fruit, loveliness and extent, is more truly the type of the great Shenandoah and Luray Valleys of Virginia. The general contour is suggested in the fact that its territory is made up in the main of two valley systems, that of the Fourche La Fave and the Poteau, and partially by a third valley system, that of the Petit Jean, the course of which, from south to north, is at right angles to the others. The area of the county is about 1,000 square miles. Of the whole, 306,520 acres consist of low grounds and second bottoms, and 311, 720 valley slopes, terraces and mountain lands. The area of the Fourche La Fave Valley is 315,400 acres, divided into 134,510 acres, low grounds and second bottoms, and 180,890 acres slopes, terraces and uplands. The Petit Jean Valley is 84,480 acres in extent; 35,480 low grounds and second bottoms, and 49,000 inclines, terraces and uplands. The area of Dutch Creek, a tributary of [p.385] the Petit Jean, is 30,720 acres; 7,680 low grounds and 23,060 uplands. The area of the Poteau Valley system is as follows: Main stem of Poteau, 35,645 acres low grounds and second bottoms, and 9,600 acres uplands. East fork of Poteau, 48,030 acres low grounds and second bottoms, and 38,000 acres uplands. Jones' Fork of Poteau, 7,680 acres low grounds and second bottoms, 7,680 acres uplands. Black Fork of Poteau, 9,600 low grounds, 22,400 acres uplands. Total area of the Poteau Valley system, 178,640 acres; low grounds and second bottoms, 100,955 acres; valley slopes, terraces and uplands, 77,640 acres. The timbered area of the county is estimated at about 500,000 acres. There are large tracts of Government lands subject to homestead and to entry, at $1.25 per acre.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The Fourche La Fave Valley, the greatest of the three divisions of the county, lacks only 65,000 acres of having as great an area as any one of nine-tenths the counties of this State. Collectively there is nothing like it in amplitude of area in Southern and Western Arkansas; nor in the State exclusive of the lower White and lower Arkansas Valley. The length of the valley is, approximately, fifty miles, of which twenty miles have a water-shed area of 300 square miles. The upper division of the valley has a water-shed area of 210 square miles. The width of the lower division of the valley, from ridge to ridge of the flanking mountains, is fifteen miles, of which a width of six miles is the average of the low grounds. The average width of the upper division from ridge to ridge is seven miles, of which three and one-half miles are the average width of the low grounds. The second greatest division is that of the Poteau Valley system, 174,640 acres in extent. The main stem of the valley has a length of fifteen miles, a general width of five miles, with a width to the low grounds and second bottoms of four miles. The length of the east fork of Poteau is twelve miles; the low grounds seven miles wide; Jones' Fork of Poteau is twelve miles long, general width two miles; width of bottoms one mile. As in the case of the Fourche La Fave and Poteau, within the county is located the fountain head of the Petit Jean. The ramifications of the Petit Jean system, situated in this county, are so many and the valleys in such close proximity that, rather than in detail, the sum of the whole area is given–115,200 acres, of which it is estimated that 43,160 are low grounds. The prices of land are as follows: In the Fourche La Fave Valley–Improved low grounds, $10 to $20 per acre; unimproved, $5 to $10 per acre. Improved uplands and second bottom, $5 to $10 per acre; unimproved, $1.25 to $5 per acre. Poteau Valley–Improved low grounds, $10 to $25 per acre; unimproved, $5 to $10 per acre. Improved second bottom, $5 to $10 per acre; uplands, $4 to $10 per acre; unimproved, $1.25 to $5 per acre. Petit Jean Valley–Improved bottom farms, $12 to $25 per acre; unimproved, $5 to $12 per acre. Improved second bottoms and uplands, $5 to $10 per acre; unimproved, $2 to $5 per acre. Coal lands from $10 to $20 per acre. Timberlands from $1.25 to $5 per acre. Its soil is the county's greatest permanent resource. It is generally a light yellow, known as "mulatto" soil, but in many sections it is a light red. It will ordinarily produce with good cultivation an average of three-fourths of a bale of cotton, twenty five to thirty-five bushels of corn, ten to fifteen bushels of wheat, twenty to forty bushels of oa****s, and two to three tons of millet hay to the acre. This, it is to be understood, is the general upland soil of the county, not including creek or river bottoms; and there is a great similarity in it all, the woodlands and prairies not differing greatly in quality of soil, and the level, undulating and hilly soil being much the same–the hilly having rock intermixed. The river bottom lands are among the best in the world, and will produce, with good cultivation, from three-fourths of a bale to a bale and a half of cotton, seventy-five to one hundred bushels of corn, thirty to forty bushels of wheat and three to five tons millet per acre, and the creek bottoms will average a mean between the uplands and river bottoms. A peculiar feature of the upland soil is the remarkable retentive quality of its fertility. This is owing to the sub-soil of clay, which retains the fertilizing qualities and at the same time prevents the lands from washing.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre. The following analysis of the low ground and upland soil is taken from Prof. Owen's geological report of Arkansas: Low grounds–Organic and volatile matter, 7.678; alumina, 3.385; oxide of iron, 3.590; carbonate of lime, 1.015; magnesia, .359; brown oxide of manganese, .345; phosphoric acid, .163; sulphuric acid, .075; potash, .241; soda, .037; sand and insoluble silicates, 83.540; total, 100.440. Uplands–Organic and volcatile matter, 4.763; alumina, 4.085; oxide of iron, 3.065; carbonate of lime, .190; magnesia, .315; brown oxide of manganese, .145; phosphoric acid, .261; sulphuric acid, .050; potash, .193; soda, .037; sand and insoluble silicates, 83.340; total, 100.445. Moisture expelled from these soils at 400° Fahrenheit–Low ground, 3.950; upland, 3.225. The climate is delightful. A mean temperature of 65°, the prevailing semi-tropical breezes from the gulf; the neutralizing influence of the mountains on the northerly winter storms; mild, open, short winters, with only slight and transient snowfall, and whole weeks of soft sunny weather, that recalls the glory of the northern Indian summer; long, friendly and golden summers with delightfully cool, restful and refreshing nights; freedom from epidemic diseases, an abundance of pure water and superior natural drainage, are "all and singular," elements of a climate, scarcely less enjoyable than that of Southern California or the south of France–a climate that gives the highest average of health known to any good agricultural region in America. Here is the equable mean between the rigors of the higher north and the depressing humidity of the lower south country. Naturally enough, too, here is the equable mean of animal and vegetable and mental temperament, largely the result of climate, and the visitor is not at all surprised to find in this genial, life-inspiring influence the impress of normal health upon men, animals and plants. So kindly indeed are the climatic influences, that two crops of many of the field and garden products are matured on the same ground in a single season.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The coal found in the county partakes of the general excellence characterizing the southern division of the Spadra system. The common thickness is the same as prevails throughout the coal field of Sebastian County, which it adjoins on the south and southeast–forty-two inches–and the maximum from four to seven feet. There is, however, to a certain extent, a difference in the kind of coal. While, say, fifty per cent is a semi-anthracite of the best quality, the remainder consists of the only bituminous coal found in this State. The latter is not invariably bit****minous; according to commercial rating there being a proportion that is semi-bituminous, and on the other hand a proportion sufficiently rich to pass as a cannel coal. Accordingly, it is probable that one-half of the fifty per cent is a bituminous coal, strictly speaking. The body of the whole is situated in that part of the county comprising Townships 4 and 5 north, Ranges 29 and 30 west; forty-eight sections constituting the two northern tiers of Township 3 north, Ranges 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33 west, and Township 4 north, Range 28 west. The superficial area is 130,360 acres, of which it is practically accepted that 95,000 acres carry a good coal in quantities. The main body is situated in Townships 4 and 5, Ranges 29 and 30, and north and east of Potean Mountain. That situated in forty-eight sections named as the two tiers of Township 3 north, Ranges 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33 west, includes the area of Poteau Mountain, to its summit line, and a strip of country in general conformed to the sinuous line of the mountain on the south side. South of the latter area, for a mile, fragmentary bodies probably occur, but it is evident, according to an out cropping of subcarboniferous limestone, fifteen miles south, and the erosion throughout the intermediate area, that it is the extreme southern limit in this State of the coal measures of the Spadra system. Under the head of mineral resources, it should be added that, beyond a carbonate form of ore, it is not probable that discoveries of limonite or hematite, in quantities, will take place short of the Fourche Mountain, which at its summit divides Scott from Polk County. The region excepted is also the general locality where up to date the best grade of carbonate ore, with a probability of being in quantity, has been found.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The subcarboniferous limestone outcropping of [p.387] this county is the well-known exposure pronounced by Prof. Owens to be one of few examples of the kind occurring south of the Arkansas River. It crops out in Sections 35 and 36, Township 2 north, Range 29 west, and again two miles southwest, where it is exposed throughout a length of four miles. Notwithstanding a proportion having a brecciated character in general, it is a massive, close-textured gray rock, producing a very fine white lime.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

Gold has also been discovered in the county. That which has been seen, while a low grade ore near the surface, improves as the shaft sinks deeper. In one instance there has been a yield of $5 in gold at five feet, $7 at seven feet, and $10 at ten feet. In addition, discoveries of lead, copper, and larger bodies of fire-clay have been made in the county.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre

Early in 1887 prospectors discovered a sandbearing rock at the top of the Black Fork Mountains, in this county, so highly impregnated with petroleum as to give forth a strong petroleum odor, and on throwing portions of the rock on a fire it was found that as soon as it became hot the oil would burn with a fierce flame until consumed, leaving a white sandstone. Pieces of the rock submitted to the State geologist were pronounced by him to be petroleum-bearing sandstone. An expert, who has been in the oil business since the discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania, over a quarter of a century ago, said that he had visited all of the known oil fields in the United States, and that upon comparison he considered the oil field of Scott County superior to any of them outside of Pennsylvania, adding that it might surpass that great petroleum-producing field. Another expert, pronounced by the Pittsburgh Manufacturer "the best authority in gas and oil" with whom the editor was acquainted, and of whom the Age of Steel says that "his practical scientific knowledge makes his services very valuable as a gas and oil expert, and very much sought after," reported after a few days examination: "The Scott County field is so large and so interesting that to do it justice would require at least two weeks' careful examination. I find a well-defined sandstone corresponding precisely to the Devonian, of Western Pennsylvania; also a stratum at of light-colored slate that is almost universally found accompanying similar strata of sandstone in Western Pennsylvania. There are also indications of another stratum that corresponds with what is known as ‘second sand’ in the Pennsylvania oil field, and that there are large deposits of oil and gas throughout an extensive area of Scott County, I have not the slightest doubt. There are also indications of valuable metals, and it is a most inviting field to the capitalist as well as the scientist." A well has been sunk to a depth of 985 feet in search of oil, and oil-gas was struck. The tools became fast in the well, and the enterprise was abandoned for the want of money, perhaps leaving untold wealth undeveloped. Scott County certainly possesses vast hidden resources, and is an inviting field for the investment of speculative capital, holding out an excellent prospect of sure and large returns. The timber of the county is of many varieties. Pine, oak, cedar, gum, ash, shell-bark and hickory abound, and there is much walnut, post oak and "cork" pine. The total amount of pine is 1,726,774,000 feet, board measure; of hardwoods 939,086,000 feet, board measure; total of pine and hardwoods 2,665,860,000 feet, board measure. Four streams and their tributaries cross the county. The Petit Jean River flows in an easterly course close to its northern boundary. Dutch Creek traverses for twelve miles its eastern part, flowing northeast. Poteau River flows thirty miles through the center of the

county in a westerly direction. The Fourche La Fave River, which rises in the extreme southwestern corner of the county, flows for fifty miles through it on its way to the Arkansas River, bordered by rich valleys, with as good and productive land as in this or any other State. The average elevation of the county is about 700 feet in the valleys, and the highest mountain point is about 2,000 feet above the sea level. Water is abundant for all purposes, including manufacturing, and can be had by sinking wells from twelve to fifteen feet, and there are many mineral springs equal to any in this State except Hot Springs. Many large orchards and vineyards in the county give evidence [p.388] of the productiveness of fruit here, and as the native grapes are almost as fine in size and as delicious in flavor as cultivated grapes, it is evident the county is the natural home of the grape. Small fruit and berries yield largely. The roads of the county run generally east and west, on account of the contour of the country. One of the main roads runs north and south, and is called the Line road, on account of its close proximity to the line of the Indian Territory, boing the principal route for travel from the Arkansas River to Texas. The county is well supplied with cotton-gins, saw-mills, grist-mills and planing-mills.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

Scott County was erected by act of the Territorial Legislature November 5, 1833. Its boundaries were defined October 24, 1835. The boundary between Scott and Crawford Counties was defined December 16, 1838. A part of Sebastian County was attached to Scott June 1, 1861. The county formerly embraced all the territory it has now, and the townships of Cauthorn, Boone, Reveille, Sugar Creek and Petit Jean, which were cut off and made part of the new county of Sarber, now Logan, in 1870. The line between Scott and Logan Counties was changed May 21, 1873. The county's present boundaries, fixed in 1881, are as follows: North by Sebastian and Logan Counties, east by Yell County, south by Montgomery and Polk Counties, and west by the Indian Territory. The county seat was originally located at Booneville, twenty-five miles northeast of Waldron. The county offices being too far from the center of the county the seat of justice was afterward removed to Winfield, about three miles northeast of Waldron, where it remained until about 1845, when William G. Featherston donated ten acres of land, a part of the south west quarter of the southwest quartor of Section 21, Township 3 north, Range 29 west, to the commissioners appointed by the county court, in consideration of the location of the county site on said land. This was the beginning of Waldron. Some time afterward a court-house was built, which was burned during the war with all the public records. About 1870 a new and substantial framed court-house was erected on the public square of the town, where the public business was transacted until the spring of 1882, when it also was burned, together with the county records. The last fire was undoubtedly the work of incendiaries. No successful movement to rebuild the court-house has been inaugurated. The courts are held in rooms over John F. Forrester's store, and the county offices are accommodated elsewhere in Waldron. The county has a substantial jail. The Fourth Congressional District is composed of Crawford, Franklin, Johnson, Scott, Logan, Pulaski, Yell, Perry, Saline, Garland and Montgomery Counties, and at present represented by Hon. J. H. Rogers, of Fort Smith. This county is in the Twelfth Judicial District, comprising the counties of Scott, Sebastian, Crawford and Logan, and in the Twenty-eighth State Senatorial District, composed of Scott and Sebastian Counties. The several political townships of Scott County are named as follows: Barber, Tomlinson, Lewis, Cauthron, La Fayette, Brawley, Black Fork, Blansett, Johnson, Mountain, Mill Creek, Park, Cedar, La Fave, Hunt, James, Tate and Hickman.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The following named county officers have served, beginning at the dates mentioned: Judge–1833, Elijah Baker; 1835, James Logan; 1838, Gilbert Marshall; 1842, Levi Bradley; 1844, William Kenner; 1846, Elijah Arnold; 1848, M. H. Blue; 1850, J. H. Thompson; 1852, J. R. Raymond; 1854, W. E. Elkins; 1856, J. H. Forbet; 1858, H. Hine; 1860, J. H. Smith; 1862, William Oliver; 1864, J. T. Harrison; July, 1865, N. Ellington; April, 1871, M. M. Tate; 1872-74, board of supervisors; 1874, L. D. Pendery; 1876, S. Harrell; 1878, J. H. Payne; 1880, J. H. Brown; 1886, Roland Chiles; 1888, Daniel Hon. Clerk–1833, S. B. Walker; 1835, G. Marshall; 1838, W. Kenner; 1840, S. H. Chism; 1842, E. H. Featherston; 1844, John Baxter; 1846, William Kenner; 1848, J. B. Garrett; 1850, William Kenner; 1854, E. H. Featherston; 1856, J. C. Gibson; 1860, S. Graves; 1862, L. D. Gilbreath; 1864, F. M. Scott; July, 1865, C. H. Oliver; 1866, L. D. Gilbreath; 1872, W. B. Turman; 1874, J. C. Gilbreath; 1887, T. M. Duncan. Sheriff–1833, James Riley; 1835, Charles Humphrey; 1840, William Garner; T. P. Sadler until formation of Yell County; 1842, J. B. [p.389] Garrett; 1844, A. Harland; 1846, J. B. Garrett; 1848, J. R. Baxter; 1852, R. C. Reed; 1856, William Gibson; 1862, C. C. Lewis; 1864, G. Kincannon; July, 1865, J. W. Barnett; 1868, N. A. Floyd; 1874, F. C. Gaines; 1878, Samuel Leming; August, 1879, A. P. Walker; 1880, John Rawlings; 1882, C. M. Vise; 1888, W. T. Brown; 1888, Free Malone; 1889, C. M. Vise. Treasurer–1836, W. Cauthron; 1840, Jesse Perkins; 1844, G. W. Read; 1848, J. M. Swinney; 1854, T. I. Gates; 1856, J. C. Moles; 1862, J. W. Evatt; 1872, M. Johnson; 1874, W. D. Looper; 1878, E. McCray; 1880, A. D. Peace; 1884, T. M. Evatt; 1888, F. M. Bottoms. Coroner–1833, J. R. Choate; 1835, W. Cauthron; 1836, G. C. Walker; 1838, J. R. Choate; 1840, H. A. Patterson; 1842, George Carroll; 1844, James Stewart; 1848, W. Hodge; 1850, W. B. Carr; 1852, A. Kuykendall; 1854, Drew Choate; 1856, John Pace; 1858, J. E. Moore; 1860, A. Ross; 1862, R. H. Halley; 1864, C. L. J. Hough; 1866, W. D. Riley; 1872, William Chitwood; 1874, G. W. Smith; 1876, G. W. Rea; 1878, T. F. Smith; 1882, C. H. Bell; 1884, J. L. Baker; 1886, F. G. Thomas; 1888, W. L. Tolleson. Surveyor–1836, T. J. Garner; 1842, W. Wheat; 1844, J. Anthony; 1848, Charles Cauthron; 1850, E. H. Featherston; 1852, S. H. Prowell; 1854, W. T. Dallins; 1858, J. H. Johnson; 1862, C. L. Hough; 1866, J. Bethel; 1868, D. P. Davis; December, 1870, C. A. Bird; 1872, C. L. Hough; 1878, G. W. Blair; 1882, W. T. Brown; 1886, W. J. King. Assessor–1868, C. Malone; 1872, T. Suddith; 1874, W. H. Highfill; 1876, C. M. Vise; 1880, P. H. Young; 1886, E. B. Young; 1888, E. N. McRay. The county officers elected in September, 1890, are as follows: James M. Harvey, judge; T. M. Duncan, clerk; L. P. Fuller, sheriff; D. A. Edwards, treasurer; T. H. Johnson, coroner; E. N. McRay, assessor. The clerk is circuit clerk and ex-officio clerk of the county and probate courts and recorder.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

Scott County has been represented in the State Senate as follows: With Crawford County, 1836-38, by R. C. S. Brown; with Crawford, 1840, by J. A. Scott; with Crawford, 1842-43, by J. A. Scott; with Franklin, 1844-45, by J. F. Gaines, with Franklin, 1846, by J. F. Gaines; with Franklin, 1848-49, by S. H. Chism; with Franklin, 1850-51, by S. H. Chism; with Franklin, 1852-53, by Jesse Miller; with Franklin, 1854-55, by Jesse Miller; with Sebastian, 1856-57, by Green J. Clark; with Sebastian, 1858-59, by Green J. Clark; with Sebastian, 1860-62, by Green J. Clark; with Sebastian, 1862, by Green J. Clark; with Sebastian, 1864-65, by Charles Milor; with Sebastian, 1866-67, by H. C. Holleman, who was unseated and succeeded by T. H. Scott; with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Springs, 1868-69, by D. P. Beldin; with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Spring, by D. P. Beldin; with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Springs, 1873, by D. P. Beldin; with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Springs, 1874, by D. P. Beldin; with Sebastian, 1874-75, by J. H. Scott; with Sebastian, 1877, by R. T. Kerr; with Sebastian, 1879, by R. T. Kerr; with Sebastian, 1881, by J. P. Hall; with Sebastian, 1883, by J. P. Hall; with Sebastian, 1885, by R. H. McConnell; with Sebastian, 1887, by R. H. McConnell; with Sebastian, last session, by A. G. Washburn, who is also the senator-elect. In the Lower House of the State Legislature the county has been thus represented. In 1836-38 by James Logan; in 1838, by G. Marshall; in 1840, by T. M. Scott and S. Humphrey; in 1842-43, by J. F. Gaines and A. Thompson; in 1844-45 (no record); in 1846, by Edward A. Featherston; in 1848-49, by Milton Gilbreath; in 1850-51, by Charles Cauthron; in 1852-53, by Milton Gilbreath; in 1854-55, by James Logan; in 1856-57, by J. F. Lee; in 1858-59, by John H. Forbet; in 1860-62, by James F. Lee; in 1862, by Elijah Leming; in 1864-65, by Thomas Canthron; in the Confederate Legislature, 1864, by Elijah Leming; in 1866-67, Elijah Leming; in 1868-69, with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Spring, by J. V. Harrison and J. H. Demby; in 1871, with Hot Spring, Montgomery, Polk and Grant, by J. F. Lane, J. J. Sumpter, and James M. Bethel, admitted in place of C. K. Kymes, P. B. Allen and N. Ellington; in 1873, with Polk, Montgomery, Hot Spring and Grant, by L. D. Gilbreath, J. J. Sumpter and George G. Latta; in 1874, with Polk, Montgomery and Hot Spring, by H. H. Barton [p.390] and J. J. Sumpter; in 1874-75, by I. Frank Fuller; in 1877, by James H. Smith; in 1879, by A. G. Washburn; in 1881, by F. C. Gaines; in 1883, by G. E. James; in 1885, by A. G. Washburn; in 1887, by A. G. Washburn; in last session by W. A. Houck. J. W. McNutt is representative-elect.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The judicial circuits of the State have been frequently changed. In some instances the number of the judicial districts has been completely transferred to others and new numbers adopted for the original. The State in 1873 was divided into sixteen circuits, but only for a term, when the number was reduced, as has been stated; this county is in the Twelfth. In giving the list of judges the Twelfth Circuit is referred to through to the present, regardless of changes that may have taken place in its composition. The judges of this circuit have been commissioned as follows: P. C. Dooley, April 26, 1873; J. H. Rogers, April 20, 1877; R. B. Rutherford, October 2, 1882; John S. Little, October 30, 1886; T. C. Humphry, spring of 1890. The prosecuting attorneys have been: D. D. Leach, April 26, 1873; John S. Little (three terms), April 2, 1877; A. C. Lewers (two terms), September 20, 1884; J. B. McDonough, October 30, 1888. Courts are held on the second Monday in February and August. The resident attorneys are named as follows: Daniel Hon, A. G. Leming, S. Wilson, B. F. Wolf, A. G. Washburn, T. N. Sanford, O. M. Harwell, C. H. Hawthorne and M. M. Beavers. The county has been thus represented in Constitutional Conventions: By Gilbert Marshall in 1836; by E. T. Walker in 1861; by Charles H. Oliver in 1868; and by J. W. Sorrells in 1874.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

At an early day there were adventuresome hunters and prospecters who penetrated the new, wild country within the limits of the present county of Scott. Such can hardly be called home-seekers, for they were of the class that moves on before advancing civilization; but some of them, charmed by the wild beauty of their surroundings, remained and became permanent settlers. The advancement of the present day was surely not foreshadowed in their time, and then men were not attracted by that certainty of gain and worldly prosperity which has influenced men to make their abiding place here during the past few decades. They had no neighbors at first, but Indians–savages and natural enemies–and still more savage beasts. Did space permit, some highly interesting narratives of the pioneer period might be told, but it is with the period of development that this sketch has most to do. This period was ushered in by another class of men. They were home-seekers pure and simple–men of family, who sought here, where Nature outstretched to them a helping hand so willingly, that material reward for honest toil which was to be achieved, but grudgingly, in older communities. Many a time has the story of the pioneer been told. It is old, but ever new, because dear to the present generation like the old songs their mothers sang. From the first it was a stern battle with scarcity and adversity. Every gain was hardly won. The simplest achievement cost the most arduous labor. The most that could be procured and accomplished was very little indeed. There were no luxuries and there was a dearth of necessaries. Hard work was the common lot of all–the men, women and the children. Self-denial and mutual assistance were the rule. The labor which kept the wolf figurative from the pioneer's door failed to secure it from the attacks of the wolves that lurked in the forest. The red man was a constant menace, and there were other dangers. There was no absolute security. Even Nature, when in her unkindly moods, seemed terrific in those unbroken woods. No pioneer ever lived to forget the birth of the first child in his neighborhood; none forgot the first marriage; none but could point out, long years after it was made, the first grave, or speak except in quavering voice of that day when, under the gloomy trees, the earth first opened to receive one of their number. Perhaps it was a funeral without a clergyman; but it could not have been a funeral without a prayer. God was with them in the wilderness. As far back as 1820 a few buffaloes and elks remained in this part of the country, and bears, wolves, panthers, wild cats, deer, the smaller animals, wild turkeys, wild geese, ducks, prairie chickens and other small fowls were numerous. [p.391] The buffalo and elk have become extinct, the bears nearly so, while other animals and fowls remain in sufficient quantities in some localities to make it interesting, and sometimes profitable for hunters. Raccoon and opossums are very common now. The wild turkey and quail furnish ample sport on the wing, while squirrels and rabbits are also plentiful. In the fall and spring wild geese and ducks are abundant. Deer hunts are not uncommon, and the hunter seldom returns empty handed. The timber wolf is not unfrequently a visitor to the sheep pens. The pioneers lived to a great extept upon wild game, which was so easily obtained that rifle shots from their cabin doors brought it down, within convenient distance.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

Wild fruits in their season have abounded from the first–strawberry, blackberry and huekleberry, the wild plum of different varieties, wild grapes, a summer sort about the size of the Delaware, and equally as finely flavored, a smaller grape that ripens after the frost, then a grape called Muscatine, about as large as the Concord, usually growing singly, but sometimes in clusters, with a thick skin, and excellent for sauce when cooked. All these natural provisions the early settlers availed themselves of. It was not child's play to live in Scott County forty to sixty years ago. The pioneers were isolated to a distressing degree from civilization, and it required an unusual amount of grit, patience, perseverance and longsuffering. They were quick to lend a helping hand to each other. They educated their children under adverse ircumstances. They organized schools and churches with only a small following. They built not for themselves but for those who should come after them. Year after year prospects have brightened, the country has gradually improved, and today no section of the new Southwest is developing more rapidly than Scott County. It would be difficult to find a more energetic class of business men than take the lead in this portion of the State. For their former hardships they have been repaid. They have acquired, in many instances, a liberal competency. They have brought their families up in respectability. The sons of many of these same pioneers have adorned the halls of the State and National Legislature, while others have held important positions in local and State affairs, with honor to themselves and to their constitnency. Among the earlier settlers of the county were the following: Along the Poteau and its branches–Father Hickman, Richard Edens, Zachariah Hemby, Josiah Barnett, Reuben C. Reed, William Kenner, George W. Reed, William Doyle, John Gable, Jesse A. Reed, David Reed and the father of David and the other Reeds mentioned, William Anthony, Henry Frazier, Jackson Hon, John F. McAnally, Jesse Anthony, Finis E. Anthony, John Anthony, Dennis Boultinghouse, Daniel Boultinghouse, James Boultinghouse, Thomas Crenshaw, Finis Farmer, David Yandall, Jesse Yandall, Samuel Yandall, William Yandall, Thompson Bailey, Harrison Huie, Dodson Huie, Massie McRay, William McRay. John H. Johnson. Allen Starrett, Dr. James H. Smith, James H. McCord, the Whitmeyers, Isaiah Hickman, Nathaniel Hickman, William Vails, Willian T. Dollens, Alexander Sehorn, William Sehorn, the Duprees, John Pool, Thomas Pool, Austin Bethel, James M. Bethel; on the Poteau–Henry Wolf, Tobias Wolf, Andrew J. Ross. Leonard J. Denton, Thomas Brown, Thomas M. Brown, John Brown, Frank Brown; along Ross' Creek–the Brawley family, Spencer Bates, Thompson G. Bates, Frank Bates, Sanford Bates, Zachariah Allison, Maj. Joel Denton, W. W. Denton, R. P. Denton, A. B. Denton, Cooper Hayes, Davis Tolbert, William Tucker, John Anthony, Jesse, John, Alexander, G. W., Solomon, Thomas and C. C. Jones and two James Joneses; along Brawley (later Jones') Creek–Elias Hays, Hiram Hays, Archibald Hays, Bayless E. Brasher, Allen Brasher, Henry Brasher, Jacob Brasher, John L. Summers, Vineyard Crawford, C. A. Crawford, Robert Finley, the Kendricks, Elijah Grey, David Burcham, John Barnett; along Haw Creek–William G. Featherston, Edward E. Featherston, Micajah Thompson, Dr. Sorrells, the Reed family, Landy Turman, Wiley B. Glass, Caleb Baker, Jacob C. Moles, James M. Swinney, Dr. Vance, James H. Thompson, Counsellor Bunn, Thomas Ferguson, Mills the miller, Judge Raymond, Allen Marshall, "Kern" Titsworth, John W. Perkins, John Rawlings, James R. Baxter; in the Waldron vicinity–Joy Estep, David Jones, Silas Pinion, Milton Larimore, William Price and brother, Jasper Foster, Newton Foster and others on Black Fork; along the Fourche La Fave–John Kilburn, James Kilburn, John Stewart, Robert Richmond, Luke Harrison, Benton Jones, William Jones, L. D. Gilbreath, Bailey Allen, Beverly Allen, Michael Wilson, James Gibson, Richard Burriss, James F. Gaines, G. G. Gaines, Thomas Gaines, James Caviness, John Caviness, James Henson, Marion Henson, Lewis Henson, the Daileys, Thomas Gist, Neil Gist, Peter Whisenhunt, James Whisenhunt, James P. Blancett, John Caughran, Lewis Caughran; long the Petit Jean–James Sorrells, S. B. Sorrells, Dr. Warren Sorrells, Dr. Royston Sorrells, Stephen Graves, Thomas Graves, Michael Awalt, Thomas Baxter, Shadrach Chitwood, J. J. Tomlinson, Wiley A. Tomlinson (formerly spelled Tumlinson), James Graves, Dr. E.T. Walker, Andrew J. Tomlinson, Samuel S. French, Elisha Williams, John, Thomas and Barry Hunt, William Henley, George W. Rupe, the Cantrells, Gen. Taylor, Allen Sorrells, W. W. Sorrells, McKinney Curry, Alfred Bethel, Samuel Duncan, William Duncan, R. P. Claiborn, the Witt family, George Abbott, C. C. Lewis, John E. Carnett, George Barnard. All of these were early residents of the county. Some were the heads of families who came here, others the sons of pioneers. Their names have been given by Dr. Smith (the oldest physician in the county) and other old citizens. It is not attempted to supply all initials. The aim has been, rather, to mention these pioneer citizens in such a familiar way as to recall those who have passed away to the memory of all of the living who once knew them. In view of the fact that the earlier county records are no longer in existence, the compiler feels like congratulating his readers that his earnest efforts have been so well recorded and rewarded.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

Those of the present rising generation who are accustomed to excellent school advantages of today can ardly realize the meagerness of such opportunities in their fathers' boyhood. Even reading, writing and the merest rudiments of arithmetic were considered a luxury that the poor could not possess. So it was that many otherwise intelligent men and women grew up unable to read and write. The simply well-to-do people secured an itinerant teacher to stop in the neighborhood and hold a subscription school at some one's house for a short time. There were probably few of these before about 1840. It was in this manner that the earliest teachers began who taught in various parts of this region. This kind of schooling continued down until about the time when the public-school system was introduced. One has but to glance at these figures, giving the number of teachers employed in the State of Arkansas in successive years, to gain a fair idea of the growth of popular education in any part of the State: In 1869 there were 1,335; in 1870, 2,302; in 1871, 2,128; in 1872, 2,035; in 1873, 1,481; in 1874-75, no reports; in 1876, 461; in 1877-78, no reports; in 1879, 1,458; in 1880, 1,872; in 1881, 2,169; in 1882, 2,501; in 1883, 2,462; in 1884, 2,899; in 1885, 3,582; in 1886, 3,691; in 1887, 4,167; in 1888, 4,664. It will readily be seen that the greatest care and activity have been shown in the years of the present decade, and the most firm and permanent improvement in the last few years. Academies did not take permanent root here as they did in older and wealthier counties, and the need of education felt by fathers and mothers, who had grown up without much of any themselves, made them better prepared to receive the new system favorably than many counties that had been well supplied with advanced private schools. The progress of the public schools in the county has been constant, especially during the present decade, and has been roportionately equal to other parts of the State. The following statistics from the report of the State superintendent of public instruction for the year ending June 30, 1888, will tend to show in part how the public schools of the county are prospering: Statement of the public school fund of Scott County–Amount received: Balance on hand June 30, 1887, $2,345.26; from common school fund (State), $3,950.45; poll tax, $1,857.07; total, $8,152.78. Amount expended: For teachers' salaries, $6,093; buildings and repairing, $500; purchasing apparatus, etc., $100; treasurer's commissions, [p.393] $116.15; other purposes, $25; total, $6,834.15. Balance in county treasury unexpended: Of common school fund, $1,173.71; district fund, $144.92; total, $1,318.63. Summary of county examiner's report: Enumeration, white, 4,890; colored, 16; total, 4,906. Enrollment, white, 2,523; colored, none; total, 2,523. Number of districts, 75; number of districts reporting enrollment, 52; number of districts voting tax, 19; number of teachers employed, 47; number of school-houses, 36; value of school-houses, $4,875; number of institutes held, 1; number of teachers attending, 48. One of the best literary schools in the State is located at Waldron. The main building of the house is 34x70 feet, two stories, with vestibules. There is a wing forty feet in length on the east side of the building, which is also two stories, making four large rooms. The building is new and well furnished throughout, is well seated and has modern fixtures and apparatus. Messrs. Henderson and Goddard, the principals of the school, are trained and thorough educators. Many students come from remote parts of this county and from adjoining counties, and there is no reason to doubt that the school will grow and prosper as it has never done before, for every facility is offered here that can be obtained elsewhere for giving children either a primary or an advanced course. Board can be obtained at low rates, and the morals of the town are of an exceptional character. At Cauthron is an efficient school known as the Cauthron High School. This institution has about 200 pupils, and stands high in public esteem. Gipsonville, Boles and Park also have good schools. The following reference to early schools in Scott County is extracted from a modern newspaper: "No colleges adorned the country then, and educational facilities were meager. The young fellow who had a desire to obtain an education attended school two or three months in the winter, not unfrequently walking, morning and evening, two or three miles for that privilege. The accommodations then were not so good as now. Instead of the elaborate furniture of the present day, the boy of twenty and thirty years ago was compelled to sit on the slick side of an unusually hard bench made of a slab or fencerail rail and placed at an uncomfortable distance from the dirt-and-stick fireplace, which, with its prodigious jambs, yawned like the cavern of the infernal region; while in the corner near the teacher's desk stood the birch as straight and long as the moral law, and woe betide the youth who would dare to intrude upon the rules of the school. This mode of teaching was good enough in its time. Better and more efficient means have been adopted." H. N. Smith is county examiner of public schools.

Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructures stand**** Your stroug, right arm and willing hand, Your earnest efforts still command Our veneration.–Pearre.

The church and the school have gone hand in hand here as elsewhere. Early religious meetings were held by traveling preachers in the log cabins of the pioneers, and from an early day, in many localities, the same building has accommodated the school during the week, and the church people of the district on Sunday. At this time houses of worship are to be found in all parts of the county, and nearly all religious denominations common to this part of the country are represented. In some parts of the county, notably in Waldron, are expensive and sightly churches, which are being improved and beautified with each passing year. Church membership is increasing, and popular interest in Sunday-school work is extending. As the church membership gains in education, numerical strength and material wealth, its demands on the pastors are more exacting. This is evidenced in the wider learning and greater ability of the preachers of to-day than were attainable in the clergy of an early period. The church has done its share in the grand work of development and enlightenment, and it is coming to be supported with a popular liberality.